Apostles in Christianity

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The Last Supper, a late 1490s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci, is a depiction of the last supper of Jesus and his Twelve Apostles on the eve of his crucifixion. Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan The Last Supper - Leonardo Da Vinci - High Resolution 32x16.jpg
The Last Supper, a late 1490s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci, is a depiction of the last supper of Jesus and his Twelve Apostles on the eve of his crucifixion. Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, fresco with the Chi-Rho symbol , Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome Rom, Domitilla-Katakomben, Fresko "Christus und die 12 Apostel" und Christussymbol "Chi Rho" 1.jpg
Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, fresco with the Chi-Rho symbol , Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus according to the New Testament. During the life and ministry of Jesus in the 1st century AD, the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus. [1] There is also an Eastern Christian tradition derived from the Gospel of Luke of there having been as many as seventy apostles during the time of Jesus' ministry.

Contents

The commissioning of the Twelve Apostles during the ministry of Jesus is recorded in the Synoptic Gospels. After his resurrection, Jesus sent eleven of them (minus Judas Iscariot, who by then had died) by the Great Commission to spread his teachings to all nations. This event has been called the Dispersion of the Apostles.

In the Pauline epistles, Paul, although not one of the original twelve, described himself as an apostle , [2] saying he was called by the resurrected Jesus himself during his Road to Damascus event. He later describes himself as "the apostle of the Gentiles". [3] In the Book of Acts he and Barnabas were allotted the roles of apostle in the church. [4]

In modern usage, missionaries under Pentecostal movements often refer to themselves as apostles, a practice which stems from the Latin equivalent of apostle, i.e. missio , the source of the English word missionary. For example, Saint Patrick (AD 373–463) was the "Apostle of Ireland", Saint Boniface (680–755) was the "Apostle to the Germans", [5] Saint José de Anchieta (1534–1597) was the "Apostle of Brazil" and Saint Peter of Betancur (1626–1667) was the "Apostle of Guatemala". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints has always had, among its leadership, twelve individuals identified as apostles. Their primary role is to teach and testify of Jesus throughout the world. [6]

The period of early Christianity during the lifetimes of the apostles is called the Apostolic Age. [5] During the 1st century AD, the apostles established churches throughout the territories of the Roman Empire and, according to tradition, through the Middle East, Africa, and India. Of the tombs of the apostles, all but two are claimed by premises of the Catholic Church, half of them located in the Diocese of Rome.[ citation needed ]

Etymology

The Synaxis of the Twelve Apostles. Russian, 14th century, Moscow Museum. Synaxis of the Twelve Apostles by Constantinople master (early 14th c., Pushkin museum).jpg
The Synaxis of the Twelve Apostles. Russian, 14th century, Moscow Museum.

The term apostle comes from the Greek apóstolos ( ἀπόστολος ) – formed from the prefix apó- ( ἀπό- , 'from') and root stéllō ( στέλλω , 'I send, I depart') – originally meaning 'messenger, envoy'. It has, however, a stronger sense than the word messenger, and is closer to a 'delegate'. [7]

Bauer's Lexicon argues that its Christian usage translated a Jewish position known in Hebrew as the sheliach ( שליח ). This ecclesiastical meaning of the word was later translated into Latin as missio , the source of the English "missionary". [8]

Biblical narratives

Mark 6:7–13 states that Jesus initially sent out these twelve in pairs (cf. Mt 10:5–42 , Lk 9:1–6 ) to towns in Galilee. The text states that their initial instructions were to heal the sick and drive out demons. [7] They are also instructed to "take nothing for their journey, except a staff only: no bread, no wallet, no money in their purse, but to wear sandals, and not put on two tunics," and that if any town rejects them they ought to shake the dust off their feet as they leave, a gesture which some scholars think was meant as a contemptuous threat (Miller 26).[ full citation needed ]

Later in the Gospel narratives the Twelve Apostles are described as having been commissioned to preach the Gospel to "all the nations," [9] regardless of whether Jew or Gentile. [10] Paul emphasized the important role of the apostles in the church of God when he said that the household of God is "built upon the foundation of apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone." [Ephesians 2:19–20]

Calling by Jesus

Vocation of the Apostles, a fresco in the Sistine Chapel by Domenico Ghirlandaio, 1481-82 Ghirlandaio, Domenico - Calling of the Apostles - 1481.jpg
Vocation of the Apostles , a fresco in the Sistine Chapel by Domenico Ghirlandaio, 1481–82
James Tissot, The Exhortation to the Apostles Brooklyn Museum - The Exhortation to the Apostles (Recommandation aux apotres) - James Tissot.jpg
James Tissot, The Exhortation to the Apostles

The three Synoptic Gospels record the circumstances in which some of the disciples were recruited, Matthew only describing the recruitment of Simon, Andrew, James, and John.

