Apache–Mexico Wars

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Apache-Mexico Wars
Part of the Mexican Indian Wars
Coyotero Apach 1873.gif
A camp of the Coyotero Apache in 1873. Brush shelters, called wikiups, were typical, temporary homes for the nomadic Apache.
Date1600s–1915
Location
Northwestern Mexico
Result Spanish/Mexican victory
Belligerents
Bandera de la Corona de Castilla.png  Crown of Castile
(1600s–1716)
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Kingdom of Spain
(1716–1821)
Flag of Mexico (1823-1864, 1867-1893).svg  Mexico
(1821–1915)
Flag of Texas.svg  Republic of Texas (1836–1846)
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States (1850–1933)
Flag of the Confederate States of America (1861-1863).svg  Confederate States (1861–1865)
Apache

The Apache–Mexico Wars, or the Mexican Apache Wars, refer to the conflicts between Spanish or Mexican forces and the Apache peoples. The wars began in the 1600s with the arrival of Spanish colonists in present-day New Mexico. War between the Mexicans and the Apache was especially intense from 1831 into the 1850s. Thereafter, Mexican operations against the Apache coincided with the Apache Wars of the United States, such as during the Victorio Campaign. Mexico continued to operate against hostile Apache bands as late as 1915. [1] [2]

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a European country located in Southwestern Europe with some pockets of Spanish territory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 129 million people, Mexico is the tenth most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the country include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, and León.

The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma, Texas, and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers. The Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures.

Contents

For other conflicts involving the Apache see Apache War (disambiguation).

War with the Spanish

The Spanish first encountered the Apache, whom they called Querechos, in 1541 in the Texas panhandle. At the time the Apache were buffalo hunting nomads and semi-nomads who had trading relationships with the Pueblos of the Rio Grande valley. The early contacts were friendly, but in the 17th century, the relationship between Spaniard and Apache deteriorated because of slave raids by the Spaniards and Apache attacks on the Spanish and Pueblo settlements in New Mexico.

The Querechos were a Native American people.

Texas U.S. state in the United States

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.

Bison genus of mammals

Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.

The Apache migrated south and west, under pressure from the Comanche who were also expanding southward. Being pushed off the buffalo-rich Great Plains into the more austere desert and mountains of the Southwest probably caused the Apache to become more dependent upon raiding for a livelihood. By 1692, they were present in the present-day state of Chihuahua, Mexico. They soon were also visiting Sonora and Coahuila and seem to have absorbed several other Indian peoples native to the future U.S.-Mexico border area, the Suma, Manso, Jano, and Jocome. Chihuahua, Sonora, and Coahuila were more populated and richer than the Spanish colonies in New Mexico, and Apache raiding soon became a serious problem. In 1737, a Spanish military officer said, "many mines have been destroyed, 15 large estancias [ranches] along the frontier have been totally destroyed, having lost two hundred head of cattle, mules, and horses; several missions have been burned and two hundred Christians have lost their lives to the Apache enemy, who sustains himself only with the bow and arrow, killing and stealing livestock." [3]

Comanche Plains native North American tribe

The Comanche are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma.

Great Plains broad expanse of flat land west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. It is a old plain.

The Great Plains is a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, located in America and Canada. It lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada. It embraces:

Chihuahua (state) State of Mexico

Chihuahua, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.

A Lipan Apache in 1857. The Lipan were the easternmost of the Apache, living in the San Antonio, Texas area in the early 19th century. Lipan apache 1857.jpg
A Lipan Apache in 1857. The Lipan were the easternmost of the Apache, living in the San Antonio, Texas area in the early 19th century.

The Spanish response to the Apache problem in the 1770s was to reorganize its frontier defenses, withdraw from some areas, establish a "cordon of presidios" (forts) along the northern frontier, undertake punitive missions against the Apache, usually with Indian allies, and encourage peace with the Apache. The chain of 18 presidios located about 100 miles (160 km) apart in Sonora, Chihuahua, Texas, New Mexico, and future Arizona was the backbone of the defense against Apache raids. In the late 18th century, presidios each had a complement of 43 soldiers, with the exception of Santa Fe, New Mexico and San Antonio with 76 soldiers assigned to them. The soldiers in the presidios were reinforced by local militia and Indian allies. [4] The most prominent of the presidios was at Janos, Chihuahua [5] Another, the Presidio San Augustin del Tucson became the most important Spanish settlement in Arizona.

Presidio Fort type

A presidio is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence. The term is derived from the Latin word praesidium meaning protection or defense.

Santa Fe, New Mexico State capital city in New Mexico, United States

Santa Fe is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and the seat of Santa Fe County.

San Antonio City in Texas, United States

San Antonio, officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, and the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731. The area was still part of the Spanish Empire, and later of the Mexican Republic. It is the state's oldest municipality, having celebrated its 300th anniversary on May 1, 2018.

