Archibald Roosevelt

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Archie Roosevelt
Archie Roosevelt WW-I.jpg
Captain Roosevelt recovering from wounds received during World War I in 1919
Born
Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt

(1894-04-10)April 10, 1894
DiedOctober 13, 1979(1979-10-13) (aged 85)
Education Groton School
Phillips Academy
Evans School for Boys
Alma mater Harvard University
Spouse(s)Grace Lockwood
Children5, including Archibald Jr. and Theodora
Parent(s) Theodore Roosevelt
Edith Kermit Carow
Relatives Roosevelt family

Archibald Bulloch "Archie" Roosevelt (April 10, 1894 – October 13, 1979), the fifth child of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, was a distinguished U.S. Army officer and commander of U.S. forces in both World War I and II. In both conflicts he was wounded. He earned the Silver Star with three oak leaf clusters, Purple Heart with oak leaf cluster and the French Croix de guerre. After World War II, he became a successful businessman and the founder of a New York City bond brokerage house, as well as a spokesman for conservative political causes. [1]

Theodore Roosevelt 26th president of the United States

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, politician, conservationist, naturalist, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He served as the 25th vice president from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900. As a leader of the Republican Party, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore alongside George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln. He is generally ranked in polls of historians and political scientists as one of the five best presidents.

World War I 1914–1918 global war starting in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the resulting 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Contents

Early life

Archie poses with his pony Algonquin in 1902 Archie Roosevelt poses with Algonquin 1902.jpg
Archie poses with his pony Algonquin in 1902
Roosevelt Family in 1903 with Quentin on the left, TR, Ted, Archie, Alice, Kermit, Edith, and Ethel Theodore Roosevelt and family, 1903.jpg
Roosevelt Family in 1903 with Quentin on the left, TR, Ted, Archie, Alice, Kermit, Edith, and Ethel

As a child, Archie was very quiet but very mischievous – especially when he was with his brother Quentin; growing up, Archie and Quentin were very close. They rarely left each other's side and had very few fights. But as for the other siblings, Archie was not close to either Kermit or Ethel, because they would gang up on him. Ted would help beat up Kermit for him and would also tell their mother, Edith, about Ethel, who would often get in trouble. Alice was ten years older than Archie, and he barely remembered her being around, since she would often go places with other family members and friends. Archie was an avid reader and very good at putting puzzles together quickly. His father remarked to him, "Archie, my smart boy, never give up your smartness; that goes for you and your brother Quentin."

Archie first attended the Force School and Sidwell Friends School. [2] After being expelled from Groton, Archie continued his education at the Evans School for Boys, [3] and graduated from Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., in 1913. He went on to Harvard University, where he graduated in 1917.

Sidwell Friends School Private K-12 school

Sidwell Friends School is a highly selective Quaker school located in Bethesda, Maryland and Washington, D.C., offering pre-kindergarten through upper school classes. Founded in 1883 by Thomas W. Sidwell, its motto is "Eluceat omnibus lux", alluding to the Quaker concept of inner light. All Sidwell Friends students attend Quaker meeting for worship weekly, and middle school students begin every day with five minutes of silence.

Groton School school in Groton, Massachusetts, USA

Groton School is a private Episcopal college preparatory boarding school located in Groton, Massachusetts, United States. It enrolls about 380 boys and girls, from the eighth through twelfth grades. Tuition, room and board and required fees in 2014–15 amounted to $56,700 ; 38% of the students receive financial aid. The school is a member of the Independent School League. There are many famous alumni in business, government and the professions, including Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Phillips Academy Independent boarding preparatory school in grades 9–12 in Andover, Massachusetts, United States

Phillips Academy Andover is a co-educational university-preparatory school for boarding and day students in grades 9–12, along with a post-graduate (PG) year. The school is in Andover, Massachusetts, United States, 25 miles north of Boston. Phillips Academy has 1,150 students, and is a highly selective school, accepting 13% of applicants with a yield as high as 86%. It is part of the Eight Schools Association, Ten Schools Admissions Organization as well as the G20 Schools Group.

Family

Archie was born in Washington, D.C., the fourth child of President Theodore "T.R." Roosevelt, Jr. and Edith Kermit Carow. He had three brothers, Ted (Theodore III), Kermit, and Quentin, a sister Ethel, and a half-sister Alice. Archie was named for his maternal great-great-great-grandfather Archibald Bulloch, a patriot of the American Revolution.