Despite Jesus only briefly requesting that they join him, they are all described as immediately consenting and abandoning their nets to do so. The immediacy of their consent has been viewed as an example of divine power, although this is not stated in the text. The more ordinary explanation is that Jesus was friends with them beforehand, as implied by the Gospel of John, which states that Peter (Simon) and Andrew were disciples of John the Baptist, and started following Jesus as soon as Jesus had been baptized. [11]

Albright and Mann extrapolate from Simon's and Andrew's abandonment of their nets that Matthew is emphasizing the importance of renunciation by converting to Christianity, since fishing was profitable, although required large start-up costs, and abandoning everything would have been an important sacrifice. Regardless, Simon and Andrew's abandonment of what were effectively their most important worldly possessions has been taken as a model by later Christian ascetics.[ citation needed ]

Adriaen van de Venne's Fishing for Souls, oil on panel, 1614 De zielenvisserij - Fishing for souls (Adriaen Pietersz. van de Venne).jpg
Adriaen van de Venne's Fishing for Souls , oil on panel, 1614

Matthew describes Jesus meeting James and John, also fishermen and brothers, very shortly after recruiting Simon and Andrew. Matthew and Mark identify James and John as sons of Zebedee. Luke adds to Matthew and Mark that James and John worked as a team with Simon and Andrew. Matthew states that at the time of the encounter, James and John were repairing their nets, but readily joined Jesus without hesitation. [12]

This parallels the accounts of Mark and Luke, but Matthew implies that the men have also abandoned their father (since he is present in the boat they abandon behind them), and Carter feels this should be interpreted to mean that Matthew's view of Jesus is one of a figure rejecting the traditional patriarchal structure of society, where the father had command over his children; most scholars, however, just interpret it to mean that Matthew intended these two to be seen as even more devoted than the other pair, or that Jesus expected the imminent coming of the kingdom. [13]

The Synoptic Gospels go on to describe that later in Jesus' ministry he noticed a tax collector in his booth. The tax collector, called Matthew in Matthew 9:9 , Levi in Mark 2:14 and Luke 5:27 , is asked by Jesus to become one of his disciples. Matthew/Levi is stated to have accepted and then invited Jesus for a meal with his friends. Tax collectors were seen as villains in Jewish society, and the Pharisees are described as asking Jesus why he is having a meal with such disreputable people. The reply Jesus gave is now well known: "it is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance." [14]

Commissioning of the Twelve Apostles

The commissioning of the Twelve Apostles is an episode in the ministry of Jesus that appears in all three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew 10:1–4, Mark 3:13–19 and Luke 6:12–16. It relates the initial selection of the Twelve Apostles among the disciples of Jesus. [15] [16]

According to Luke:

One of those days Jesus went out to a mountainside to pray, and spent the night praying to God. When morning came, he called his disciples to him and chose twelve of them, whom he also designated apostles: Simon (whom he named Peter), his brother Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Simon who was called the Zealot, Judas son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.

[17]

—Luke 6:12–16

In the Gospel of Matthew, this event takes place shortly before the miracle of the man with a withered hand. In the gospels of Mark and of Luke, it appears shortly after that miracle. [18]

Replacement of Judas Iscariot

After he betrayed Christ (and then in guilt committed suicide before Christ's resurrection, one Gospel recounts), the apostles numbered eleven. When Jesus had been taken up from them, in preparation for the coming of the Holy Spirit that he had promised them, Peter advised the brethren:

Judas, who was guide to those who took Jesus... For he was numbered with us, and received his portion in this ministry... For it is written in the book of Psalms, "Let his habitation be made desolate, Let no one dwell therein", and, "Let another take his office"... So one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism of John until the day he was taken up from us, must become with us a witness to his resurrection.

