Apulia

Last updated
Apulia

Puglia  (Italian)
Púgghie / Puie / Puje  (Neapolitan)
Puia  (Sicilian)

Ἀπουλία  (Greek)

Poulye  (Arpitan)
Coat of Arms of Apulia.svg
Coat of arms
Apulia in Italy.svg
Coordinates: 41°0′31″N16°30′46″E / 41.00861°N 16.51278°E / 41.00861; 16.51278 Coordinates: 41°0′31″N16°30′46″E / 41.00861°N 16.51278°E / 41.00861; 16.51278
Country Italy
Capital Bari
Government
  President Michele Emiliano (PD)
Area
  Total19,358 km2 (7,474 sq mi)
Population
 (31-12-2016)
  Total4,063,888
  Density210/km2 (540/sq mi)
Demonym(s) English: Apulian
Italian: Pugliese
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code IT-75
GDP (nominal) €74.8 billion (2017) [1]
GDP per capita €18,400 (2017) [2]
HDI (2017)0.844 [3]
very high · 18th of 21
NUTS Region ITF
Website www.regione.puglia.it

Apulia ( /əˈpliə/ ə-POO-lee-ə; Italian : Puglia [ˈpuʎːa] ; Neapolitan : Pùglia [ˈpuʝːə] ; [lower-alpha 1] Albanian : Pulia; Ancient Greek : Ἀπουλία, romanized: Apoulía) is a region of Italy, located in the southern peninsular section of the country, bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19,345 square kilometers (7,469 sq mi), and its population is about four million.

Contents

It is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, and Basilicata to the southwest. Its capital city is Bari.

Geography

Torre Sant'Andrea, Salento Torre Sant'Andrea (Lecce).jpg
Torre Sant'Andrea, Salento

Apulia's coastline is longer than that of any other mainland Italian region. In the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic like a 'sperone' ("spur"), while in the south, the Salento peninsula forms the 'tacco' ("heel") of Italy's boot. [4] The highest peak in the region is Mount Cornacchia (1,152 meters above sea level) within the Daunian Mountains, in the north along the Apennines.

It is home to two national parks, the Alta Murgia National Park and Gargano National Park. [5]

Outside of national parks in the North and West, most of Apulia and particularly Salento is geographically flat with only moderate hills.

The climate is typically mediterranean with hot, dry and sunny summers and mild, rainy winters. Snowfall, especially on the coast is rare but has occurred as recently as January 2019 (following on from snow in March 2018 and January 2017). Apulia is among the hottest and driest regions of Italy in summer with temperatures sometimes reaching up to and above 40 °C in Lecce and Foggia.

The coastal areas, particularly on the Adriatic and in the southern Salento region are frequently exposed to winds of varying strengths and directions, strongly affecting local temperatures and conditions, sometimes within the same day. The Northerly Bora wind from the Adriatic can lower temperatures, humidity and moderate summer heat while the Southerly Sirocco wind from North Africa can raise temperatures, humidity and occasionally drop red dust from the Sahara. On some days in spring and autumn, it can be warm enough to swim in Gallipoli and Porto Cesareo on the Ionian coast while at the same time, cool winds warrant jackets and sweaters in Monopoli and Otranto on the Adriatic coast.

Landscape of the Murge plateau Murge Castel del Monte.jpg
Landscape of the Murge plateau

History

Castel del Monte, built by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II between 1240 and 1250 in Andria Castel del Monte, Andria.jpg
Castel del Monte, built by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II between 1240 and 1250 in Andria
The medieval town of Ostuni Ostuni.jpg
The medieval town of Ostuni

Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy. It was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks. [6]

Some parts of the regions were conquered by the Muslim Saracens, and the Emirate of Bari was established for a brief period of time by Muhammad Abul Abbas of Sicily.