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first president of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city, located on the Potomac River bordering Maryland and Virginia, is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

Edith Roosevelt Second wife of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt

Edith Kermit Roosevelt was the second wife of President Theodore Roosevelt and served as the First Lady of the United States during his presidency from 1901 to 1909. She also served as the Second Lady of the United States in 1901. Roosevelt was the first First Lady to employ a full-time, salaried social secretary. Her tenure resulted in the creation of an official staff, and her formal dinners and ceremonial processions served to elevate the position of First Lady.

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. American businessman, author, adventurer, traveler, civil servant, politician and army officer

Theodore Roosevelt III, known as Theodore Roosevelt Jr., was an American government, business, and military leader. He was the eldest son of President Theodore Roosevelt and First Lady Edith Roosevelt. Roosevelt is known for his World War II service, including the directing of troops at Utah Beach during the Normandy landings, for which he received the Medal of Honor.

His first cousin was Eleanor Roosevelt and his fifth cousin, once removed was Franklin D. Roosevelt. He was uncle to Kermit Roosevelt Jr., Joseph Willard Roosevelt, Dirck Roosevelt, Belle Wyatt "Clochette" Roosevelt, Grace Green Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt III, Cornelius V.S. Roosevelt, and Quentin Roosevelt II. His sister-in-law was Belle Wyatt Willard Roosevelt, and his grandniece was Susan Roosevelt Weld, the former wife of Massachusetts Governor William F. Weld.

Eleanor Roosevelt American politician, diplomat, and activist, and First Lady of the United States

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was an American political figure, diplomat and activist. She served as the First Lady of the United States from March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945 during her husband President Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office, making her the longest serving First Lady of the United States. Roosevelt served as United States Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly from 1945 to 1952.

Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd president of the United States

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, often referred to by initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century. His third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II, which ended shortly after he died in office. He is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but has also been subject to substantial criticism.

Kermit Roosevelt Jr. CIA officer

Kermit "Kim" Roosevelt Jr., a grandson of U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, was a career intelligence officer who served in the Office of Strategic Services, forerunner to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), during and following the Second World War, went on to found Arabist organizations such as the American Friends of the Middle East, and then to play the lead role in the CIA-sponsored overthrow of Mohammad Mossadegh, the democratically elected leader of Iran, in August 1953.

Military career

World War I and years later

Archie volunteered for the United States Army during 1917, shipped over to France, and was wounded while serving with the U.S. 1st Infantry Division. His wounds were so severe he was discharged from the Army with full disability. He had ended the war as an Army captain. For his valor, Archie received two Silver Star Citations (later converted to the Silver Star medal when it was established in 1932) and the French government's Croix de Guerre. After the death of his father in 1919, he was the one who sent the telegram informing all his siblings that "the old lion is dead".

United States Army Land warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.

Silver Star military decoration of the United States Armed Forces

The Silver Star Medal is the United States Armed Forces's third-highest personal decoration for valor in combat. The Silver Star Medal is awarded primarily to members of the United States Armed Forces for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States.

France Republic with majority of territory in Europe and numerous oversea territories around the world

France, officially the French Republic, is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

After the end of the war, he worked for a time as an executive with the Sinclair Consolidated Oil Company, as vice president of the Union Petroleum Company, the export auxiliary subsidiary of Sinclair Consolidated. At the same time his eldest brother Ted was Assistant Secretary of the Navy. In 1922, Albert B. Fall, U.S. Secretary of the Interior, leased, without competitive bidding, the Teapot Dome Field to Harry F. Sinclair of Sinclair Oil, and the field at Elk Hills, California, to Edward L. Doheny of Pan American Petroleum & Transport Company, both fields part of the Navy's petroleum reserves. The connection between the Roosevelt brothers could not be ignored. After Sinclair sailed for Europe to avoid testifying, G. D. Wahlberg, Sinclair's private secretary, advised Archibald Roosevelt to resign to save his reputation. [4] Eventually, after resigning from Sinclair, Roosevelt gave key testimony to the Senate Committee on Public Lands probing the Teapot Dome scandal, in which Roosevelt was not implicated, but where Sinclair and Doheny both gave "personal loans" to Secretary Fall. Following this, Roosevelt took a job working for a cousin in the family investment firm, Roosevelt & Son.

Albert B. Fall American politician

Albert Bacon Fall was a United States Senator from New Mexico and the Secretary of the Interior under President Warren G. Harding, infamous for his involvement in the Teapot Dome scandal. As a captain in the United States Army he supported a military invasion of Mexico in 1916 as a means of ending Pancho Villa's raids.

Edward L. Doheny Irish American oil tycoon

Edward Laurence Doheny was an American oil tycoon who, in 1892, drilled the first successful oil well in the Los Angeles City Oil Field. His success set off a petroleum boom in Southern California, and made him a fortune when, in 1902, he sold his properties.

