|Died||17 August 1424|
|Cause of death||Slain at the Battle of Verneuil|
|Resting place||Cathedral of St Gatien, Tours, France|
|Title|| Earl of Wigton |
Lord of Galloway
Lord of Annandale
Lord of Bothwell
13th Lord of Douglas
|Spouse(s)||Margaret of Scotland|
|Children|| Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Douglas |
Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas, Duke of Touraine (c. 1369 – 17 August 1424),was a Scottish nobleman and warlord. He is sometimes given the epithet "Tyneman" (Old Scots: Loser), but this may be a reference to his great-uncle Sir Archibald Douglas.
The eldest legitimate son of Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas and Joanna de Moravia of Bothwell, he was born either at Threave Castle or at Bothwell Castle c. 1369 and was known as the Master of Douglas until his accession. By 1390 he had married the Princess Margaret of Carrick, a daughter of King Robert III of Scotland. Around this time, his father bestowed upon him the regalities of the Ettrick Forest, Lauderdale and Romannobridge, Peeblesshire.
On 4 June 1400, King Robert appointed him Keeper of Edinburgh Castle for life, on a pension of 200 merks a year.
At Candlemas 1400 George I, Earl of March and Henry 'Hotspur' Percy had entered Scotland and laid waste as far as Papple in East Lothian. The villages of Traprain, Markle and Hailes were burnt and two unsuccessful attempts were made to invest Hailes Castle. The Master of Douglas, who held the office of Lord Warden of the Marches, surprised them by night at their camp near East Linton and defeated the English Force. The Douglases chased the enemy away as far as Berwick upon Tweed, slaughtering many stragglers in the woods near Cockburnspath.
Later that summer Douglas was second in command to David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, the lieutenant of the Kingdom, during the siege of Edinburgh Castle by Henry IV. Henry was unsuccessful in his endeavours and with Owain Glyndŵr's rebellion gathering apace in Wales, he became the last English monarch to ever invade Scotland in person.
Archibald, the 3rd Earl died at Christmas 1400, and the new 4th Earl became the largest and most powerful magnate in the realm. His father's vast lordships stretched from Galloway Douglasdale, Moray, Clydesdale to the shires of Stirling and Selkirk. These were augmented by the forfeited lands of the Earl of Dunbar in Lothian and the Merse.
In 1402 Douglas' brother-in-law, the heir to the throne, David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay was held in close arrest, first at the Bishop's Palace at St Andrews, then at the Royal Palace of Falkland. At Falkland, Duke David died on 27 March, in what have been alleged to be mysterious circumstances. The Duke was 24 years old and in good health prior to his arrest, and rumours abounded that he had been starved to death in Falkland's pit prison.
Prince David had been arrested under a warrant issued in the name of his father the decrepit Robert III, by his uncle, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and Douglas. Both Albany and Douglas were rumoured to have been the authors of any foul play suspected. This can be shown by the fact that both men were summoned to appear before Parliament. However, on 16 March, both men were acquitted when Parliament passed an act stating that the Prince had: "departed this life through Divine Providence, and not otherwise", clearing both of High Treason, and any other crime, and strictly forbidding any of the King's subjects to make the slightest imputation on their fame. This can be considered a whitewash, as the Kingdom of Scots could not afford to lose its two most powerful men due to renewed English hostility. Douglas and Albany were considered to be the only fit antidote to the traitorous Earl of March and his English allies.