A number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, [7] sometimes called the "Crown of Apulia". [8]

Apulia was an autonomous duchy until 1130 when its duke became king of Sicily. After 1282, when the kingdom lost the island of Sicily itself, Apulia remained part of the remnant Kingdom of Naples (confusingly known also as the Kingdom of Sicily), and remained so until the unification of Italy in 1861. This kingdom was independent under the House of Anjou from 1282 to 1442, then was part of Aragon until 1458, after which it was again independent under a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara until 1501. As a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. When Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves. [9] The coast of Apulia was occupied at times by the Turks and at other times by the Venetians. [10]

In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was "so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin". [11]

Economy

The region's contribution to Italy's gross value added was around 4.6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average and represents about 68.1% of the EU average. [12]

The share of gross value added by the agricultural and services sectors was above the national average in 2000. The region has industries specialising in particular areas, including food processing and vehicles in Foggia; footwear and textiles in the Barletta area, and wood and furniture in the Murge area to the west. [13]

Between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy. [14] Such growth, over several decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. [15]

Apulia's thriving economy is articulated into numerous sectors boasting several leading companies: Aerospace (Sitael, Blackshape, Leonardo S.p.A.); Agriculture (Casillo Group, G.C. Partecipazioni), Automotive (Getrag, a subsidiary of Magna International); Food and Beverage (De Carlo, Divella, Quarta Caffé); Furniture (Natuzzi); ICT (Exprivia); Mechanics (Isotta Fraschini Motori, MERMEC); Publishing (Laterza), Tourism (Nicolaus tour).

Unemployment

The unemployment rate stood at 18.8% in 2017 and was higher than the national average. [16]

Year2006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018
unemployment rate
(in %)
12.6%11.1%11.6%12.6%13.5%13.2%15.7%19.7%21.5%19.7%19.4%18.8%16%

Olive cultivars

There are an estimated 50 to 60 million olive trees in Apulia, and the region accounts for 40% of Italy's olive oil production. There are four specific Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) covering the whole region. [17] Olive varieties include: Baresane, Biancolilla, Brandofino (Castiglione), Buscionetto (Biancolilla), Carolea, Cellina di Nardò, Cerasuola (Ogliara), Cerignola (Bella di Cerignola), Cima di Bitonto, Cima di Mola, Coratina, [18] also grown in Corning, CA., a 2018 Gold Medal New York International Olive Oil Competition (NYIOOC) winner, [19] Frantoio, Garganica, La Minuta, Leccino, Moresca, Nocellara Etnea, Nocellara Messinese, Ogliarola, Ogliarola Barese, Ogliara Messinese, Ottobratica, Peranzana that is produced as "Certified Ultra-Premium Extra Virgin Olive Oil", [20] Rotondella, Santagatese, Saracena, Tonda Iblea, and Verdello (subspecies of San Benedetto). [21] [22]

Xylella fastidiosa disease

The olive oil industry in Apulia is under threat from the pathogen Xylella fastidiosa , a disease which inhibits the uptake of water and nutrients by the trees. The south-eastern part of the region is at the centre of the epidemic.

Transport

The region has a good network of roads, but the railway network is less comprehensive, particularly in the south. [13] The region is crossed northwest to southeast by the A14 highway (Bologna–Taranto), which connects the region capital, Bari, to Taranto, the second most populous city in the region. The A14 also connects Foggia and points further north along the Adriatic coast to Pescara, Ancona, Rimini and eventually, Bologna. The only other highway in the region is the A16 (Napoli–Canosa), which crosses the Italian peninsula east–west and links the region with Napoli.

