Apex, Iqaluit

Last updated
View of Apex from the Road to Apex Apex Nunavut.JPG
View of Apex from the Road to Apex
Village centre ApexCentre.jpg
Village centre
Village centre ApexCentre2.jpg
Village centre
Nanook Elementary School ApexSchool.jpg
Nanook Elementary School
St. Simon's Anglican Church ApexChurch.jpg
St. Simon's Anglican Church

Apex (Inuktitut Niaqunngut) is a small community in Iqaluit located on Baffin Island in Nunavut, Canada. [1] It is about 5 km (3.1 mi) southeast of Iqaluit on a small peninsula separating Koojesse (Kuujussi) Inlet from Tarr Inlet. Historically Apex was the place where most Inuit lived when Iqaluit was a military site and off-limits to anyone not working at the base. The community is accessed by bridge or causeway, and bordered by a local creek (kuujuusi) and waterfall (kugluktuk). Located here are the women's shelter, a church, Nanook Elementary School, and a bed-and-breakfast, along with housing for about 60 families.

Contents

Officially and functionally part of the City of Iqaluit, some Apex residents tend to reject affiliation with "Frobisher Bay". At the 2006 Nunavut Electoral Boundaries Commission hearings, and in the resulting final report, community members asked for territorial representation with the south Baffin community of Kimmirut, rather than continue with parts of the existing Iqaluit ridings. [2] The Deputy-Mayor of Iqaluit has the additional portfolio of representing and responding to interests from the Apex citizenry.

History

The community got its start in 1949 when the Hudson's Bay Company moved its south Baffin operations from Ward Inlet to the Apex Beach location to take advantage of the increased activity near the new US Air Force Base and landing strip. [3] In the 1950s the community contained a number of administrative buildings for the Department of Northern Health and Welfare, as well as Inuit housing units, a public laundry and bath house and the original nursing station for the Baffin region. This latter facility acted as a marshalling and drop-off point for treatment in tuberculosis hospitals. A monument to Inuit who went south as tuberculosis patients, and did not return, was commissioned by Pairijait Tigumivik, (the Iqaluit Elders' Society) and is located in front of the nursing station on the bank of the creek. Small holes in the monument act as a 'prayer wall' designed to permit the insertion of messages for departed relatives.

The Inuit housing units which grew up in Apex were either in the single room "match-box" style with a pinched waist (1960s), or the 512 (named for the square footage of this housing model). The original Apex families, (including the Michael, Alainga, Peter, Joamie, Onalik and Timotee families) built these houses from standard packages supplied by government. There was also a small cannery for Arctic char, promoted by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. The cannery encouraged fishing at levels which led to the demise of the Iqaluit Sylvia Grinnell River fish stocks, which are only now (~2008) showing signs of a recovery to levels which would substantiate the name "Iqaluit" for this region.

During the times of Commissioner of the Northwest Territories, Stu Hodgson, and his successor John H. Parker, residents of Apex were advised that the community was inefficient and no longer required. Plans were made for it to be "shut down" by government. A number of the Inuit housing units were moved to the airpost site at Frobisher Bay, including some which were relocated while their owners were away hunting. Government functions and employment gradually moved into the more "convenient" areas around the airport site, and the population of Apex declined. Municipal by-laws restricted new housing to existing residents until 1989, when construction was again permitted. The City of Iqaluit continues to prefer not to increase housing in Apex as it is serviced by more expensive "trucked water and sewer" systems.

Apex Hill has been used both as an alternate community name and as a geographic location for the hill on the east (seaward) side of the community which served as the apex (high point) for marine navigators entering Koojesse Inlet on the annual sealift and resupply. [4]

St. Simon's Anglican Church, which was built in the sixties of the last century, was the first Anglican church in the area. [5]

Climate

Apex, like Iqaluit, has a tundra climate (Köppen: ET) typical of the Arctic region, although it is well outside the Arctic Circle. The area features long, cold winters and brief, cool summers. Average monthly temperatures are below freezing for eight months of the year. [6] Iqaluit averages just over 400 mm (16 in) of precipitation annually, much wetter than many other localities in the Arctic Archipelago, with the summer being the wettest season. Temperatures of the winter months are comparable to other northern communities further west on the continent such as Yellowknife and to some extent even Fairbanks, Alaska, even though Apex is a few degrees colder than the latter. Summer temperatures are, however, much colder due to its easterly maritime position affected by the waters of the cold Baffin Island Current. This means that the tree line is much further south in the eastern part of Canada, being as southbound, in spite of low elevation, as northern Labrador. [7]

Although it is north of the natural tree line, there are some short, south-facing imported black spruce (Picea mariana) specimens protected by snowdrifts in the winter, [8] in addition to a few shrubs, which are woody plants. These include the Arctic willow (Salix arctica), which is hard to recognize as a tree because of its low height. The Arctic willow may be up to around 7.6 m (25 ft) horizontally, but only 150 mm (6 in) tall.