The punitive missions of the Spanish against the Apache extracted a heavy toll of lives but were ineffective in halting Apache raids. The intensity of the conflict was at its peak from 1771 to 1776 when in Chihuahua and Coahuila "1,674 Spaniards were killed, 154 were captured, over one hundred ranches were abandoned, and over sixty-eight thousand animals were stolen." Many of the "Spaniard" deaths recorded were probably mestizos and Christian Indians. Apache casualties were also heavy. In October and November 1775, a Spanish military operation headed by Hugo Oconór in New Mexico killed 132 Apache and took 104 prisoners. [6]

<i>Mestizo</i> Term to denote a person with European and Native American blood

Mestizo or mestiza is a term historically used in Spain, Spanish America and the Philippines that originally referred to a person of combined European and Indigenous American descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-race castas that evolved during the Spanish Empire. Although broadly speaking, Mestizo means someone of mixed European/indigenous heritage, and usually for someone considered a plebeian, the term did not have a fixed meaning in the colonial period. It was a formal label for individuals in official documentation, such as censuses, parish registers, Inquisition trials, and other matters. Individuals were labeled by priests and royal officials as mestizos, but the term was also used for self identification.

Hugo Oconór Military governor of northern Mexico

Hugh O'Conor by birth or Hugo Oconór in Spanish, was a military governor of northern Mexico. He was appointed governor of Texas by the Spanish viceroy of New Spain in 1767. It is recorded that O'Conor rode well over 10,000 miles (16,000 km) on horseback in the course of conducting his duties. O'Conor was called "The Red Captain" by the Apache, both for the color of his hair and his formidable military leadership.

In 1786, the Viceroy in Mexico City, Bernardo de Galvez, issued an Instrución to continue war with the Apache, but also to persuade them to make peace. Military operations intensified, but, at the same time, Apache who voluntarily surrendered and settled at the presidios were treated kindly and provided rations. Another factor inducing the Apache to make peace may have been the fact that New Mexico had made peace with the Comanche in 1786, and Comanche were now joining the Spanish in military operations against the Apache. [7] By 1790, most of the Apache bands, which had no central leadership, were at peace with the Spanish. By 1793, almost 2,000 Apache were settled at a dozen presidios, including 400 at Janos and 800 at El Norte (El Paso, Texas). The number of Apache still living in the mountains and deserts is unknown. Relative peace between the Apache and the Spaniards and Mexicans would endure until 1831. [8]

War with Mexico

The approximate locations of the principal Apache tribes, ca. 1840. Most of the raids into Mexico were carried out by the Chiricahua and Mescalero. Apachemap.jpg
The approximate locations of the principal Apache tribes, ca. 1840. Most of the raids into Mexico were carried out by the Chiricahua and Mescalero.

When Mexico became independent in 1821 the long-standing peace with the Apache began to fall apart. The number of soldiers at the frontier presidios was reduced, as was the budget for supporting the soldiers and the Apache. The key element leading to war was that, in 1831, the Mexican government cut off food rations to Apaches settled near presidios. The 2,000 Apache at the presidios quickly departed, it being necessary for them to resume their hunting-gathering lifestyle if they were to survive. The military commander of Chihuahua declared war on the Apache on October 16, 1831 and initiated military action against them. [9] Mexico, however, was ill-prepared for a war against the Apache. The two states most affected, Chihuahua and Sonora, operated almost independently of each other and the federal government. Sonora (which included Arizona at this time) had a thinly-scattered population of perhaps 50,000 people; Chihuahua had a more concentrated population of 134,000 and a better organized government. [10] [11]

The Apache tribes most involved in the war, the Chiricahua (called "Gileños" by Mexicans) and the Mescalero numbered only 2,500 to 3,000 people. Neither tribe had a central authority but consisted of a number of independent bands, numbering 100 to 500, each of which made their own decision concerning peace or war with the Mexicans. Bands would often unite temporarily to launch larger forces against the Mexicans, but most Apache raids were relatively small scale, involving a few dozen warriors. The Apache also negotiated separately with Mexican states and municipalities, carrying on war with some while at peace with others. Mexico's problem defeating the mobile and elusive Apache was exacerbated by the rising hostility of the Comanche, Kiowa and Kiowa-Apache who, especially in the 1840s and 1850s, launched large raids involving hundreds of men into northeastern Mexico from their safehaven on the Texas plains. [12] (See: Comanche-Mexico Wars)

Apache raids beginning in 1831 occurred in fits and starts as bands and leaders, most prominently Juan José Compá, who was literate and spoke Spanish, alternately raided and responded to peace overtures from Mexican authorities. Most often the Apache objective in a raid was to steal livestock and other property; but a common Apache modus operandi was also to travel by horseback in small groups into Mexico, rendezvous with other groups, attack a settlement, kill the men and capture as many women, children, and livestock as desired, and then flee toward their homeland, setting ambushes along the way to discourage pursuit. The Apache avoided pitched battles unless they were superior in numbers or had the element of surprise. [13]