There are two international airports, Karol Wojtyla Airport in Bari (IATA: BRI) and Brindisi Airport (IATA: BDS), which serves as the principal logistical hub for the United Nations Global Service Center headquartered in Brindisi. With the approval of a redevelopment project in 2018, the Grottaglie Airfield (IATA: TAR) will host a spaceport for the Italian Space Agency and Virgin Galactic.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1861 1,335,000    
1871 1,440,000+7.9%
1881 1,609,000+11.7%
1901 1,987,000+23.5%
1911 2,195,000+10.5%
1921 2,365,000+7.7%
1931 2,508,000+6.0%
1936 2,642,000+5.3%
1951 3,220,000+21.9%
1961 3,421,000+6.2%
1971 3,583,000+4.7%
1981 3,872,000+8.1%
1991 4,032,000+4.1%
2001 4,021,000−0.3%
2011 4,091,000+1.7%
2017 4,063,888−0.7%
Source: ISTAT 2001

Emigration from the region's depressed areas to northern Italy and the rest of Europe was very intense in the years between 1956 and 1971. Subsequently, the trend declined, as economic conditions improved, to the point where there was net immigration in the years between 1982 and 1985. Since 1986 the stagnation in employment has led to a new inversion of the trend, caused by a decrease in immigration. [23]

Government and politics

Since 1 June 2015, former judge and mayor of Bari Michele Emiliano of the Democratic Party has served as President of the Apulian region. [24] [25]

Culture

Cuisine

Cuisine plays an important role throughout Apulia. The key locally produced ingredients used there include olive oil, artichokes, tomatoes, aubergine, asparagus, and mushrooms. [26] In summer it is very common to use also the carosello, a variety of muskmelon which is often consumed in an immature state. Several PDO and PGI products are made in Apulia; among can be found some types of cheese like the Canestrato Pugliese PDO and Burrata di Andria PGI, of olive oil like the Collina di Brindisi PDO, Dauno PDO, Terra d'Otranto PDO, Terre Tarentine PDO and Terra di Bari PDO, some fruits and vegetables like the Arancia del Gargano PGI, Carciofo Brindisino PGI, Cipolla bianca di Margherita PGI, Clementine del Golfo di Taranto PGI, La Bella della Daunia PDO, Limone femminello del Gargano PGI, Patata novella di Galatina PGI and Uva di Puglia PGI. Moreover, also a type of bread, Pane di Altamura PDO and a legume called Lenticchia di Altamura PGI are present in the list.

Language

As with the other regions of Italy, the national language (since 1861) is Italian. However, because of its long and varied history, other historical languages have been used in this region for centuries. In isolated pockets of the southern part of Salento, a dialect of Greek called Griko is still spoken by a few thousand people. [27] In addition, rare dialects of the Franco-Provençal language called Faetar and the closely related Cellese are spoken by a dwindling number of individuals in the mountain villages of Faeto and Celle di San Vito, in the Province of Foggia. [28] The Arbëreshë dialect of the Albanian language has been spoken by a small community since refugees settled there in the 15th century. [29]

See also

Notes

Related Research Articles

Sacra Corona Unita is a Mafia-type criminal organization from the Apulia region in Southern Italy, and is especially active in the areas of Brindisi, Lecce and Taranto.

Otranto Comune in Apulia, Italy

Otranto is a town and comune in the province of Lecce, in a fertile region once famous for its breed of horses.

Salento peninsula

Salento is a geographic region at the southern end of the administrative region of Apulia in Southern Italy. It is a sub-peninsula of the Italian Peninsula, sometimes described as the "heel" of the Italian "boot". It encompasses the entire administrative area of the province of Lecce, a large part of the province of Brindisi and part of that of Taranto.

Province of Bari Province in Apulia, Italy

The Province of Bari was a province in the Apulia region of Italy. Its capital was the city of Bari.

Province of Lecce Province of Italy

The Province of Lecce is a province in the Apulia region of Italy whose capital is the city of Lecce. The province is called the "Heel of Italy". Located on the Salento peninsula, it is the second most-populous province in Apulia and the 21st most-populous province in Italy.

Brindisi railway station railway station in Italy

Brindisi railway station is the main station serving the city and comune of Brindisi, in the region of Apulia, southern Italy. Opened in 1865, it forms part of the Adriatic Railway (Ancona–Lecce), and is also a junction for, and terminus of, the Taranto–Brindisi railway.