So, between the Ascension of Jesus and the day of Pentecost, the remaining apostles elected a twelfth apostle by casting lots, a traditional Israelite way to determine the will of God (see Proverbs 16:33 ). The lot fell upon Matthias. [19]

Paul the Apostle in his First Epistle to the Corinthians, appears to give the first historical reference to the Twelve Apostles: "For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve" (1 Cor 3–5).

Paul, Apostle of the Gentiles

Although not one of the apostles commissioned during the life of Jesus, Paul, a Jew named Saul of Tarsus, claimed a special commission from the post-ascension Jesus as "the apostle of the Gentiles", [Romans 11:13] to spread the gospel message after his conversion. In his writings, the epistles to Christian churches throughout the Levant, Paul did not restrict the term "apostle" to the twelve, and often refers to his mentor Barnabas as an apostle. [5]

In his writings, Paul, although not one of the original twelve, described himself as an apostle. [20] He was called by the resurrected Jesus himself during his Road to Damascus event. With Barnabas, he was allotted the role of apostle in the church. [Acts 13:2]

Since Paul claimed to have received a gospel not from teachings of the Twelve Apostles but solely and directly through personal revelations from the post-ascension Jesus, [21] after Jesus's death and resurrection (rather than before like the twelve), Paul was often obliged to defend his apostolic authority ( 1 Cor. 9:1 "Am I not an apostle?" ) and proclaim that he had seen and was anointed by Jesus while on the road to Damascus.

Paul considered himself perhaps inferior to the other apostles because he had originally persecuted Christ's followers [1 Cor. 15:9] while thinking he was not in the least inferior to those "super-apostles" and not lacking in "knowledge". [2 Cor. 11:5–6]

Paul referred to himself as the apostle of the Gentiles. [Rom 11:13] According to Paul's account in his Epistle to the Galatians, James, Peter and John in Jerusalem accepted the "grace" given to Paul and agreed that Paul and Barnabas should go to the Gentiles (specifically those not circumcised) and the three Apostles who "seemed to be pillars" to the circumcised. [Gal 2:7–9] Despite the Little Commission of Matthew 10, the Twelve Apostles did not limit their mission to solely Jews as Cornelius the Centurion is widely considered the first Gentile convert and he was converted by Peter, and the Great Commission of the resurrected Jesus is specifically to "all nations".

As the Catholic Encyclopedia states, "It is at once evident that in a Christian sense, everyone who had received a mission from God, or Christ, to man could be called 'Apostle'"; thus extending the original sense beyond the twelve. [7]

Islam

The Quranic account of the disciples (Arabic : الحواريونal-ḥawāriyyūn) of Jesus does not include their names, numbers, or any detailed accounts of their lives. Muslim exegesis, however, more-or-less agrees with the New Testament list and says that the disciples included Peter, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, Andrew, James, Jude, John and Simon the Zealot. [22] Scholars generally draw a parallel with the disciples of Jesus and the companions of Muhammad, who followed Muhammad during his lifetime. [23]

Legacy

By the 2nd century AD, association with the apostles was esteemed as an evidence of authority. Churches that are believed to have been founded by one of the apostles are known as apostolic sees. Paul's epistles were accepted as scripture, and two of the four canonical gospels were associated with apostles, as were other New Testament works. Various Christian texts, such as the Didache and the Apostolic Constitutions , were attributed to the apostles. Bishops traced their lines of succession back to individual apostles, who were said to have dispersed from Jerusalem and established churches across great territories. Christian bishops have traditionally claimed authority deriving, by apostolic succession, from the Twelve. [5] Early Church Fathers who came to be associated with apostles — such as Pope Clement I with St. Peter — are referred to as the Apostolic Fathers. The Apostles' Creed, popular in the West, was said to have been composed by the apostles themselves.

Deaths

Relics of the Apostles in 2017, while they were in Utah during the Relic Tour Relics of the Apostles Utah 2017.jpg
Relics of the Apostles in 2017, while they were in Utah during the Relic Tour

Of the Twelve Apostles to hold the title after Matthias' selection, Christian tradition has generally passed down that all of the Twelve Apostles except one were martyred, with only John surviving into old age. [25] Only the death of James, son of Zebedee is described in the New Testament. ( Acts 12:1–2 ) [26]

Matthew 27:5 says that Judas Iscariot threw the silver he received for betraying Jesus down in the Temple, then went and hanged himself. Acts 1:18 says that he purchased a field, then "falling headlong he burst open in the middle and all his bowels gushed out".

