Arab Lictor Youth

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GAL members in uniform GAL-Arab Lictor Youth in uniforms.PNG
GAL members in uniform

Arab Lictor Youth (Arabic : شباب الليتوريو العربShabāb Al-Līttūriw Al-ʿArab, Italian : Gioventù Araba del Littorio, abbreviated G.A.L.) was a fascist youth organization for Arab youth in Italian Libya.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire and, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a protected language in these countries. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.

Italian Fascism Fascist ideology as developed in Italy

Italian Fascism, also known as Classical Fascism or simply Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy. The ideology is associated with a series of three political parties led by Benito Mussolini, namely the Revolutionary Fascist Party (PFR) founded in 1915, the succeeding National Fascist Party (PNF) which was renamed at the Third Fascist Congress on 7–10 November 1921 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 until 1943 and the Republican Fascist Party that ruled the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945. Italian Fascism is also associated with the post-war Italian Social Movement and subsequent Italian neo-fascist movements.

Italian Libya 1934–1943 Italian possession in North Africa

Italian Libya was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy located in North Africa, in what is now modern Libya. Italian Libya was formed from the Italian colonies of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania that were taken by the Kingdom of Italy from the Ottoman Empire in 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912. The unified colony was established in 1934 by governor Italo Balbo, with Tripoli as the capital.

Contents

History

GAL was founded by the Italian Governor-General in Libya, Italo Balbo, in October 1935. [1] GAL functioned as the Libyan counterpart of the Italian Lictor Youth (GIL). [2] GAL was divided into Aftal (organizing children up to twelve years of age, similar to the Opera Nazionale Balilla movement in Italy) and Sciubban (organizing youngsters between thirteen and eighteen years of age). GAL was mainly based in the larger cities along the Mediterranean coast. [1] GAL contingents marched at virtually all parades [3] and festivals held in Libya at the time. [2]

Italo Balbo Italian Marshal of the Air Force and minister

Italo Balbo was an Italian Blackshirt leader who served as Italy's Marshal of the Air Force, Governor-General of Libya, Commander-in-Chief of Italian North Africa, and the "heir apparent" to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.

Opera Nazionale Balilla organization

Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB) was an Italian Fascist youth organization functioning between 1926 and 1937, when it was absorbed into the Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL), a youth section of the National Fascist Party.

The organization provided pre-military and cultural education to Libyan Arab youth. These training programmes became an important part of the educational system during fascist rule in Libya, preparing young Libyans for military service in the Italian armed forces. [4] [5] GAL also had sports activities; it was one of two sports organization in Libya at the time which was open to Muslims. [6] The sporting activities of the organization were led by Ramadan Alì. [7] As per ideological indoctrination, there is little evidence to suggest that the organization was particularly successful in instilling fascist ideological doctrine amongst the Libyan youth. [2]

Having had at least one year of membership in GAL was one of the conditions for Libyan Muslims seeking "Cittadinanza Italiana Speciale" (Italian Special citizenship, created for indigenous Libyans only within Italian Libya; they could not migrate to Italy proper). [8] There was also a corresponding movements for adults, the Muslim Association of the Lictor (a referent of the National Fascist Party). [9]

Muslim Association of the Lictor

The Muslim Association of the Lictor was created in 1939 as the Muslim branch of the National Fascist Party of Italy. It was found mainly and largely in Italian Libya. It was dissolved by the Allies during the invasion of Italy in 1943.

National Fascist Party Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism

The National Fascist Party was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism. The party ruled Italy from 1922 when Fascists took power with the March on Rome to 1943, when Mussolini was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism.

Bibliography

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

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Italo-Turkish War 1911–12 war between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Italy

The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912. As a result of this conflict, Italy captured the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet (province), of which the main sub-provinces (sanjaks) were Fezzan, Cyrenaica, and Tripoli itself. These territories together formed what became known as Italian Libya.

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Ethiopian Lictor Youth was a fascist youth organization in Ethiopia.

Tripoli Province

Tripoli Province was one of the provinces of Libya under Italian rule. It was established in 1937, with the official name: Commissariato Generale Provinciale di Tripoli. It lasted until 1947.

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Battle of Tripoli (1911)

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References

  1. 1 2 Munzi, Massimiliano. L'epica del ritorno: archeologia e politica nella Tripolitania italiana . Saggi di storia antica, 17. Roma: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 2001. 83
  2. 1 2 3 Segrè, Claudio G. Italo Balbo: A Fascist Life . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. p. 328
  3. "Original Video of 1937 with GAL parade (in Italian)". Archived from the original on 2015-10-24. Retrieved 2019-05-12.
  4. McLaren, Brian. Architecture and Tourism in Italian Colonial Libya: An Ambivalent Modernism . Studies in modernity and national identity. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005. p. 101
  5. Kotschnig, Walter M.. Review: The School in Colonial Expansion
  6. Scego, Igiaba. Apartheid italico Archived July 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  7. Gabrielli, Gianluca. L'attività sportiva nelle colonie italiane durante il fascismo. [ permanent dead link ]
  8. Tironi, Stefano. La comunità ebraica tripolina tra la Libia e Roma
  9. Storia del Ventennio Fascista [ permanent dead link ]

See also