The climate of Apex is also colder than Gulf Stream locations on the same latitude. For example, the Norwegian city of Trondheim has an annual mean temperature that is 15.2 °C (27.4 °F) milder.

The lowest temperature ever recorded was −45.6 °C (−50.1 °F) at the airport on 10 February 1967. [6] The highest temperature ever recorded at the airport was 26.7 °C (80.1 °F) on 21 July 2008. [9]

Climate data for Iqaluit (Iqaluit Airport)
WMO ID: 71909; coordinates 63°45′N68°33′W / 63.750°N 68.550°W / 63.750; -68.550 (Iqaluit Airport) ; elevation: 33.5 m (110 ft); 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1946–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high humidex 3.35.24.35.113.321.727.827.618.88.64.83.427.8
Record high °C (°F)3.9
(39.0)
5.7
(42.3)
4.2
(39.6)
7.2
(45.0)
13.3
(55.9)
22.7
(72.9)
26.7
(80.1)
25.5
(77.9)
18.3
(64.9)
9.1
(48.4)
5.6
(42.1)
3.7
(38.7)
26.7
(80.1)
Mean maximum °C (°F)−8.1
(17.4)
−9.1
(15.6)
−4.1
(24.6)
0.8
(33.4)
5.9
(42.6)
14.4
(57.9)
21.3
(70.3)
18.2
(64.8)
11.6
(52.9)
4.9
(40.8)
0.9
(33.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
21.8
(71.2)
Average high °C (°F)−22.8
(−9.0)
−23.3
(−9.9)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−9.4
(15.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
6.8
(44.2)
12.3
(54.1)
10.5
(50.9)
5.2
(41.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
−8.3
(17.1)
−17.0
(1.4)
−5.6
(21.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)−26.9
(−16.4)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−14.2
(6.4)
−4.4
(24.1)
3.6
(38.5)
8.2
(46.8)
7.1
(44.8)
2.6
(36.7)
−3.7
(25.3)
−12.0
(10.4)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−9.3
(15.3)
Average low °C (°F)−30.9
(−23.6)
−31.7
(−25.1)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−7.6
(18.3)
0.5
(32.9)
4.1
(39.4)
3.6
(38.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
−6.4
(20.5)
−15.8
(3.6)
−25.5
(−13.9)
−13.1
(8.4)
Mean minimum °C (°F)−38.8
(−37.8)
−40.5
(−40.9)
−37.9
(−36.2)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−17.0
(1.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
1.0
(33.8)
0.4
(32.7)
−4.6
(23.7)
−16.1
(3.0)
−26.2
(−15.2)
−35.2
(−31.4)
−41.6
(−42.9)
Record low °C (°F)−45.0
(−49.0)
−45.6
(−50.1)
−44.7
(−48.5)
−34.2
(−29.6)
−26.1
(−15.0)
−10.2
(13.6)
−2.8
(27.0)
−2.5
(27.5)
−12.8
(9.0)
−27.1
(−16.8)
−36.2
(−33.2)
−43.4
(−46.1)
−45.6
(−50.1)
Record low wind chill −64−66−62−53−36−19−7−9−19−43−57−60−66
Average precipitation mm (inches)19.7
(0.78)
18.7
(0.74)
18.7
(0.74)
27.5
(1.08)
29.2
(1.15)
33.0
(1.30)
51.9
(2.04)
69.5
(2.74)
55.2
(2.17)
33.3
(1.31)
27.2
(1.07)
19.9
(0.78)
403.7
(15.89)
Average rainfall mm (inches)0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.01)
3.1
(0.12)
23.8
(0.94)
51.9
(2.04)
68.6
(2.70)
42.2
(1.66)
6.8
(0.27)
0.6
(0.02)
0.0
(0.0)
197.2
(7.76)
Average snowfall cm (inches)21.7
(8.5)
21.0
(8.3)
21.6
(8.5)
31.5
(12.4)
27.6
(10.9)
9.3
(3.7)
0.0
(0.0)
0.9
(0.4)
13.2
(5.2)
29.4
(11.6)
29.7
(11.7)
23.4
(9.2)
229.3
(90.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)11.411.111.813.112.010.912.515.315.014.013.212.2152.2
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)0.00.10.00.31.47.412.716.710.62.20.30.051.6
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)12.211.612.713.412.03.90.10.57.213.713.812.3113.5
Average relative humidity (%)65.364.665.472.876.472.669.472.675.678.176.671.571.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 32.494.0172.2216.5180.5200.2236.8156.887.951.435.612.61,476.8
Percent possible sunshine 18.539.047.448.231.932.539.331.022.416.817.78.929.5
Average ultraviolet index 0012444321002
Source 1: Environment and Climate Change Canada [6] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] and Weather Atlas [15]
Source 2: Météo Climat [16] [17]