Lecce railway station

Lecce railway station serves the city and comune of Lecce, in the region of Apulia, Southern Italy. Opened in 1866, it is the southern terminus of the Adriatic Railway (Ancona–Lecce), and is also the terminus of two regional lines, the Martina Franca–Lecce railway and the Lecce–Otranto railway.

Barletta railway station railway station in Italy

Barletta railway station is the main station serving the city and comune of Barletta, in the region of Apulia, southern Italy. Opened in 1864, it forms part of the Adriatic Railway (Ancona–Lecce), and is also a junction station for two other, regional, lines, the Barletta–Spinazzola railway, and the Bari–Barletta railway, operated by Ferrotramviaria.

Foggia railway station

Foggia railway station serves the city and comune of Foggia, in the region of Apulia, Southern Italy. Opened in 1864, it forms part of the Adriatic Railway (Ancona–Lecce), and is the terminus of the Naples–Foggia railway. It is also a junction for several other, secondary lines, namely the Foggia–Manfredonia, Lucera–Foggia and Foggia–Potenza railways.

History of the Jews in Apulia

The history of the Jews in Apulia can be traced back over two thousand years. Apulia in Hebrew:פוליה) is a region in the "heel of the boot" of the peninsula of Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea. The Jews have had a presence in Apulia for at least 2000 years. The Jews of Apulia had a rich Rabbinic tradition and also had a sizeable Jewish population in the central Mediterranean prior to their expulsion.

Terra di Otranto province of the Kingdom of Naples/Kingodm of the Two Sicilies

The Terra di Otranto, or Terra d’Otranto, is an historical and geographical region of Apulia, anciently part of the Kingdom of Sicily and later of the Kingdom of Naples, which became a province of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Canestrato

Canestrato is a hard cheese from the Italian regions of Basilicata, Apulia, Sicily, and Abruzzo, made from a mixture of sheep milk and goat milk. It is listed on the Ark of Taste. The cheese is typical in Basilicata. It is also a specialty of Castel del Monte, Abruzzo. The Apulian variety is made using Lactobacillus brevis.

Bisceglie railway station

Bisceglie is a railway station in the Italian town of Bisceglie, in the Province of Barletta-Andria-Trani, Apulia. The station lies on the Adriatic Railway (Ancona–Lecce). The train services are operated by Trenitalia.

Metropolitan City of Bari Metropolitan City in Apulia, Italy

The Metropolitan City of Bari is a metropolitan city in the Apulia region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Bari. It replaced the Province of Bari and includes the city of Bari and some forty other municipalities (comuni). It was first created by the reform of local authorities and then established by the Law 56/2014. It has been operative since January 1, 2015.

Banca Popolare di Puglia e Basilicata S.C.p.A. is an Italian cooperative bank based in Altamura, in the Province of Bari, Apulia.

Banca Popolare Pugliese S.C.p.A. (BPP) is an Italian cooperative bank based in Parabita and Matino, in the Province of Lecce, Apulia region.

Pomodorino di Manduria

Pomodorino di Manduria is an ecotype of tomato typical of Manduria, a city in the province of Taranto. In the local dialect, it is also called Pummitori paisano.

Terra dOtranto (extra-virgin olive oil) brand of extra-virgin olive oil

The extra-virgin olive oil Terra d'Otranto is produced with the olive cultivars Cellina di Nardò and Ogliarola for, at least, 60%. They are mixed with other minor varieties of the local olive groves. Its name is linked with the historical region of Terra d'Otranto which included almost all the municipalities of the current provinces of Taranto, Brindisi and Lecce. It is recognised as PDO product.

Terre Tarentine

The extra-virgin olive oil Terre Tarentine is produced with the olive cultivars Leccino and Coratina and Ogliarola for, at least, 80%. They are mixed with other minor varieties of the local olive groves. It is recognised as PDO product.

