|History of Georgia|
Arab rule in Georgia refers to the period in the History of Georgia when all or part of the country was under political domination of Muslim Arab rulers, from the first Arab incursions in the mid-7th century until the final defeat of the Emirate of Tbilisi at the hands of King David IV in 1122. This period is called Araboba (არაბობა) in Georgian. Compared with other regions which endured Muslim conquests, Georgia's culture, and even political structure was not much affected by the Arab presence, as the people kept their faith, the nobles their fiefdoms, and the foreign rulers mostly insisted on the payment of tribute, which they could not always enforce. Still, repeated invasions and military campaigns by the Arabs devastated Georgia on many occasions, and the Caliphs retained suzerainty over large parts of the country and exerted influence over the internal power dynamics during most of the period.
The nation of Georgia was first unified as a kingdom under the Bagrationi dynasty by the King Bagrat III of Georgia in the 8th to 9th century, arising from a number of predecessor states of the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia. The Kingdom of Georgia flourished during the 10th to 12th centuries under King David IV the Builder and Queen Tamar the Great, and fell to the Mongol invasion by 1243, and after a brief reunion under George V the Brilliant to the Timurid Empire. By 1490, Georgia was fragmented into a number of petty kingdoms and principalities, which throughout the Early Modern period struggled to maintain their autonomy against Ottoman and Iranian domination until Georgia was finally annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. After a brief bid for independence with the Democratic Republic of Georgia of 1918–1921, Georgia was part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic from 1922 to 1936, and then formed the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example of Muhammad.
The Emirs of Tbilisi ruled over the parts of today's eastern Georgia from their base in the city of Tbilisi, from 736 to 1080. Established by the Arabs during their invasions of Georgian lands, the emirate was an important outpost of the Muslim rule in the Caucasus until recaptured by the Georgians under King David IV in 1122. Since then, the city has been the capital of Georgia to this day.
The history of Arab rule in Georgia can be divided into 3 main periods:
1. from the first appearance of Arab armies around 645 until the establishment of the Emirate of Tbilisi in 736. Those years saw the progressive installation of political control over the Georgian lands by the Umayyad Caliphate.
The Umayyad Caliphate, also spelt Omayyad, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, hailing from Mecca. The third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, was a member of the Umayyad clan. The family established dynastic, hereditary rule with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, who became the sixth Caliph after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in 661. After Mu'awiyah's death in 680, conflicts over the succession resulted in a Second Civil War and power eventually fell into the hands of Marwan I from another branch of the clan. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital.
2. from 736 until 853, when the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad destroyed Tbilisi to quell a rebellion by the local emir, ending a period of domination of all Eastern Georgia by the Emirate.
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH).
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, and the second largest city in Western Asia.
Tbilisi, in some countries also still known by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people. Founded in the 5th century AD by Vakhtang I of Iberia, since then Tbilisi served as the capital of various Georgian kingdoms and republics. Between 1801 and 1917, then part of the Russian Empire, Tbilisi was the seat of the Imperial Viceroy, governing both Southern and Northern Caucasus.
3. from 853 until the 2nd half of the 11th century, when the Great Seljuq Empire replaced the Arabs as the main force in the Middle East. Before that, the power of the emirate of Tbilisi had already declined in favor of independent Georgian states. Tbilisi remained however under Arab rule until 1122.
The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey, and Egypt. Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation while Bahrain is the smallest. The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century.
In the first decades of the 7th century, most of present-day Georgia was under the authority of the Principate of Iberia. This state, like its predecessors, continually played the two main powers of the time, the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires, to guarantee its own survival as an independent state. Allegiances were regularly switched, but from 626, when Byzantine Emperor Heraclius attacked Tbilisi and installed as presiding prince Adarnase I of the pro-Byzantine Chosroid Dynasty, Byzantine influence was dominant. From the next decade however, the Muslim conquests of the Middle East started, upsetting that balance.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical exonyms; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire, or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans".
Heraclius was the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 641. He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Byzantine Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.
Adarnase I or Adrnerse, of the Chosroid dynasty, was a presiding prince of Iberia from 627 to 637/642.
The first Arab incursions in present-day Georgia happened approximately between 642 and 645, during the Conquest of Persia. It soon turned into a full-scale invasion, and Tbilisi was taken in 645.The presiding prince Stephen II had to recognize the suzerainty of the Rashidun Caliph. The region still remained marginal in the eyes of the Caliphate, and although it was officially integrated into the newly created province of Armīniya , local rulers retained at first as much autonomy as they had enjoyed under the Byzantine and Sassanid protectorates.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion.