On 22 June the same year, a small Scots force was beaten by George Dunbar, the Earl of March's son, at the Battle of Nesbit Moor. Douglas led a punitive raid with Murdoch of Fife, Albany's son, as far as Newcastle to avenge the battle. At the head of 10,000 men he laid waste to the whole of Northumberland. March persuaded Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, and his son Harry "Hotspur" Percy to lie in wait for the returning Scots at Wooler. Once Douglas' men had made camp at Millfield, relatively low ground, the English army rushed to attack. The Scots did, however, have keen sentries and the army was able to retreat to the higher ground of Homildon Hill and organise into traditional schiltron formations. Douglas had not learnt the lessons that had defeated his great uncle at the Battle of Halidon Hill seventy years previously, and the schiltrons presented a large target for the English Longbowmen, and the formations started to break. A hundred men, under Sir John Swinton of the Swintons of that Ilk, chose to charge the enemy saying: "Better to die in the mellay than be shot down like deer".All perished. It has been suggested that Douglas hesitated to signal the advance of his main force, and when he did, it was too little too late. Douglas' mauled army met the as yet unbloodied English men at arms, and was routed. Many of Douglas' leading captains were captured, including his kinsman George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus, Thomas Dunbar, 5th Earl of Moray and Murdoch of Fife. Douglas himself was captured having been wounded five times, including the loss of an eye, despite the fact that allegedly Douglas' armour had taken three years in its construction.
If the Percys and the other English knights thought they had gained great immediate riches from ransoms, they were to be disappointed. They received a message from King Henry congratulating them on their victory but forbidding the release of any of their prisoners.
By 1403, Hotspur was in open rebellion against his King, joining with his kinsman Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester, whilst Owain Glyndŵr was undertaking a campaign against English rule in Wales. Hotspur set free his Scots captives and Douglas with his co-prisoners decided to fight alongside their former captors. In the chivalric spirit of the time, Douglas marched with his former enemy Hotspur and his forces to the meet with King Henry IV at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Fighting on the English king's side was George de Dunbar, 10th Earl of March, then in exile from Scotland. The result of the battle was a decisive Royalist victory, Hotspur being killed by an arrow through the mouth. Douglas was once again captured, and suffered the loss of a testicleafter having fought gallantly on the field and personally killing Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford and Sir Walter Blount. Douglas had again tasted heavy defeat.
Douglas was now a captive of King Henry. The cost of the ransom of the Scots nobles taken at Homildon was proving hard for the impoverished Scots exchequer. When Prince James of Scotland was captured en route to France by English pirates in 1406, the position seemed impossible. The aged King Robert III died of grief it is said soon after. The Kingdom of Scots was now in the hands of the Duke of Albany de facto.
After giving his oath on Holy Scripture to King Henry to be his man above all others excepting King James, and on the production of suitable hostages for his parole, Douglas was allowed to return to his estates to carry out his private affairs. Douglas had agreed again under oath to return to captivity in England upon an appointed day. At Easter, Douglas went north and did not return upon the aforesaid day. King Henry wrote to Regent Albany complaining of this "un-knightly" behaviour and warned that unless Douglas returned the hostages would be dealt with at his pleasure. Douglas did not return. Only upon payment of 700 merks in 1413 to the new King of England, Henry V, were the hostages liberated.
In a political volte-face, the Earl of March had been accepted back into the political fold in Scotland, both Douglas and Albany being reconciled to him. In 1409 March's lands in Lothian and the Merse were returned to him, on the condition of the Regent that his Lordship of Annandale be transferred to the Earl of Douglas. Combined with his Lordship of Galloway, Douglas now controlled the whole of southwest Scotland. The friendship between Douglas and Albany was confirmed in 1410 when they arranged the marriage of Douglas' daughter Elizabeth to John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, Albany's second son.
Douglas went to Flanders and France in 1412, whereupon arriving in Paris he entered into negotiations with John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, whereby they agreed to a mutual defence and offence pact in their respective countries.
Soon after his return to Scotland, Douglas resumed his duties as Lord Warden of the Marches, where he had free rein to defend it and keep the peace. However, it appears that Albany was not prepared to pay for this, so Douglas recovered his costs from customs fees on all trade goods entering the country.