According to the 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon, early Christians (second half of the second century and first half of the third century) believed that only Peter, Paul, and James, son of Zebedee, were martyred. [27] The remainder of the claims of martyred apostles do not rely upon historical or biblical evidence, but only on tradition. [28] [29]

Tombs of the Apostles

Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran (Rome) Archbasilica of St. John Lateran HD.jpg
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran (Rome)

The relics of the apostles are claimed by various Churches, many in Italy. [31]

List of the Twelve Apostles as identified by the Bible

Jesus and the Twelve Apostles in Domus Galilaeae, Israel PikiWiki Israel 15464 Jesus and the 12 apostles in Domus Galileae.JPG
Jesus and the Twelve Apostles in Domus Galilaeae, Israel

Each of the four listings of apostles in the New Testament ( Mark 3:13–19 , Matthew 10:1–4 , Luke 6:12–16 , and Acts 1:13 ) indicate that all the apostles were men. The canonical gospels and the book of Acts give varying names of the Twelve Apostles. The list in the Gospel of Luke differs from Matthew and Mark on one point. It lists "Judas, the son of James" instead of "Thaddaeus". [lower-alpha 1]

Unlike the Synoptic Gospels, the Gospel of John does not offer a formal list of apostles. Although it refers to "the Twelve" ( John 6:67–71 ), the gospel does not present any elaboration of who these twelve actually were, and the author of the Gospel of John does not mention them all by name. There is also no separation of the terms "apostles" and "disciples" in John.

Gospel of Matthew [33] Gospel of Mark [34] Gospel of Luke [35] Gospel of John Acts of the Apostles [36]
Simon ("who is called Peter")Simon ("he surnamed Peter")Simon ("whom named Peter")Simon Peter [37] (“Cephas, which means Peter”)Peter
Andrew ("his [Peter's] brother")AndrewAndrew ("his [Peter's] brother")Andrew ("Simon Peter's brother")Andrew
James ("son of Zebedee")James ("son of Zebedee") / one of the "Boanerges"Jamesone of the "sons of Zebedee"James
John ("his [James's] brother")John ("brother of James") / one of the "Boanerges"Johnone of the "sons of Zebedee" / the "disciple whom Jesus loved" [lower-alpha 2] John
Philip PhilipPhilipPhilipPhilip
Bartholomew BartholomewBartholomew Nathanael Bartholomew
Thomas ThomasThomasThomas ("also called Didymus") [38] Thomas
Matthew ("the publican")Matthew/LeviMatthew/Levinot mentionedMatthew
James ("son of Alphaeus")James ("son of Alphaeus")James ("son of Alphaeus")not mentionedJames ("son of Alphaeus")
Thaddaeus (or "Lebbaeus"); called "Judas the Zealot" in some translations [39] Thaddaeus Judas ("son of James, referred to as brother in some translations")Judas ("not Iscariot") [40] Judas ("son of James, referred to as brother in some translations")
Simon ("the Canaanite")Simon ("the Cananaean")Simon ("who was called the Zealot")not mentionedSimon ("the Zealot")
Judas Iscariot Judas IscariotJudas IscariotJudas ("son of Simon Iscariot") [41] (Judas replaced by Matthias)

Other apostles mentioned in the New Testament

Person called apostleWhere in ScriptureNotes
Barnabas Acts 14:14
Andronicus and Junia Rom 16:7 Paul states that Andronicus and Junia were "of note among the apostles." This has been traditionally interpreted in one of two ways:
  • That Andronicus and Junia were "of note among the apostles," that is, distinguished apostles. [42]
  • That Andronicus and Junia were "well known among the apostles" meaning "well known to the apostles"

If the first view is correct then Paul may be referring to a female apostle [43] [44]  – the Greek name (Iounian) is in the accusative and could be either Junia (a woman) or Junias (a man). [45] Later manuscripts add accents to make it unambiguously Junias, however while "Junia" was a common name, "Junias" was not, [44] and both options are favored by different Bible translations.

In the second view, it is believed that Paul is simply making mention of the outstanding character of these two people which was acknowledged by the apostles.

