|Archduke Peter Ferdinand|
|Prince of Tuscany|
|Head of the House of Habsburg-Tuscany|
|Reign||1921 – 8 November 1948|
|Predecessor||Archduke Josef Ferdinand|
|Born||12 May 1874|
|Died||8 November 1948 74) (aged|
St. Gilgen, Salzburg, Austria
|Spouse||Princess Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies|
|Issue|| Archduke Gottfried |
Helena, Duchess of Württemberg
Rosa, Duchess of Württemberg
|Father||Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany|
|Mother||Alice of Bourbon-Parma|
Archduke Peter Ferdinand Salvator Karl Ludwig Maria Joseph Leopold Anton Rupert Pius Pancraz of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Prince of Tuscany) (12 May 1874, Salzburg, Austria-Hungary – 8 November 1948, St. Gilgen, Salzburg, Austria ) was an Austro-Hungarian archduke and an army commander in the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I. He was also the titular Grand Duke of Tuscany from 2 May 1921 to 8 November 1948.
Salzburg, literally "salt castle", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the Federal State of Salzburg.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed when the Austrian Empire adopted a new constitution; as a result Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) were placed on equal footing. It dissolved into several new states at the end of the First World War.
Sankt Gilgen is a village by the Wolfgangsee in the Austrian state of Salzburg, in the "Salzkammergut" region.
Peter Ferdinand was the fourth child and third-eldest son of Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his wife Alice of Bourbon-Parma.His two elder brothers married morganatically.
Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany was the last Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1859 to 1860. The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continued to hold the title as pretenders until the end of World War I.
Peter Ferdinand had a career in the army. In 1908 he was a colonel, in 1911 major general and on 23 April 1914 he was promoted to Feldmarschall-Leutnant . At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, he was commander of the 25th Infantry Division, with which he fought against Russia in Galicia and southern Poland, as part of the Austro-Hungarian II Corps. General Moritz von Auffenberg later blamed Peter Ferdinand's actions for preventing the encirclement of the entire 5th Russian army during the Battle of Komarów. In June 1915, Peter Ferdinand was relieved of command and the 25th Division was taken over by Major General Joseph Poleschensky.
Galicia is a historical and geographic region between Central and Eastern Europe. It was once the small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine. The area, named after the medieval city of Halych, was first mentioned in Hungarian historical chronicles in the year 1206 as Galiciæ. In 1253 Prince Daniel of Galicia was crowned the King of Rus or King of Ruthenia following the Mongol invasion in Ruthenia. In 1352 the Kingdom of Poland annexed the Kingdom of Galicia and Volhynia as the Ruthenian Voivodeship.
Moritz Auffenberg, from 1869 Ritter von Auffenberg, from 1915 Freiherr Auffenberg von Komarów was a Austro-Hungarian Military officer in the Austro-Hungarian Army and Minister of War. At the outbreak of World War I, he took command of the Fourth Army.
The Battle of Komarów, or the Zamość Ring, was one of the most important battles of the Polish-Soviet War. It took place between 30 August and 2 September 1920, near the village of Komarowo near Zamość. It was the last large battle which cavalry was used as such and not as mounted infantry.
On 17 April 1917 he was reinstated and, as a General of the Infantry, put in command of an army corps on the Italian front. His troops first defended the Ortler Range and then covered the flank of the 14th German Army during its advance in the Battle of Caporetto. On August 15, 1918 his Corps, now stationed in Trentino, was renamed to V Army Corps. From 26 October 1918, in the last days of the war, he commanded the 10th Army in Trento on behalf of Field Marshal Alexander von Krobatin.
The Ortler Alps are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps mountain group in the Central Eastern Alps, in Italy and Switzerland.
The 14th Army was an army level command of the German Army in World War I formed in September 1917 in Krainburg for use against Italy. Its Headquarters was located at Vittorio Veneto from 10 November 1917 until the army was disbanded on 22 January 1918. The 14th Army served on the Italian Front throughout its existence.
The Battle of Caporetto was a battle on the Italian front of World War I. The battle was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Central Powers and took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town.
Peter Ferdinand married Princess Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, daughter of Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta and his wife Princess Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, on 8 November 1900 in Cannes, France.They had issue:
Princess Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies was the titular Grand Duchess of Tuscany from 28 February 1942 to 4 October 1947 as wife of Archduke Peter Ferdinand of Austria, Prince of Tuscany, the titular Grand Duke.
Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta was the third son of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria.
Cannes is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, and host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, and Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity. The city is known for its association with the rich and famous, its luxury hotels and restaurants, and for several conferences. On 3 November 2011 it also played host to the G20 organisation of industrialised nations.