Related Research Articles

Iqaluit Capital city of Nunavut, Canada

Iqaluit is the capital of the Canadian territory of Nunavut, its largest community, and its only city. It was known as Frobisher Bay from 1942 to 1987, after the large bay on the coast on which the city is situated. In 1987, its traditional Inuktitut name was restored.

Baffin Island Large Arctic island in Nunavut, Canada

Baffin Island, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth-largest island in the world. Its area is 507,451 km2 (195,928 sq mi)—slightly larger than Spain, and its population was 13,148 as of the 2016 Canadian Census. It is located at 68°N70°W. It also contains the city of Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut.

Grise Fiord Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Grise Fiord is an Inuit hamlet on the southern tip of Ellesmere Island, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada. It is one of three populated places on the island; despite its low population, it is the largest community on Ellesmere Island. The hamlet at Grise Fiord, created by the Canadian Government in 1953 through a relocation of Inuit families from Inukjuak, Quebec, is the northernmost public community in Canada. It is also one of the coldest inhabited places in the world, with an average yearly temperature of −16.5 °C (2.3 °F).

Igloolik Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Igloolik is an Inuit hamlet in Foxe Basin, Qikiqtaaluk Region in Nunavut, northern Canada. Because its location on Igloolik Island is close to Melville Peninsula, it is often mistakenly thought to be on the peninsula. The name "Igloolik" means "there is a house here". It derives from iglu, meaning house or building, and refers to the sod houses that were originally in the area, not to snow igloos. In Inuktitut the residents are called Iglulingmiut.

Pond Inlet Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Pond Inlet is a small, predominantly Inuit community in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada, located on northern Baffin Island. To the Inuit the name of the place "is and always has been Mittimatalik." The Scottish explorer Sir John Ross had named an arm of the sea that separates Bylot Island from Baffin Island as Pond's Bay, and the hamlet now shares that name. On August 29, 1921, the Hudson's Bay Company opened its trading post near the Inuit camp and named it Pond Inlet, marking the expansion of its trading empire into the High Arctic.

Rankin Inlet Place in Nunavut, Canada

Rankin Inlet is an Inuit hamlet on Kudlulik Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada. It is the largest hamlet and second-largest settlement in Nunavut, after the territorial capital, Iqaluit. On the northwestern Hudson Bay, between Chesterfield Inlet and Arviat, it is the regional centre for the Kivalliq Region.

Inuktitut Name of several Inuit languages spoken in Canada

Inuktitut, also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada. It is spoken in all areas north of the tree line, including parts of the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, to some extent in northeastern Manitoba as well as the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. It is one of the aboriginal languages written with Canadian Aboriginal syllabics.

Arctic Bay Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Arctic Bay is an Inuit hamlet located in the northern part of the Borden Peninsula on Baffin Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. Arctic Bay is located in the Eastern Time Zone although it is quite close to the time zone boundary. The predominant languages are Inuktitut and English. Arctic Bay is notable for being the birthplace of the former Premier of Nunavut and, as of 2021, the Commissioner of Nunavut, Eva Aariak.

Arviat Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Arviat is a predominantly Inuit hamlet located on the western shore of Hudson Bay in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut, Canada. Arviat is derived from the Inuktitut word arviq meaning "Bowhead whale". Earlier in history, its name was Tikirajualaaq, and Ittaliurvik,.

Kuujjuaq Northern village municipality in Quebec, Canada

Kuujjuaq, formerly known as Fort Chimo and by other names, is a former Hudson's Bay Company outpost at the mouth of the Koksoak River on Ungava Bay that has become the largest northern village in the Nunavik region of Quebec, Canada. It is the administrative capital of the Kativik Regional Government. Its population was 2,668 as of the 2021 census.

Resolute, Nunavut Place in Nunavut, Canada

Resolute or Resolute Bay is an Inuit hamlet on Cornwallis Island in Nunavut, Canada. It is situated at the northern end of Resolute Bay and the Northwest Passage and is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region.

Kinngait Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Kinngait, formerly known as Cape Dorset until 27 February 2020, is an Inuit hamlet located on Dorset Island near Foxe Peninsula at the southern tip of Baffin Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada.