Historically it has been virtually impossible to tell which of the two views were correct. The second view, in recent years, has been defended from a scholarly perspective by Daniel Wallace and Michael Burer. [46]

Silas 1 Thes. 1:1 , 2:6 Referred to as one along with Timothy and Paul, he also performs the functioning of an apostle as Paul's companion in Paul's second missionary journey in Acts 15:40ff.
Timothy 1 Thes. 1:1 , 2:6 Timothy is referred to as an apostle along with Silas and Paul. However, in 2 Cor. 1:1 he is only called a "brother" when Paul refers to himself as "an apostle of Christ". Timothy performs many of the functions of an apostle in the commissioning of Paul in 1st and 2nd Timothy, though in those epistles Paul refers to him as his "son" in the faith.
Apollos 1 Cor. 4:9 Included among "us apostles" along with Paul and Cephas (Peter). (see also: 4:6 , 3:22 , and 3:4–6 )

The seventy disciples

The "seventy disciples" or "seventy-two disciples" (known in the Eastern Christian traditions as the "Seventy Apostles") were early emissaries of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke 10:1–24. According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text.

In Western Christianity, they are usually referred to as disciples, [47] whereas in Eastern Christianity they are usually referred to as Apostles. [48] Using the original Greek words, both titles are descriptive, as an apostle is one sent on a mission (the Greek uses the verb form: apesteilen) whereas a disciple is a student, but the two traditions differ on the scope of the words apostle and disciple.

See also

Notes

  1. For more information, see Jude the Apostle.
  2. This is a traditional conflation of John the Apostle with John the Evangelist, currently disputed by many textual scholars.

Related Research Articles

Acts of the Apostles Book of the New Testament

The Acts of the Apostles, often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.

Gospel of Luke Book of the New Testament

The Gospel according to Luke, also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, tells of the origins, birth, ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ. Together with the Acts of the Apostles, it makes up a two-volume work which scholars call Luke–Acts; together they account for 27.5% of the New Testament.

Last Supper Final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion

The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is commemorated by Christians especially on Maundy Thursday. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as "Holy Communion" or "The Lord's Supper".

John the Apostle Apostle of Jesus

John the Apostle or Saint John the Beloved was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Generally listed as the youngest apostle, he was the son of Zebedee and Salome. His brother was James, who was another of the Twelve Apostles. The Church Fathers identify him as John the Evangelist, John of Patmos, John the Elder and the Beloved Disciple, and testify that he outlived the remaining apostles and that he was the only one to die of natural causes. The traditions of most Christian denominations have held that John the Apostle is the author of several books of the New Testament.

Mark the Evangelist Author of the Gospel of Mark and Christian saint; traditionally identified with John Mark

Mark the Evangelist is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of early Christianity. His feast day is celebrated on April 25, and his symbol is the winged lion.

Judas Iscariot One of the original Twelve Disciples of Jesus Christ, known for betrayal of Jesus

Judas Iscariot was a disciple and one of the original Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. According to all four canonical gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus to the Sanhedrin in the Garden of Gethsemane by kissing him and addressing him as "rabbi" to reveal his identity in the darkness to the crowd who had come to arrest him. His name is often used synonymously with betrayal or treason. Judas's epithet "Iscariot" most likely means he came from the village of Kerioth, but this explanation is not universally accepted and many other possibilities have been suggested.

Transfiguration of Jesus Episode in the life of Jesus

In the New Testament, the Transfiguration of Jesus is an event where Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant in glory upon a mountain. The Synoptic Gospels describe it, and the Second Epistle of Peter also refers to it. It has also been hypothesized that the first chapter of the Gospel of John alludes to it.

Simon the Zealot Apostle of Jesus

Simon the Zealot or Simon the Canaanite or Simon the Canaanean was one of the most obscure among the apostles of Jesus. A few pseudepigraphical writings were connected to him, but Saint Jerome does not include him in De viris illustribus written between 392 and 393 AD.

Four Evangelists New Testament authors

In Christian tradition, the Four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles: Gospel according to Matthew; Gospel according to Mark; Gospel according to Luke and Gospel according to John.