Stephen II, of the Chosroid dynasty, was a presiding prince of Iberia from 637/642 to c. 650.
The Rashidun Caliphate was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad after his death in 632 CE. These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs. This term is not used in Shia Islam as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate.
The Caliphate was then still in its first decades, very unstable politically, and had not yet developed a system of administration able to keep their numerous conquests under control. The main manifestation of Arab power over a region was at the same time a religious command of Islam: the payment of a tax (for territories under direct rule), or a tribute (for vassal states), by non-believers, called the jizya . Payment of it symbolized submission to the Islamic state, but was also, for the Christians of the Caucasus, a way to avoid new invasions, or punitive expeditions by the Arabs against those who did not pay. In Iberia as in Armenia, revolts against the tribute were frequent during the second half of the 7th century, each time the local nobility and presiding princes felt internal weakness in the Caliphate. The most significant of those uprisings, which engulfed the whole Caucasus region, happened in 681–682, and was led in Georgia by presiding prince Adarnase II. Despite a two-year-long struggle, the revolt was quelled, Adarnase was killed, and the Arabs installed in his place Guaram II of the rival Guaramid Dynasty.
In their efforts to assert their rule over Iberia, the Arabs also had to contend with two other major powers in the region, the Byzantine Empire and the Khazars. The latter, a confederation of semi-nomadic Turkic peoples, ruled over the steppes north of the Greater Caucasus range. They had played a role in Caucasian history since the beginning of the 7th century, when they assisted the Byzantines against Persia. Later, they successfully halted the Muslim armies in a series of wars, but also helped them suppressing the Georgian revolt of 682.The Georgian lands suffered from the confrontation between Arabs and Khazars, as they served a strategic role as a foothold for the Arabs in those repeated confrontations, and also suffered destructive incursions by the Khazars from across the mountains. As for Byzantium, it had not given up hope of reestablishing its suzerainty over Iberia, and responded to the new Arab power by first strengthening its control over the Black Sea coastal regions, Abkhazia and Lazica, which had not yet been reached by the Arabs. Around 685, the Emperor Justinian II concluded a truce with the Caliph, in which they agreed on joint possession of Iberia and Armenia. However, the Arab victory at the Battle of Sebastopolis in 692 upset the balance, and led to a new Arab conquest of Armenia, and their reaching the Black Sea and vanquishing the Kingdom of Lazica (around 697). A new status quo, more favourable to the Arabs, was now in place.
Around 730, two factors led to a change in Umayyad policy towards Georgia. First, in that year, the Khazars managed to invade Northwestern Iran and went all the way to Mosul before being defeated. The tributary buffer states of the Caucasus had not been able to prevent that invasion. Furthermore, local Christian rulers, such as Guaram III of Iberia still kept contact with Byzantium and hoped for its intervention. The Empire however was weak and Arab raids could reach Constantinople, making the Byzantines less of a menace than the Khazars. In 732–733, caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik appointed Marwan ibn Muhammad governor of Armenia and Azerbaijan, with the task of waging war against the Khazars and subduing Georgia.
The campaign that followed was devastating for Georgia. Marwan did not only invade Kartli as his predecessors had done, but he also led his armies after the retreating Georgian princes into the western half of the country, from Samtskhe to Abkhazia, where they were eventually stopped. According to Cyril Toumanoff, Western Georgia, as a dependency of the Byzantine Empire, was actually the primary goal of the campaign, and the Prince of Iberia would have sided with the Arab forces to help repel the Khazars, who had just devastated his lands.Anyway, retreating from Western Georgia, Marwan established an emir in Tbilisi to rule over Iberia while he turned his armies against the Khazars (737). This invasion, and its horrors, left a strong mark in the Georgian collective memory, who nicknamed the Arab general Marwan the Deaf.
However, the new emirate had to contend with the remaining Georgian nobility and the principate, which had not been fully abolished. Furthermore, Marwan became the last Umayyad caliph and after his death, civil war engulfed the Muslim state. This allowed once again the Christian Caucasians to turn to Byzantium for help and restore large autonomy. [ citation needed ]But those hopes were soon quashed after the Abbasids restored the caliphate in Baghdad in 762: the new Muslim state was better organized and more able to claim tribute and impose its authority over border regions. This was demonstrated to Georgia in 786, when the wali of the Caucasus, Khuzayma ibn Khazim, bloodily suppressed rebellious sentiments among Georgian aristocracy. Prince Archil of Kakheti among others was killed after refusing to convert to Islam.
