Aqua Claudia, ("the Claudian water") was an ancient Roman aqueduct that, like the Anio Novus , was begun by Emperor Caligula (12–41 AD) in 38 AD and finished by Emperor Claudius (10 BC – 54 AD) in 52 AD.
Together with Aqua Anio Vetus, Aqua Anio Novus, and Aqua Marcia, it is regarded as one of the "four great aqueducts of Rome".
Its mainsprings, the Caeruleus and Curtius, were situated 300 paces to the left of the 38th milestone of the Via Sublacensis .
The total length was approximately 69 kilometres (43 mi), most of which was underground. The flow was about 190,000 cubic metres (6,700,000 cu ft) in 24 hours (about 2.3 cubic metres per second (80 cu ft/s)). Directly after its filtering tank, near the seventh mile of the Via Latina, it finally emerged onto arches, which increase in height as the ground falls toward the city, reaching over 30 metres (100 ft).
It is one of the two ancient aqueducts that flowed through the Porta Maggiore, the other being the Anio Novus. It is described in some detail by Frontinus in his work published in the later 1st century, De aquaeductu .
Nero extended the aqueduct with the Arcus Neroniani to the Caelian hill and Domitian further extended it to the Palatinewhen the Aqua Claudia could provide all 14 Roman districts with water.
The aqueduct went through at least two major repairs.Tacitus suggests that the aqueduct was in use by AD 47.An inscription from Vespasian suggests that Aqua Claudia was used for ten years, then failed and was out of use for nine years. The first repair was done by Emperor Vespasian in 71 AD; it was repaired again in 81 AD by Emperor Titus.
Aqua Claudia maintained its structure and appearance for so long partly because of Roman pozzolana mortar.
The church of San Tommaso in Formis was later built into the side of the aqueduct.
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Sextus Julius Frontinus was a prominent Roman civil engineer, author, soldier and senator of the late 1st century AD. He was a successful general under Domitian, commanding forces in Roman Britain, and on the Rhine and Danube frontiers. A novus homo, he was consul three times. Frontinus ably discharged several important administrative duties for Nerva and Trajan. However, he is best known to the post-Classical world as an author of technical treatises, especially De aquaeductu, dealing with the aqueducts of Rome.
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De aquaeductu is a two-book official report given to the emperor Nerva or Trajan on the state of the aqueducts of Rome, and was written by Julius Sextus Frontinus at the end of the 1st century AD. It is also known as De Aquis or De Aqueductibus Urbis Romae. It is the earliest official report of an investigation made by a distinguished citizen on Roman engineering works to have survived. Frontinus had been appointed Water Commissioner by the emperor Nerva in AD 96.
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Acqua may refer to:
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