Jude the Apostle One of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus; traditionally identified with Jude the brother of Jesus

Jude was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. He is generally identified with Thaddeus, and is also variously called Jude of James, Jude Thaddaeus, Judas Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus. He is sometimes identified with Jude, the brother of Jesus, but is clearly distinguished from Judas Iscariot, the apostle who betrayed Jesus prior to his crucifixion. Catholic writer Michal Hunt suggests that Judas Thaddaeus became known as Jude after early translators of the New Testament from Greek into English sought to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot and subsequently abbreviated his forename. Most versions of the New Testament in languages other than English and French refer to Judas and Jude by the same name.

Jesus Central figure of Christianity

Jesus, c. 4 BC – AD 30 / 33, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher from Judea. He is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited messiah as prophesied in the Old Testament.

Life of Jesus in the New Testament Life of Jesus as told in the New Testament

The life of Jesus in the New Testament is primarily outlined in the four canonical gospels, which includes his genealogy and nativity, public ministry, passion, prophecy, resurrection and ascension. Other parts of the New Testament – such as the Pauline epistles which were likely written within 20 to 30 years of each other, and which include references to key episodes in Jesus' life, such as the Last Supper, and the Acts of the Apostles, (1:1–11) which includes more references to the Ascension episode than the canonical gospels - also expound upon the life of Jesus. In addition to these biblical texts, there are extra-biblical texts that Christians believe make reference to certain events in the life of Jesus, such as Josephus on Jesus and Tacitus on Christ.

Seventy disciples Early students of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke

The seventy disciples or seventy-two disciples were early emissaries of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke. According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text.

Ministry of Jesus Ministry of Jesus

In the Christian gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Palestine and Transjordan, near the river Jordan by John the Baptist, and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry. A chronology of Jesus typically has the date of the start of his ministry September 11 26AD, others have estimated at around AD 27–29 and the end in the range AD 30–36.

Arrest of Jesus

The arrest of Jesus was a pivotal event in Christianity recorded in the canonical gospels. Jesus, a preacher whom Christians believe to be the Son of God, was arrested by the Temple guards of the Sanhedrin in the Garden of Gethsemane. It occurred shortly after the Last Supper, and immediately after the kiss of Judas, which is traditionally said to have been an act of betrayal since Judas made a deal with the chief priests to arrest Jesus. The event ultimately led, in the Gospel accounts, to Jesus' crucifixion.

Confession of Peter Episode in the New Testament in which the Apostle Peter proclaims Jesus to be the Christ

In Christianity, the Confession of Peter refers to an episode in the New Testament in which the Apostle Peter proclaims Jesus to be the Christ. The proclamation is described in the three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew 16:13–20, Mark 8:27–30 and Luke 9:18–21. Depending on which gospel one reads, Peter either says: 'You are the Messiah' or 'the Christ' ; or 'You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God',, or 'God's Messiah' or 'The Christ of God'.

James, son of Alphaeus One of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ

James, son of Alphaeus was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, appearing under this name in all three of the Synoptic Gospels' lists of the apostles. He is often identified with James the Less and commonly known by that name in church tradition. He is also labelled "the minor", "the little", "the lesser", or "the younger", according to translation. He is distinct from James, son of Zebedee and in some interpretations also from James, brother of Jesus. He appears only four times in the New Testament, each time in a list of the twelve apostles.

Outline of Christianity Overview of and topical guide to Christianity

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Christianity:

Commissioning of the Twelve Apostles Episode in the ministry of Jesus that appears in all three Synoptic Gospels

The commissioning of the Twelve Apostles is an episode in the ministry of Jesus that appears in all three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew 10:1–4, Mark 3:13–19 and Luke 6:12–16. It relates the initial selection of the Twelve Apostles among the disciples of Jesus.

Saint Peter Apostle of Jesus and 1st pope between 30 AD till 64-68 AD

Saint Peter, also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and one of the first leaders of the early Church.