From that moment, the local balance of power between the Arabs and the Georgian nobility became more favourable to the former. Both the ancient princely dynasties of the Guaramids and Chosroids became extinct,giving the emirs of Tbilisi more power over the land. The rural economy had been ruined by the repeated invasions, and many regions were denuded of their population, who had been killed or had fled towards the Byzantine lands. The cities, however, notably Tbilisi, prospered, as the Abbasids encouraged trade between their provinces and the use of currency (the dirham ) for tribute, introducing a more open economy.
Some regions, removed from the main cities and trade routes, maintained a large degree of autonomy from the Arab rulers, notably in the west of Georgia.There, in Klarjeti and Samtskhe, a noble family came to prominence during the second half of the 8th century: the Bagrationi, or Georgian Bagratids. Their origin is disputed, but it is now generally admitted that they were a branch of the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty, whose ancestor Vasak migrated to Klarjeti and was given lands there after 772, before receiving most of the former Guaramid lands after the extinction of the latter line around 786. The Bagrationi established their power in Tao-Klarjeti, but soon became rivals of the emirate for the control over Georgian lands. To assert their authority, they could rely both on Byzantine intervention and on the dissensions among the Arabs. In 809, the emir of Tbilisi, Isma'il ibn Shuab, proclaimed independence from the caliphate, which sought the help of Georgian princes against the rebellion, and enrolled the Bagrationi against Ibn Shuab. In 813, the head of the dynasty, Ashot I restored the Principate of Iberia, or Kartli, for himself. He received recognition from both the caliph and the Byzantines, who bestowed upon him the official title of curopalates . This new balance between emirate and independent Bagrationi lands would continue during the next decades, the caliph supporting whichever side was less menacing to its overall authority at the moment. This allowed other Georgian regions more autonomy, and Kakheti gained its independence from both Iberia and the emirate at the time, under its own mtavari. At the same time, Byzantium lost its last dependencies on the Georgian Black Sea coast, as the Kingdom of Abkhazia expanded.
From 833, under Ishaq ibn Isma'il, the emirate regained power over Georgian lands, imposing its authority over many princes and forcing the Bagrationi to pay tribute: after Ashot's death, his domain had been shared among his three sons and was more vulnerable.Emboldened by those successes, the emir stopped recognizing the higher authority of the caliphate. Only when the Armenians also rebelled did Caliph Al-Mutawakkil react, in 853, sending the Turkish general Bugha al-Kabir with an army against the Caucasian rebels. This expedition was, in the words of Cyril Toumanoff, "marked with particular ferocity". The Abbasid army sacked and burned Tbilisi, and executed the emir. Many Georgian nobles were captured during the invasion, such as Kostanti-Kakhay, and either killed for refusing to embrace Islam, or sent as prisoners to the Abbasid capital at Samarra. The decision the Abbasids took of not rebuilding the city extensively would considerably weaken their economic and cultural influence in Georgia, and allowed the Bagrationi to become the major power in the country, facilitating its further unification.
After the 853 expedition, the Arab rule over Georgia was never again as strong. The emirate of Tbilisi had not been abolished, but the Caliphs would not allow its power to grow again, as it had more than once led to its rebellion against central power. Furthermore, the Byzantine Empire, under Basil I the Macedonian (r. 867–886), was experiencing a political and cultural renaissance, which could only seduce Caucasians away from the Caliph's authority.
Christian feudal states expanded during the second half of the 9th century, and the Bagratids of Armenia and Georgia especially saw their power rise. Both the Caliphate and Byzantium were now courting them to ensure their support, or at least neutrality, in their struggle against the other. Monarchy was restored in Armenia in 886 in favour of the Bagratid Ashot I, who crowned his Georgian cousin Adarnase IV king of Iberia, restoring the title.Strong Christian states now separated the weakened emirate of Tbilisi from its overlords, who exerted only the most theoretical suzerainty over the two restored kingdoms.
Another vassal of the Caliphate, Yusuf Ibn Abi'l-Saj, emir of Azerbaijan, led in 914 the last Arab attempt to restore their domination over the Caucasus. The Sajid invasion of Georgia, as it is known, was however a failure, although it devastated Georgian lands, and allowed the Bagratids to restore the alliance with Byzantium, which they had earlier neglected in favour of the Caliphs. This renewed alliance with a strong Christian power kept Georgia free from Arab interference, and allowed an economic and artistic renaissance.