However, after Mexican independence the resources and manpower devoted to the presidios declined. In Sonora, in 1833, the state government solicited public donations to bolster its defenses, and in 1834 briefly reduced salaries of all state officials by 10 to 33 percent to devote the money to enlisting more soldiers. [14] In Chihuahua, in 1832, to supplement the presidios all civilian men were ordered to carry weapons at all times, all occupied places were ordered to be fortified, and local defense forces were organized. By the early 1840s Chihuahua had 1.500 soldiers under arms in addition to local defense forces. However, much of this force was devoted to protecting the eastern part of the state against Comanches rather than fighting the Apache. [15]

Scalp hunters

John Johnson's massacre of Apaches in 1837 took place near here in the Animas Valley of New Mexico. The landscape is typical of that inhabited by the Apache, a mix of desert plains and rugged mountains. Mt Baldy and Black Mountain Animas Valley.JPG
John Johnson's massacre of Apaches in 1837 took place near here in the Animas Valley of New Mexico. The landscape is typical of that inhabited by the Apache, a mix of desert plains and rugged mountains.

In 1835, the government of Sonora put a bounty on the Apache which, over time, evolved into a payment by the government of 100 pesos for each scalp of a male 14 or more years old. Later, Chihuahua offered the same bounty for males plus a bounty of 50 pesos for the capture of an adult female and 25 pesos for a child under 14. Bounty hunters were also allowed to keep any Apache property they captured. The bounty for one Apache male was more than many Mexicans and American workers earned in a full year. [16] It is unclear, however, whether the scalp bounty was actually paid during the first few years.

A famous and often-exaggerated battle (or massacre) involved a United States citizen named John Johnson, resident in Sonora, who led an expedition against the Apache in April 1837. The Apache had raided near the municipality of Moctezuma and driven away a herd of cattle. Johnson gathered together 17 North Americans and 5 Mexico muleskinners, apparently collected expense money from the Sonora government, and borrowed an artillery piece, probably a Swivel gun, small enough to be carried mule-back from the presidio at Fronteras. Johnson found an Apache encampment near the southern end of the Animas Mountains in New Mexico. Juan José Compá led the group which consisted of, according to Johnson, of 80 men plus women and children. Johnson and his men attacked the Apache, killing 20, including Compá, and wounding another 20. For his accomplishment, Johnson received a reward of 100 pesos and the official thanks of the state government. With the death of Compá, Mangas Coloradas (Red Sleeves) became the most prominent Apache leader. [17]

The son of Mangas Coloradas, the most prominent Apache leader of the 1850s. Photo taken in 1884. Mangas Colorados1.jpg
The son of Mangas Coloradas, the most prominent Apache leader of the 1850s. Photo taken in 1884.

Punitive missions such as Johnson's however, inflamed the Apache rather than intimidated them. The rich Santa Rita copper mine in New Mexico was a principal target of Mangas Coloradas and his followers. In 1838, 22 fur trappers were killed nearby and the Apache severed the mine's supply line. The 300 to 400 inhabitants of Santa Rita fled south toward the Janos presidio, 150 miles away, but the Apache killed nearly all of them en route. Afterwards, the Santa Rita mine was only occasionally in operation until 1873 when Apache chief Cochise signed a peace agreement with the US and the mine was reopened. [18]

In 1839 North American James Kirker was contracted by the governor of Chihuahua for 25,000 pesos to raise an army of up to 200 men to suppress the Apache. Kirker's second in command was a Shawnee Indian named Skybuck. [19] The "Sahuanos", or Shawnees, as Kirker's men were called also included Delaware Indians and escaped slaves from the U.S as well as Anglos and Mexicans. Kirker's small army seems to have worsened the situation by killing friendly Apache or groups negotiating peace, after which Apache raids increased. In 1846, Kirker and local Mexicans were responsible for a massacre of 130 peaceful Apaches at Galeana, Chihuahua. Kirker claimed that he had followed the trail of stolen livestock to the Apache encampment. [20]

In 1849, the bounty laws in Chihuahua were formalized and strengthened. Apache adult male prisoners were worth 250 pesos each, females and children 150 pesos. Dead Apache adult males were worth 200 pesos, the scalp to be given to local governments for verification. The state that year paid out 17,896 for scalps and prisoners. The law was quickly abandoned as it was too costly and Apache scalps could not be distinguished from those of other Indians or of Mexicans. [21]

The punitive missions of Johnson, Kirker, and the Mexican army do not appear to have reduced the scope and scale of Apache depredations. [22]

Casualties

Geronimo's last camp and his warriors at the time of his surrender in 1886 in New Mexico near the Mexican border. Geronimo camp March 27, 1886.jpg
Geronimo's last camp and his warriors at the time of his surrender in 1886 in New Mexico near the Mexican border.