References

Citations

  1. ""Apostle", Britannica.com". Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  2. Romans 1:1
  3. Romans 11:13
  4. Acts 13:2 , Acts 9:4–9
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Apostle." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN   0-19-280290-9.
  6. "Quorum of the Twelve Apostles". 10 July 2021. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  7. 1 2 3 "Catholic Encyclopedia: Apostles". Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2005.
  8. Angus Stevenson (19 August 2010). Oxford Dictionary of English. OUP Oxford. p. 1133. ISBN   978-0-19-957112-3.
  9. Mt 28:19 , Mk 13:10 , and 16:15
  10. Cf. also Acts 15:1–31 , Galatians 2:7–9 , Acts 1:4–8 , and Acts 10:1–11:18 .
  11. Jn 1:40–42
  12. Mt 4:21
  13. Meier, John P. (1994). Marginal Jew, II . Doubleday. ISBN   978-0385469920.
  14. Mark 2:17 .
  15. Riley, Harold. 1992. The First Gospel. ISBN   0-86554-409-3. p. 47.
  16. Mills, Watson E., and Roger Aubrey Bullard. 1998. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. ISBN   0-86554-373-9. p. 48
  17. New International Version, online at Bible gateway Archived 10 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  18. Strauss, David Friedrich. 1860. The Life of Jesus. Published by Calvin Blanchard. p. 340.
  19. "Who were the 12 disciples?". Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  20. Romans 1:1
  21. cf. Gal 1:12 ; Acts 9:3–19 , 9:26–27 , 22:6–21 , 26:12–23
  22. Wheeler, A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Disciples of Jesus, p. 86
  23. Wheeler, A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Disciples of Jesus, p. 86.
  24. "Relics of the Passion". www.relictour.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  25. Mark A. Lamport (1 June 2018). Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 27. ISBN   978-1-4422-7157-9.
  26. "Who were the 12 disciples? | Bibleinfo.com". www.bibleinfo.com. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  27. Gibbon, Edward (1826). "Chapter XVI. The Conduct of the Roman Government toward the Christians, from the Reign of Nero to that of Constantine". The history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire. II. New York: J. & J. Harper for Collins & Hanney. p. 20. 27. In the time of Tertullian and Clemens of Alexandria the glory of martyrdom was confined to St. Peter, St. Paul and St. James. It was gradually bestowed on the rest of the apostles by the more recent Greeks, who prudently selected for the theatre of their preaching and sufferings some remote country beyond the limits of the Roman empire. See Mosheim, p. 81. and Tillemont, Memoires Ecclesiastiques, tom. i. part 3.
  28. "Were the Disciples Martyred for Believing the Resurrection? A Blast From the Past". The Bart Ehrman Blog. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  29. Wills, Garry (10 March 2015). The Future of the Catholic Church with Pope Francis. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 49. ISBN   978-0-698-15765-1. (Candida Moss marshals the historical evidence to prove that "we simply don't know how any of the apostles died, much less whether they were martyred.")6 Citing Moss, Candida (5 March 2013). The Myth of Persecution: How Early Christians Invented a Story of Martyrdom. HarperCollins. p. 136. ISBN   978-0-06-210454-0.
  30. "Saints in Rome & Beyond!". Archived from the original on 2 September 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  31. "Welcome". Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  32. As stated in St. Philips wiki article
  33. Matt 10:1–4
  34. Mark 3:13–19
  35. Luke 6:12–16
  36. Acts 1:13
  37. John 6:67–71
  38. John 11:16 John 20:24 John 21:2
  39. Bruce M. Metzger. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Revised edition, Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2005 ISBN   978-1598561647, p. 21.
  40. John 14:22
  41. John 6:67–71
  42. May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.
  43. Crossan, J. D. and Reed, J. L., In Search of Paul, Harper San Francisco (2004), pp. 115–16. ISBN   978-0-06-051457-0.
  44. 1 2 Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, US. 2006. ISBN   978-0-19-530013-0.
  45. CBMW "A Female Apostle?" Archived 21 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine , 26 June 2007
  46. See Daniel B. Wallace and Michael H. Burer, "Was Junia Really an Apostle?" NTS 47 (2001): 76–91.
  47. Catholic Encyclopedia: Disciple Archived 24 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine : "The disciples, in this disciples, in this context, are not the crowds of believers who flocked around Christ, but a smaller body of His followers. They are commonly identified with the seventy-two (seventy, according to the received Greek text, although several Greek manuscripts mention seventy-two, as does the Vulgate) referred to (Luke 10:1) as having been chosen by Jesus. The names of these disciples are given in several lists (Chronicon Paschale, and Pseudo-Dorotheus in Migne, P.G., XCII, 521–24; 543–45; 1061–65); but these lists are unfortunately worthless."
  48. "Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles". oca.org. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2018.

Sources

Further reading