Apulian cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices of the region of Apulia in Italy. Starting from the Middle Ages the permanent residence of the nobility in the region gradually declined, which caused the disappearance of their noble cuisine over time. As the common people suffered from poverty, their culinary tradition adapted to use cheap and simple foods. Bread, vegetables and pasta have the leading role in the cuisine. Fruits, fish and wine are consumed frequently as well, but meat plays a minor role. The food of Apulia is known as a prime example of cucina povera or 'cuisine of the poor', but this characterizes its simplicity rather than its quality. More so, the plain dishes allow the quality of their local and seasonal ingredients to take center stage.

References

  1. "Regional gross domestic product by NUTS 2 regions - million". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  2. "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 31% to 626% of the EU average in 2017" (Press release). ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  3. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Archived from the original on 2018-09-23. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  4. "Introducing Puglia". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  5. "Holiday guide to Puglia, southern Italy: the best towns, restaurants and hotels". The Guardian . Guardian Media Group. 4 July 2015. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  6. Elizabeth A. Fisher, The Mycenaeans and Apulia. An Examination of Aegean Bronze Age Contacts with Apulia in Eastern Magna Grecia, Astrom, 1998
  7. "Italy: Puglia". Rough Guides. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  8. Heinz Götze, Castel Del Monte: Geometric Marvel of the Middle Ages (1998), p. 89
  9. Asaolu, Richard Oluseyi (n.d.). Slavery:Abolition. Mainz: Pedia. p. 50. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  10. Dursteler, Eric R., ed. (2013). A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. Leiden: Koninklejke. pp. 142–43. ISBN   978-9004252516 . Retrieved 3 June 2017.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  11. David Gilmour, The Pursuit of Italy: A History of a Land, Its Regions and their Peoples (2012), p. 24
  12. "Eurostat". Greenreport. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
  13. 1 2 "Puglia - Economy". Portrait of the Regions. Eurostat. March 2004. Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  14. Massimo Monteduro, Pierangelo Buongiorno, Saverio Di Benedetto, Law and Agroecology: A Transdisciplinary Dialogue (2015), p. 176
  15. Amílcar Soares, Maria João Pereira, Roussos Dimitrakopoulos! geoENV VI – Geostatistics for Environmental Application (2008), p. 191: "The approach highlighted the widespread degradation of water resources in the Apulian groundwater. ... Above all the rapid socio-economic growth over the last decades has caused severe stress to the Apulian hydrogeological system."
  16. "Regional Unemployment by NUTS2 Region". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 2018-11-05.
  17. PDO status Archived 2018-07-06 at the Wayback Machine - Retrieved 2018-07-06
  18. Coratina olive Archived 2018-07-06 at the Wayback Machine - Retrieved 2019-07-05
  19. Coratina olives in Ca. Archived 2018-07-06 at the Wayback Machine - Retrieved 2018-07-05
  20. Peranzana olive oil [ permanent dead link ]- Retrieved 2018-07-05
  21. Apulia region cultivars Archived 2018-07-06 at the Wayback Machine - Retrieved 20180-7-05
  22. Puglia olive cultivars Archived 2018-07-06 at the Wayback Machine - Retrieved 2018-07-05
  23. "Eurostat". c.europa.eu. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
  24. "Scheda Personale". Sito web Istituzionale della Regione Puglia (in Italian). Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  25. "BIOGRAFIA" (PDF). CompletaMente.org (in Italian). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  26. Around Italy: A look at Apulia the cuisine Archived 2016-10-01 at the Wayback Machine at sacla.se, accessed 22 July 2016
  27. "Ethnologue report for language code:ell". Ethnologue.com. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
  28. Nagy, Naomi (2011). "A Multilingual Corpus to Explore Variation in Language Contact Situations" (PDF). Rassegna Italiana di Linguistica Applicata. 43 (1–2): 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  29. "Ethnologue report for language code:aae". Ethnologue.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2016.

Further reading

See also: Bibliography of the history of Apulia (in Italian)

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Apulia at Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Apulia travel guide from Wikivoyage