It is impossible to come up with an accurate estimate of casualties for either Mexicans or Apache, but historian William E. Griffen found enough data to illustrate the scope of the war in Chihuahua. From 1832 to 1849, there were 1,707 recorded encounters, 80 percent of which resulted in hostilities, between Indians (Apache and Comanche) and Mexicans. Of these 1,040 were reported to be Apache. The remaining 667 were by Comanche or Indians unidentified by tribe. Data was sufficient to total up casualty figures for nine of the years between 1835 and 1846. A total of 1,394 Mexicans were killed, including 774 killed by Apache and 620 killed by Comanche or unidentified Indians. A total of 559 Indians were reported killed, including 373 Apache and 186 Comanche and unidentified Indians. Casualty figures for both sides included many women and children. Additional incidents and casualties undoubtedly were unrecorded. [23]

Deaths due to the Apache war in Sonora may have been even higher, although data is anecdotal. A Mexican official estimated that 5,000 Sonorans had lost their lives to the Apaches in the 1830s. That seems an exaggeration although, undoubtedly, casualties were substantial. The town of Arizpe saw its population reduced from 7,000 to 1,500 in a few years because it was necessary to move the capital of the state from there because of Apache attacks. Tucson was attacked several times and 200 people were killed by infiltrating Apache inside the walls of the presidio of Fronteras between 1832 and 1849. [24]

What is clear is that Mexico's capacity for defense was seriously weakened by Apache and Comanche raids at the same time as Mexico was suffering from "centralism, clericalism, militarism, and American imperialism." [25]

Enter the United States

The U.S. victory in the Mexican–American War and the annexation of much of northern Mexico in 1848 did not initially impact the ongoing war between Mexico and the Apache as raids into Mexico and in the new territories of the United States continued as usual. Over time, however, the U.S. took the bulk of the responsibility for defeating and pacifying the Apache, most of whom resided in the United States. The employment of friendly Apache as scouts to find and fight hostile Apache was a critical element in the eventual success of the U.S. (see Apache scouts).

The last hostile band of Apache, led by Geronimo, surrendered in 1886, although individual Apaches continued with banditry in the U.S. and Mexico for many additional years (see Apache Wars). Illustrating the tenacity and elusiveness of the Apache, thousands of U.S. and Mexican soldiers and Apache scouts pursued Geronimo for more than one year, mostly in northern Mexico, until he was induced to surrender his band of only 36 men, women, and children. [26]

See also

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References

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  7. Griffen, pp. 53–54
  8. Griffen, pp. 139, 267–268
  9. Griffen, William B., Utmost Good Faith: Patterns of Apache-Mexican Hostilities in Northern Chihuahua Border Warfare, 1821-1848, Albuquerque: U of NM Press, 1988, p. 28
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  11. Stevens, Robert C. "The Apache Menace in Sonora" Arizona and the West, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Autumn 1964), p. 213
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  13. Stevens, Robert C. "The Apache Menace in Sonora, 1831-1849", Arizona and the West, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Autumn, 1964), p. 225
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  15. Griffen, Utmost Good Faith, p. 166–171
  16. "The Scalp Industry" http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPWE/HNS/Scalpin/old/folks.html, accessed 10 Jul 2012.
  17. Strickland, Rex W. "The Birth and Death of a Legend: The Johnson "Massacre" of 1837", Arizona and the West, Vol. 18, No 3 (Autumn 1976), Pp. 257-286
  18. Bowden; http://www.newmexicohistory.org/filedetails.php?fileID-25010%5B%5D, accessed 30 Jul 2012; Cooper, James E. (1975) "Santa Rita" Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of New Mexico University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, pp. 188-191, ISBN   0-8061-1066-X
  19. "James Kirker, the King of New Mexico." http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/HNS/Scalpin/children.html, accessed 12 Jul 2012; Spybuck was also possibly a Wyandotte as there are Spybucks in early census reports of the tribe."Wyandot and Shawnee Indian Lands in Wyandotte county, Kansas" Collections of Kansas State Historical Society, Vol 15 (1919-1922), p. 116
  20. Griffen, Utmost Good Faith pp. 58-61, 119, 171-172,
  21. Griffen, Apaches at War & Peace, p. 224
  22. Griffen, Utmost Good Faith, p. 247
  23. Griffen, Utmost Good Faith, pp. 217–307
  24. Stevens, pp.219–221
  25. Smith, Ralph A. "Indians in American-Mexican Relations Before the War of 1846." The Hispanic American Historical Review,Vol. 43, No. 1 (Feb 1963), p 36
  26. "The American Experience, We Shall Remain: Geronimo" . Retrieved November 12, 2009.