From that moment, the Arabs stopped playing a significant role in the history of Georgia, and the progressive unification of the country under the Bagrationi proceeded without any interference on their part. Only Tbilisi and its surroundings was still ruled by an emir, whose relations with the Caliphate were now tenuous at best. During the 11th century, the wealthy citizens of the city gained much power, as a council of elders (birebi), and kept alive the emirate alive mostly as a way to avoid taxation from the Georgian kings.The Georgian king Bagrat IV took the city three times (1046, 1049, 1062), but could not keep it under his rule. By the 1060s, the Great Seljuk Empire, led by Alp Arslan, a Turk, had replaced the Arabs as the main Muslim menace facing Georgia. The Seljuks appointed a new emir in Tbilisi, but after his death in 1080, the city was again ruled by its local elders. In 1121, David IV "the Builder", King of Georgia, defeated the Seljuqs at the battle of Didgori, allowing him to enter Tbilisi the next year, and putting an end to almost 500 years of Arab presence in Georgia. Tbilisi lost its autonomy and became the royal capital, but its inhabitants long remained predominantly Muslim.
The Kingdom of Iberia was a medieval Eurasian monarchy under the Bagrationi dynasty which emerged circa 888 AD, succeeding the Principality of Iberia, in historical region of Tao-Klarjeti, or upper Iberia in north-eastern Turkey as well parts of modern southwestern Georgia, that stretched from the Iberian gates in the south and to the Lesser Caucasus in the north.
Ashot I the Great was a presiding prince of Iberia, first of the Bagratid family to have attained to this office c. 813. From his base in Tao-Klarjeti, he fought to enlarge the Bagratid territories and sought the Byzantine protectorate against the Arab encroachment until being murdered c. 826. Ashot is also known as Ashot I Curopalates for the Byzantine title he wore. A patron of Christian culture and a friend of the church, he has been canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church.
Bagrat I, of the Bagratid dynasty, was a presiding prince of Iberia from 830 until his death.
The Bagrationi dynasty is a royal dynasty that reigned in Georgia from the Middle Ages until the early 19th century, being among the oldest extant Christian ruling dynasties in the world. In modern usage, name of the dynasty is sometimes Hellenized and referred to as the Georgian Bagratids, also known in English as the Bagrations.
The Arab–Khazar wars were a series of conflicts fought between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Rashidun, Umayyad, and Abbasid caliphates and their respective vassals. Historians usually distinguish two major periods of conflict, the First Arab–Khazar War and Second Arab–Khazar War, but the Arab–Khazar military confrontation also involved sporadic raids and isolated clashes from the middle of the 7th century to the end of the 8th century.
The Arab conquest of Armenia was a part of the Muslim conquests after the death of Muhammad in 632 CE.
Arminiya, also known as the Ostikanate of Arminiya, Emirate of Armenia, was a political and geographic designation given by the Muslim Arabs to the lands of Greater Armenia, Caucasian Iberia, and Caucasian Albania, following their conquest of these regions in the 7th century. Though the caliphs initially permitted an Armenian prince to represent the province of Arminiya in exchange for tribute and the Armenians' loyalty during times of war, Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan introduced direct Arab rule of the region, headed by an ostikan with his capital in Dvin.
The Chosroid dynasty, also known as the Iberian Mihranids, were a dynasty of the kings and later the presiding princes of the early Georgian state of Iberia from the 4th to the 9th centuries. The family, of Iranian Mihranid origin, accepted Christianity as their official religion c. 337, and maneuvered between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Iran to retain a degree of independence. After the abolition of the Iberian kingship by the Sassanids c. 580, the dynasty survived in its two closely related, but sometimes competing princely branches—the elder Chosroid and the younger Guaramid—down to the early ninth century when they were succeeded by the Georgian Bagratids on the throne of Iberia.
Principality of Iberia was an early medieval aristocratic regime in a core Georgian region of Kartli, i.e. Iberia per classical authors. It flourished in the period of interregnum between the sixth and ninth centuries, when the leading political authority was exercised by a succession of princes. The principate was established shortly after the Sassanid suppression of the local royal Chosroid Dynasty, around 580; it lasted until 888, when the kingship was restored by a member of the Bagrationi Dynasty. Its borders fluctuated greatly as the presiding princes of Iberia confronted the Persians, Byzantines, Khazars, Arabs, and the neighboring Caucasian rulers throughout this period.