Teapot Dome scandal 1921–1923 U.S. Cabinet bribery scandal

The Teapot Dome scandal was a bribery scandal involving the administration of United States President Warren G. Harding from 1921 to 1923. Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall had leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome in Wyoming, and two locations in California, to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding. The leases were the subject of a seminal investigation by Senator Thomas J. Walsh. Convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies, Fall became the first presidential cabinet member to go to prison; no one was convicted of paying the bribes.

In the summer of 1932, Archie, former President Calvin Coolidge, former Solicitor General William Marshall Bullitt, Admiral Richard E. Byrd, and General James Harbord, among others, formed a conservative pressure group known as the National Economy League, which called for balancing the federal budget by cutting appropriations for veterans in half. [5] [6]

World War II: the battle for Roosevelt Ridge in New Guinea

War in the Pacific - New Guinea Campaign's "Operation Cartwheel" Operation Cartwheel - Map.jpg
War in the Pacific – New Guinea Campaign's "Operation Cartwheel"
Lt. Col. Archibald Roosevelt during World War II (Official Army Photo) Archibald Roosevelt WW-II LtCol.jpg
Lt. Col. Archibald Roosevelt during World War II (Official Army Photo)
Roosevelt Ridge "RR" from US Army History USA-P-Rabaul-6.jpg
Roosevelt Ridge "RR" from US Army History

During 1943, following the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt petitioned President Franklin D. Roosevelt to put his battlefield-honed leadership skills to worthwhile use supporting the war effort. The president approved his request and he rejoined the Army with a commission as a lieutenant colonel. Roosevelt was given command in early 1943 of the US Army's 2nd Battalion, 162nd Infantry Regiment also called the 162 Regimental Combat Team, (RCT), 41st Infantry Division in New Guinea commanding this unit until early 1944. Working with the Australian 3rd Division, Roosevelt and his battalion landed in New Guinea's Nassau Bay, on July 8, 1943. [7] [8]

Overcoming significant command ambiguities between American and Australian forces because of overlapping spheres of operation, Roosevelt played an important role in the Salamaua campaign. His service was recognized when one of the hotly contested ridge-lines northwest of the island's Tambu Bay was named in his honor. This piece of key terrain during the campaign was originally referred to as "Roosevelt's Ridge" to mark the ridge nearest his battalion to higher HQ. Later, it was referred to as "Roosevelt Ridge" as it was depicted in the official American and Australian campaign histories as well as the US Army Air Force World War II Chronology. See left map. [9] [10] [11] [12]

On August 12, 1943, Roosevelt was wounded by an enemy grenade which shattered the same knee which had been injured in World War I and for which he had been earlier medically retired, earning him the distinction of being the only American to ever be classified as 100% disabled twice for the same wound incurred in two different wars. At the time of his injury, command of his battalion passed to his executive officer, Major Taylor. Archie returned to his unit in early 1944. [11] For these actions in the Pacific Theater of Operations, Roosevelt was awarded his second and third oak leaf clusters to the Silver Star in lieu of additional awards.

Military Awards

Later career

Following the end of the war, Archie Roosevelt formed the investment firm of Roosevelt and Cross, a brokerage house specializing in municipal bonds. It is still a going concern with offices in New York City, Providence, Buffalo and Hartford. [13] In 1953 he joined the Empire State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution of which both his father and elder brother had been members.

Activism and controversies

During the early 1950s, Archie became affiliated with a variety of right-wing organizations and causes. He joined the John Birch Society and was the founder of the Veritas Foundation, which was dedicated to rooting out presumed socialist influences at Harvard and other major colleges and universities. Writing in the book America's Political Dynasties (Doubleday, 1966), Stephen Hess commented: "Archie Roosevelt has, in recent years, added the family's name to many ultra-rightist causes. As a trustee of the Veritas Foundation he was a leader among those seeking to root out subversion at Harvard. He also sent a letter to every U.S. Senator, stating 'modern technical civilization does not seem to be as well-handled by the black man as by the white man in the United States.' Present civil rights difficulties he blamed on 'socialist plotters.'" [14] Roosevelt also edited 1968's incendiary Theodore Roosevelt On Race, Riots, Reds, Crime. [15] He was also the chief sponsor behind "The Alliance," a short-lived organization of the 1950s. [16]

In 1954, when the Theodore Roosevelt Association made a decision to award the Theodore Roosevelt Medal for Distinguished Public Service to black diplomat Ralph Bunche, Archie loudly protested the award. He even went so far as to write and publish a 44-page pamphlet that attempted to prove Bunche had been working as an agent of the "International Communist Conspiracy" for more than two decades. [17]