In 1416, with King James still a hostage in England, Douglas twice visited London to enter negotiations for his release. Whilst there the Lollard faction, during Henry V's absence in France, tried to persuade the Scots delegation to go on the offensive. Albany decided that this would be an opportunity to reclaim Berwick upon Tweed and raised an army to take it. He despatched Douglas to Roxburgh Castle, which was also held by the English. When the Scots learnt of a huge army led by King Henry's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford and Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, they retreated ignominiously. The following devastation in Teviotdale and Liddesdale, and the burning of the towns of Selkirk, Jedburgh and Hawick earned this title of the "Foul Raid".
Douglas's son, the Earl of Wigtoun, had been fighting in France with his son-in-law Buchan, where they defeated the English at the Battle of Baugé in 1421. In 1423 Wigtoun and Buchan returned to Scotland to raise more troops for the war effort, and with a personal request to Douglas from Charles VII of France to lend his aid. Douglas's ally and Charles' implacable enemy, John the Fearless of Burgundy, had died in 1419, so Douglas willingly consented to the French king's request. After considerable gifts to the church, Douglas left the Earl of Wigtoun in Scotland to oversee his estates and the negotiations for the release of King James, while Douglas prepared for war. Douglas and Buchan then sailed to La Rochelle, arriving with an estimated 6,500 men on 7 March 1424.
On 24 April Charles VII reviewed his new troops at Bourges. Douglas was given the post of "Lieutenant-General in the waging of war through all the Kingdom of France". On 29 April, Douglas was granted the Duchy of Touraine, including the "Castle, town and city" of Tours, and the "Castle and town" of Loches. Douglas was the first foreigner and also the first non-royal to be granted ducal status in France.
The newly-created French duke was defeated and killed at Verneuil on 17 August 1424, along with his second son, James, and son-in-law Buchan. Douglas was buried in the choir of Tours Cathedral, alongside Sir James Douglas, his son.
In 1390 he married Lady Margaret (d.1451), eldest daughter of John Stewart, Earl of Carrick, who later became King Robert III. Of their children:
The 4th Earl of Douglas is represented in William Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1 from the defeat at Homildon to his release following the Battle of Shrewsbury. Douglas also appears as a character in Edith Pargeter's 1972 novel A Bloody Field by Shrewsbury from his defeat and capture at Homildon through his participation at Shrewsbury on the rebels' side.
James I was King of Scots from 1406 until his assassination in 1437. The youngest of three sons, he was born in Dunfermline Abbey to King Robert III and his wife Annabella Drummond. His older brother David, Duke of Rothesay, died under suspicious circumstances while being detained by their uncle, Robert, Duke of Albany. His other brother, Robert, died young. Fears for James's safety grew through the winter of 1405/6 and plans were made to send him to France. In February 1406, James was forced to take refuge in the castle of the Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth after his escort was attacked by supporters of Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas. He remained there until mid-March, when he boarded a vessel bound for France. On 22 March English pirates captured the ship and delivered the prince to Henry IV of England. The ailing Robert III died on 4 April and the 11-year-old James, now the uncrowned King of Scots, would not regain his freedom for another eighteen years.
Sir Henry Percy, nicknamed Hotspur, was an English knight who fought in several campaigns against the Scots in the northern border and against the French during the Hundred Years' War. The nickname "Hotspur" was given to him by the Scots as a tribute to his speed in advance and readiness to attack. The heir to a leading noble family in northern England, Hotspur was one of the earliest and prime movers behind the deposition of King Richard II in favour of Henry Bolingbroke in 1399. He later fell out with the new regime and rebelled, and was slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403 at the height of his fame.
Robert II was King of Scotland from 1371 to his death in 1390. The son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and Marjorie, daughter of King Robert I, he was the first monarch of the House of Stewart. Upon the death of his uncle, King David II, Robert succeeded to the throne.
Robert III, born John Stewart, was King of Scots from 1390 to his death. He was also High Steward of Scotland from 1371 to 1390 and held the titles of Earl of Atholl (1367–1390) and Earl of Carrick (1368–1390) before ascending the throne at about the age of 53 years. He was the eldest son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure and was legitimized by the second marriage of his parents and by papal dispensation in 1349.