Ashot IV Bagratuni, better known as Ashot Msaker, reputedly for his refusal to refrain from eating meat during Lent, was an Armenian prince from the Bagratid family. A fugitive from the failed uprising in 775 against Arab rule in Armenia, where his father was killed, over the next decades he gradually expanded his domains and established a predominant role for himself in the country's affairs, becoming recognized by the Abbasid Caliphate as presiding prince of Armenia from 806 until his death in 826.
Adarnase was a late 8th-century nobleman of Iberia and the founder of the Georgian Bagratid dynasty. He established himself in Tao-Klarjeti as a vassal of the Chosroid dynasty of Iberia and, as a matter of inheritance, acquired more lands, setting stage for the elevation of the Bagratids – in the person of his son Ashot I – to the principate of Iberia.
The Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia, also known as Bagratid Armenia, was an independent state established by Ashot I Bagratuni in the early 880s following nearly two centuries of foreign domination of Greater Armenia under Arab Umayyad and Abbasid rule. With the two contemporary powers in the region, the Abbasids and Byzantines, too preoccupied to concentrate their forces in subjugating the people of the region and the dissipation of several of the Armenian nakharar noble families, Ashot was able to assert himself as the leading figure of a movement to dislodge the Arabs from Armenia.
Adarnase IV was a member of the Georgian Bagratid dynasty of Tao-Klarjeti and prince of Iberia, responsible for the restoration of the Iberian kingship, which had been in abeyance since it had been abolished by Sasanian Empire in the 6th century, in 888.
Marwan ibn Muhammad's invasion of Georgia took place from 735 to 737. It was initiated by the Umayyad Caliphate. The goals of the campaign are disputed among historians. The Georgian historiography insists its main purpose was to finally break the stiff Georgian resistance against Arab rule, however, the western historians such as Cyril Toumanoff, and Ronald Suny, view it as a general campaign directed at both the Byzantine Empire, who exerted dominion over Western Georgia, and the Khazars, whose repeated raids affected not only Iberia and the whole Caucasus, but had in 730 reached Arab lands all the way to Mosul.
Constantine III was King of the Abkhazia from c. 894 to 923 AD. He was the son and successor of Bagrat I of the Anchabadze dynasty.
Yazid ibn Asid ibn Zafir al-Sulami or Yazid ibn Usayd ibn Zafir al-Sulami in Arabic يزيد بن أسيد السلمي was an Arab general and governor in the service of the early Abbasid Caliphate. He was active mostly in the Caliphate's northwestern frontier region, serving as governor of Arminiya and the Jazira and fighting against the Byzantine Empire and the Khazars.
The Battle of Bagrevand was fought on 25 April 775, in the plains of Bagrevand, between the forces of the Armenian princes who had rebelled against the Abbasid Caliphate and the caliphal army. The battle resulted in a crushing Abbasid victory, with the death of the main Armenian leaders. The Mamikonian family's power in particular was almost extinguished. The battle signalled the beginning of large-scale Armenian migration into the Byzantine Empire.
Bagrat II Bagratuni was an Armenian noble of the Bagratid (Bagratuni) family and the presiding prince of Arab-ruled Armenia between 830 and 851. He succeeded his father, Ashot IV Bagratuni, as ruler of Taron in 826, and was named presiding prince by the Abbasid Caliph in 830. In 849 he began an open rebellion against Abbasid authority in Armenia. The rebellion provoked the dispatch of Bugha al-Kabir to the country, who crushed the revolt in a three-year campaign. Bagrat was treacherously captured during negotiations in 851 and brought captive to the Abbasid capital Samarra. He was succeeded in Taron by his sons, while the title of presiding prince passed to his nephew, the future King Ashot I of Armenia.
The Kingdom of Kakheti-Hereti or just the First Kingdom of Kakheti was a early Medieval monarchy in eastern Georgia, centered at the province of Kakheti, with its capital first at Telavi. It emerged in c. 1014 AD, under the leadership of energetic ruler of principality of Kakheti, Kvirike III the Great that finally defeated the ruler of Hereti and crowned himself as a king of unified realms of Kakheti and Hereti. From this time on, until 1104, kingdom was an independent and separated state from the united Kingdom of Georgia. The kingdom included territories from riv. Ksani to Alijanchay river and from Didoeti to southwards along the river of Mtkvari.