Archie additionally served as President for an organization named The Alliance, Inc., where Zygmund Dobbs was Research Director. [18] The Alliance published books by Dobbs such as Red Intrigue and Race Turmoil (New York: The Alliance, Inc., 1958), for which Archie wrote forewords. In the Foreword to The Great Deceit: Social Pseudo-Sciences, Archie wrote: "Socialists have infiltrated our schools, our law courts, our government, our MEDIA OF COMMUNICATIONS.... the Socialist movement is made up of a relatively small number of people who have developed the TECHNIQUE OF INFLUENCING large masses of people to a VERY HIGH DEGREE." [19]

Personal life

Archie married Grace Lockwood, daughter of Thomas Lockwood and Emmeline Stackpole, at the Emmanuel Church in Boston, Massachusetts, on April 14, 1917. The couple spent most of their married life in a pre-Revolutionary house on Turkey Lane in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, not far from Oyster Bay, where they had five children:

In 1971, Archie's wife, Grace Lockwood Roosevelt, died in an automobile crash near her home on Turkey Lane in Cold Spring Harbor, with her husband at the wheel.

On October 13, 1979, Roosevelt died of a stroke at the Stuart Convalescent Home in Stuart, Florida. He was 85 years old, the last child of Theodore and Edith to die (although his half-sister Alice would outlive him by four months). He is buried with his wife at Young's Cemetery, Oyster Bay. His tombstone reads: "The old fighting man home from the wars."

Descendants

Roosevelt's grandson is Tweed Roosevelt (b. 1942), who is the chairman of Roosevelt China Investments, and is the President of the Board of Trustees of the Theodore Roosevelt Association. [20]

Publications

See also

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References

  1. On right wing politics, see citations below related to the section "Right Wing Firebrand".
  2. Stephen, Hansen. "InTowner Publishing Corp. » The Force School: Alma Mater to Presidents' Son, a Count, and a World-Famous Aviator" . Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  3. Theodore Roosevelt (1916) A Book-Lover's Holidays in the Open. New York: Charles Scribner's sons.
  4. "Scandal?". TIME . January 28, 1924.
  5. "HEROES: Again, Bonuseers". TIME . September 12, 1932.
  6. "National Affairs: Economy Lobby". TIME . January 2, 1933.
  7. David Dexter (1961) Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 1 – Army – Volume Vol6 Chapter 5. The Capture of Mubo, The Australian War Memorial (TOC Archived 2009-05-12 at the Wayback Machine )
  8. HyperWar: US Army in WWII: CARTWHEEL-The Reduction of Rabaul. Ibiblio.org. Retrieved on 2011-06-12.
  9. U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II. Combat Chronology 1941 – 1945, Center for Air Force History Washington, DC 1991
  10. David Dexter (1961) Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 1 – Army – Volume Vol6 Chapter 6. The Struggle for the Ridges, The Australian War Memorial (TOC Archived 2009-05-12 at the Wayback Machine )
  11. 1 2 David Dexter (1961) Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 1 – Army – Volume Vol6 Chapter 7. The Fight for Komiatum, The Australian War Memorial (TOC Archived 2009-05-12 at the Wayback Machine )
  12. Army Air Forces in World War II Archived 2009-02-12 at the Wayback Machine . Usaaf.net. Retrieved on 2011-06-12.
  13. Roosevelt & Cross Inc. – Specialists in Municipal Bonds, since 1946. Roosevelt-cross.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-12.
  14. Stephen Hess. America's Political Dynasties. (Doubleday, 1966.) pp. 137–38.
  15. Archibald Roosevelt, Editor. Theodore Roosevelt on Race Riots Reds and Crime. (Metarie, LA: Sons of Liberty Press, 1968.)
  16. Daniel Bell, Editor. The Radical Right, Third Edition. (New York: Transaction Publishers, 2001), p. 333.
  17. Edward Renehan. The Lion's Pride. (Oxford University Press, 1998). p. 244.
  18. Dobbs, Zygmund (1958). Red Intrigue and Race Turmoil (PDF). Foreword by Archibald B. Roosevelt (1st ed.). New York: The Alliance, Inc. p. i.
  19. Zygmund Dobbs. The Great Deceit: Social Psedo-Sciences. (Sayville, NY: The Veritas Foundation, 1964), p. vi.
  20. Leary, Warren E. (10 April 1992). "Explorers of Amazon Branch Retrace Roosevelt Expedition". The New York Times . Retrieved 18 October 2016.