Archduke Gottfried of Austria was a member of the Tuscan line of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and Archduke of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia, and Tuscany by birth. Gottfried was the titular Grand Duke of Tuscany from 8 November 1948 to 21 January 1984.
|Ancestors of Archduke Peter Ferdinand of Austria|
Archduke Joseph Ferdinand of Austria was an Austro-Hungarian Archduke and the titular Grand Duke of Tuscany from 17 January 1908 to 2 May 1921, military commander, from 1916 Generaloberst, and early advocate of air power. He later retired to life as a common citizen of Austria, and was briefly imprisoned in Dachau during the Nazi era.
The dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary was abolished in 1919. The current Head of the House of Habsburg is Archduke Karl. The succession law used is Semi-Salic.
Philipp Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg was the son of Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg, and Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria. He became head of the formerly reigning royal House of Württemberg on the death of his father in 1939.
Princess Alice of Bourbon-Parma was the youngest daughter of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France, the eldest daughter of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry and Princess Caroline Ferdinande Louise of the Two Sicilies.
Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria, in Italian Carlo Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Filippo Jacopo Gennaro Lodovico Gonzaga Raniero, in German Karl Salvator Maria Joseph Johann Baptist Philipp Jakob Januarius Ludwig Gonzaga Ranier, was a member of the Tuscan branch of the House of Habsburg.
Archduke Franz Salvator of Austria, in Italian Francesco Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Ferdinando Carlo Leopoldo Antonio di Padova Giovanni Battista Gennaro Lodovico Gonzaga Raniero Benedetto Bernardo, in German Franz Salvator Maria Joseph Ferdinand Karl Leopold Anton von Padua Johann Baptist Januarius Aloys Gonzaga Rainer Benedikt Bernhard, was a member of the Tuscan branch of the House of Habsburg.
Princess Maria Alix of Saxony, Duchess of Saxony was the sixth child and third-eldest daughter of Frederick Augustus III of Saxony and his wife Archduchess Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany and a younger sister of Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony and Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen. Through her marriage to Franz Joseph, Prince of Hohenzollern-Emden, Maria Alix was a member of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria was a member of the House of Habsburg-Tuscany and Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Tuscany by birth. Maria Theresia was the eldest child and eldest daughter of Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria and his wife, Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
Archduke Carl Christian of Austria is a Belgian aristocrat and a member of the formerly ruling Austro-Hungarian House of Habsburg-Lorraine. He is the third child of Archduke Carl Ludwig of Austria and his wife, Princess Yolande de Ligne.
Archduchess Maria Immakulata of Austria was a member of the House of Habsburg-Tuscany and Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Tuscany by birth. Maria Immakulata was the seventh child and fifth eldest daughter of Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria and his wife Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
Princess Anna Maria Maximiliane Stephania Karoline Johanna Luisa Xaveria Nepomucena Aloysia Benedicta of Saxony, Duchess of Saxony was the seventh child and fourth eldest daughter of John of Saxony and his wife Amalie Auguste of Bavaria and a younger sister of Albert of Saxony and George of Saxony. Through her marriage to Archduke Ferdinand, Hereditary Prince of Tuscany, Anna was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and an Archduchess and Princess of Austria and Princess of Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, and Tuscany. Ann died shortly before her husband succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria was a member of the House of Habsburg and an Archduchess of Austria by birth. She was married to Duke Albrecht of Württemberg,
Archduchess Rosa Maria Antonie Roberta Josepha Anna Walburga Carmela Ignazia Rita de Cascia of Austria, full German name: Rosa Maria Antonie Roberta Josepha Anna Walburga Carmela Ignazia Rita de Cascia, Erzherzogin von Österreich was a member of the Tuscan branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Bohemia, Hungary, and Tuscany by birth. Through her marriage to Philipp Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg, Rosa was also a member of the House of Württemberg and Duchess consort of Württemberg.
Archduchess Helena of Austria was a member of the Tuscan branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Bohemia, Hungary, and Tuscany by birth. Through her marriage to Philipp Albrecht, Hereditary Duke of Württemberg, Helena was also a member of the House of Württemberg and Hereditary Duchess consort of Württemberg.
Princess Dorothea of Bavaria was a member of the House of Wittelsbach and a princess of Bavaria by birth. Through her marriage to Archduke Gottfried of Austria, Dorothea was a member of the Tuscan line of the House of Habsburg. Dorothea was by marriage the titular Grand Duchess of Tuscany from 8 November 1948 to 21 January 1984. She died in 2015.
Archduke Leopold Franz of Austria was a member of the Tuscan line of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and Archduke and Prince of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia, and Tuscany by birth. Leopold Franz was the titular Grand Duke of Tuscany from 21 January 1984 to 18 June 1993.
Princess Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies was a Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies by birth and by her marriage to Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta, claimant to the defunct throne of the Two Sicilies.
Archduke Peter Ferdinand of Austria
Cadet branch of the House of LorraineBorn: 12 May 1874 Died: 8 November 1948
|Titles in pretence|
Archduke Josef Ferdinand
|— TITULAR —|
Grand Duke of Tuscany
2 May 1921 – 8 November 1948
Reason for succession failure:
Italian Unification under the House of Savoy