Qikiqtarjuaq Place in Nunavut, Canada

Qikiqtarjuaq is a community located on the island of the same name in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. The island is known for Arctic wildlife, bird watching, and as the northern access point for Auyuittuq National Park

Whale Cove, Nunavut Place in Nunavut, Canada

Whale Cove, is a hamlet located 74 km (46 mi) south southwest of Rankin Inlet, 145 km (90 mi) northeast of Arviat, in Kivalliq Region, Nunavut, Canada, on the western shore of Hudson Bay.

Coral Harbour Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Coral Harbour, is a small Inuit community that is located on Southampton Island, Kivalliq Region, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Its name is derived from the fossilized coral that can be found around the waters of the community which is situated at the head of South Bay. The name of the settlement in Inuktitut is Salliq, sometimes used to refer to all of Southampton Island. The plural Salliit, means large flat island(s) in front of the mainland.

Clyde River, Nunavut Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Clyde River is an Inuit hamlet located on the shore of Baffin Island's Patricia Bay, off Kangiqtugaapik, an arm of Davis Strait in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, of Nunavut, Canada. It lies in the Baffin Mountains which in turn form part of the Arctic Cordillera mountain range. The community is served by air and by annual supply sealift.

Inukjuak Northern village municipality in Quebec, Canada

Inukjuak is a northern village located on Hudson Bay at the mouth of the Innuksuak River in Nunavik, in the Nord-du-Québec region of northern Quebec, Canada. Its population is 1,821 as of the 2021 Canadian Census. An older spelling is Inoucdjouac; its former name was Port Harrison.

Nunavut Territory of Canada

Nunavut is the largest and northernmost territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, which provided this territory to the Inuit for independent government. The boundaries had been drawn in 1993. The creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canada's political map in half a century since the province of Newfoundland was admitted in 1949.

The Mary River Mine is an open pit iron ore mine on Inuit Owned Land (IOL) operated by the Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation (BIMC), in the Mary River area of the Qikiqtaaluk Region, on Baffin Island, Nunavut, in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. As of 2021, Mary River mine operation consists of an open-pit mine, two work camps for hundreds of workers, a tote road—from the Mary River site to Milne Inlet—and a port infrastructure at Milne Inlet. According to a 4-year study published in 2008, the Mary River Mine, with its four massive iron ore deposits of 65-70% pure iron ore was "one of the most promising undeveloped iron deposits on the planet". It was not until technological advances were in place in 2010, and the market for iron ore had dramatically increased that sizable financial backing for the high cost of development in a remote region known for its inhospitable climate, was available. The mine began operations in 2014, and the first shipment to Europe arrived in 2015. Baffinland is currently planning on expanding the mine. In February 2021, a group of Inuit hunters blockaded access to the mine for a week to protest the expansion.

References

  1. Northern News Services (2010-11-30). "Four vie for Iqaluit mayor". Nnsl.com. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  2. "J. Bell, "23 New MLAs for Nunavut", Nunatsiaq News, November 10, 2006". Nunatsiaqonline.ca. 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  3. "About Iqaluit: History". City.iqaluit.nu.ca. Archived from the original on 2014-12-11. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  4. "Atlas of Canada – Apex Hill, Nunavut". Atlas.nrcan.gc.ca. 2010-02-04. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  5. Marion Soublière: Nunavut Handbook, p.367. Iqaluit 1998.
  6. 1 2 3 "Iqaluit A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment and Climate Change Canada. 31 October 2011. Climate ID: 2402590. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  7. "The Treeline in Canada" (PDF). NWT Department of Education, Culture and Employment. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  8. Edgar, Courtney (11 December 2018). "Christmas trees can grow in Iqaluit". Nunatsiaq News. Nortext Publishing Corporation. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  9. 1 2 "July 2008". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. 31 October 2011. Climate ID: 2402592. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  10. "March 1999". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. 31 October 2011. Climate ID: 2402590. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  11. "September 2010". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. 31 October 2011. Climate ID: 2402592. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  12. "October 2015". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. 31 October 2011. Climate ID: 2402592. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  13. "December 2010". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. 1 November 2019. Climate ID: 2402592. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  14. "June 2019". Canadian Climate Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. 1 November 2019. Climate ID: 2402592. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  15. d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Iqaluit, Canada - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-06.
  16. "Météo climat stats for Iqaluit". Météo Climat. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  17. "Météo climat stats for Iqaluit". Météo Climat. Retrieved 23 February 2022.

Coordinates: 63°43′20″N068°26′56″W / 63.72222°N 68.44889°W / 63.72222; -68.44889 (Apex) [1]

  1. "Apex". Geographical Names Data Base . Natural Resources Canada.