James III was King of Scots from 1460 until his death at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488. He inherited the throne as a child following the death of his father, King James II, at the siege of Roxburgh Castle. James III's reign began with a minority that lasted almost a decade, during which Scotland was governed by a series of regents and factions who struggled for possession of the young king, before his personal rule began in 1469.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house of Scotland, England, Ireland and later Great Britain. The family name comes from the office of High Steward of Scotland, which had been held by the family progenitor Walter fitz Alan. The name Stewart and variations had become established as a family name by the time of his grandson Walter Stewart. The first monarch of the Stewart line was Robert II, whose male-line descendants were kings and queens in Scotland from 1371, and of England and Great Britain from 1603, until 1714. Mary, Queen of Scots, was brought up in France where she adopted the French spelling of the name Stuart.
Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany was a leading Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, and the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland, who founded the Stewart dynasty. In 1389, he became Justiciar North of the Forth. In 1402, he was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill and would spend 12 years in captivity in England.
Sir James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas and Mar was an influential and powerful magnate in the Kingdom of Scotland.
The Battle of Holmedon Hill or Battle of Homildon Hill was a conflict between English and Scottish armies on 14 September 1402 in Northumberland, England. The battle was recounted in Shakespeare's Henry IV, part 1. Although Humbleton Hill is the modern name of the site, over the centuries it has been variously named Homildon, Hameldun, Holmedon, and Homilheugh.
The Battle of Baugé, fought between the English and a Franco-Scots army on 22 March 1421 at Baugé, France, east of Angers, was a major defeat for the English in the Hundred Years' War. The English army was led by the king's brother Thomas, Duke of Clarence, while the Franco-Scots were led by both John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, and Gilbert Motier de La Fayette, the Marshal of France. English strength was 4,000 men, although only 1,500 deployed, against 5,000 French and Scots.
Clan Douglas is an ancient clan or noble house from the Scottish Lowlands.
Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Douglas was a Scottish nobleman and general during the Hundred Years' War.
James Douglas, 7th Earl of Douglas, 1st Earl of Avondale, latterly known as James the Gross, and prior to his ennoblement as James of Balvenie, was a late mediaeval Scottish magnate. He was the second son of Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas, and Joan Moray of Bothwell and Drumsargard, d. after 1408.
John Stewart, Earl of Buchan was a Scottish nobleman and soldier who fought alongside Scotland's French allies during the Hundred Years War. In 1419 he was sent to France by his father the Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland, with an army of 6,000 men. Stewart led the combined Franco-Scottish army at the Battle of Baugé on 21 March 1421, where he comprehensively defeated the English forces, proving that the English could at last be beaten. However, two years later, Stewart was defeated and captured by Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury at the Battle of Cravant in 1423. After the battle he was exchanged, and after his release in 1424 he was appointed Constable of France making him the effective Commander-in-Chief of the French army. On 17 August 1424 Buchan was killed at the disastrous Battle of Verneuil, along with most of the Scottish troops in France.
Sir Archibald Douglas was a Scottish nobleman, Guardian of Scotland, and military leader. He is sometimes given the epithet "Tyneman", but this may be a reference to his great-nephew Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas. He fought and died at the Battle of Halidon Hill.
George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus (1380–1403) was a Scottish nobleman and peer.
William Douglas, 2nd Earl of Angus was a Scottish nobleman and soldier. The son of George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus and Princess Mary of Scotland, he was a grandson of King Robert III.
George de Dunbar, 11th Earl of Dunbar & March 13th Lord of Annandale and Lord of the Isle of Man, was the last of his family to hold these titles.
George de Dunbar, 10th Earl of Dunbar and March (1338–1422), 12th Lord of Annandale and Lord of the Isle of Man, was "one of the most powerful nobles in Scotland of his time, and the rival of the Douglases."
Cranshaws Castle or Cranshaws Tower is a privately owned 15th-century pele situated by the village of Cranshaws in Berwickshire, Scotland. The building is still in use as a residence, and is protected as a category A listed building.