Last updated
Gautama Buddha statue and 500 arhats at the courtyard of Shanyuan Temple (Shan Yuan Si ), Fushun, Liaoning province, China. Gautama Buddha-5.jpg
Gautama Buddha statue and 500 arhats at the courtyard of Shanyuan Temple (善緣寺), Fushun, Liaoning province, China.

Translations of
Sanskrit अर्हत्
Pali अरहन्त्
Bengali অর্হৎ
Burmese ရဟန္တာ
(IPA:  [jəhàɴdà] )
Chinese 阿羅漢/阿罗汉, 羅漢/罗汉
(Pinyin: āluóhàn, luóhàn)
Japanese 阿羅漢, 羅漢
(rōmaji: arakan, rakan)
Khmer អរហន្ត
Korean 아라한, 나한
(RR: arahan, nahan)
Sinhala අරහත්, රහත්
(Arahat, Rahat)
Tibetan དགྲ་བཅོམ་པ།
(Wylie: dgra bcom pa)
Tamil அருகன்
Thai อรหันต์
( RTGS: arahan)
Vietnamese a-la-hán
Glossary of Buddhism

In Buddhism, an arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) is one who has gained insight into the true nature of existence and has achieved nirvana . [1] [2] Mahayana Buddhist traditions have used the term for people far advanced along the path of Enlightenment, but who may not have reached full Buddhahood. [3]


The understanding of the concept has changed over the centuries, and varies between different schools of Buddhism and different regions. A range of views on the attainment of arhats existed in the early Buddhist schools. The Sarvāstivāda, Kāśyapīya, Mahāsāṃghika, Ekavyāvahārika, Lokottaravāda, Bahuśrutīya, Prajñaptivāda, and Caitika schools all regarded arhats as imperfect in their attainments compared to buddhas. [4] [5] [6]

Mahayana Buddhist teachings urge followers to take up the path of a bodhisattva, and to not fall back to the level of arhats and śrāvakas. [7] The arhats, or at least the senior arhats, came to be widely regarded by Hinayana (Theravada) buddhists as "moving beyond the state of personal freedom to join the Bodhisattva enterprise in their own way". [3]

Mahayana Buddhism regarded a group of Eighteen Arhats (with names and personalities) as awaiting the return of the Buddha as Maitreya, while other groupings of 6, 8, 16, 100, and 500 also appear in tradition and Buddhist art, especially in East Asia called luohan or lohan. [8] [9] They may be seen as the Buddhist equivalents of the Christian saint, apostles or early disciples and leaders of the faith. [8]


Gohyaku rakan - five hundred statues depicting arhats, at the Chokei temple in Toyama Gohyaku rakan.jpg
Gohyaku rakan - five hundred statues depicting arhats, at the Chōkei temple in Toyama

The Sanskrit word arhat (Pāḷi arahant) is a present participle coming from the verbal root √arh "to deserve", [10] cf. arha "meriting, deserving"; arhaṇa "having a claim, being entitled"; arhita (past participle) "honoured, worshipped". [11] The word is used in the Ṛgveda with this sense of "deserving". [12]

A common folk etymology derives the word from ari (enemy) and hanta from the root √han (cf: Hunter) "to strike, to kill"; hence the translation "foe-destroyer". Professor Richard Gombrich has argued that the present participle is "jarring" and seems out of place when there is an adjective from the same root (arha). Since Jains used two Prakrit forms of the word arahanta and arihanta, the folk etymology may well be the correct etymology. Gombrich argues that this stems from the same metaphor as the Jain title jina "conqueror", whence jaina "related to the conqueror", i.e. Jainism. [13]


In early Buddhist schools

In pre-Buddhist India, the term arhat (denoting a saintly person in general) was closely associated with miraculous power and asceticism. Buddhists made a sharp distinction between their arhats and Indian holy men, and miraculous powers were no longer central to arhat identity or mission. [14]

A range of views on the relative perfection of arhats existed in the early Buddhist schools. Mahāsāṃghikas, such as the Ekavyāvahārika, Lokottaravāda, [4] Bahuśrutīya, [15] Prajñaptivāda and Caitika [5] schools, advocated the transcendental nature of the buddhas and bodhisattvas and the fallibility of arhats; [16] the Caitikas advocated the ideal of the bodhisattva (bodhisattvayāna) over that of the arhat ( śrāvakayāna ), and viewed arhats as fallible and still subject to ignorance. [5]

According to A. K. Warder, the Sarvāstivādins held the same position as the Mahāsāṃghika branch about arhats, considering them imperfect and fallible. [6] In the Sarvāstivādin Nāgadatta Sūtra, the demon Māra takes the form of Nāgadatta's father and tries to convince Nāgadatta (who was a bhikṣuṇī) to work toward the lower stage of arhatship rather than strive to become a fully enlightened buddha (samyaksaṃbuddha):

Māra therefore took the disguise of Nāgadatta's father and said thus to Nāgadatta: "Your thought is too serious. Buddhahood is too difficult to attain. It takes a hundred thousand nayutas of koṭis of kalpas to become a Buddha. Since few people attain Buddhahood in this world, why don't you attain Arhatship? For the experience of Arhatship is the same as that of nirvāṇa; moreover, it is easy to attain Arhatship. [17]

In her reply, Nāgadatta rejects arhatship as a lower path: "A Buddha's wisdom is like empty space of the ten-quarters, which can enlighten innumerable people. But an Arhat's wisdom is inferior." [17] The Kāśyapīya school also believed that arhats were fallible and imperfect, similar to the view of the Sarvāstivādins and the Mahāsāṃghika sects. [6] The Kāśyapīyins believed that arhats have not fully eliminated desire, their "perfection" is incomplete, and it is possible for them to relapse. [6]

In Theravāda Buddhism

In Theravada Buddhism, an arahant is a person who has eliminated all the unwholesome roots which underlie the fetters – who upon their death will not be reborn in any world, since the bonds (fetters) that bind a person to the samsara have been finally dissolved. In the Pali Canon, the word tathagata is sometimes used as a synonym for arhat, though the former usually refers to the Buddha alone. [note 1]

After attainment of nirvana, the five aggregates (physical forms, feelings/sensations, perception, mental formations and consciousness) will continue to function, sustained by physical bodily vitality. This attainment is termed the nibbana element with a residue remaining. But once the arhat passes away and with the disintegration of the physical body, the five aggregates will cease to function, hence ending all traces of existence in the phenomenal world and thus total release from the misery of samsara. It would then be termed the nibbana element without residue remaining. [18] Parinirvana occurs at the death of an arhat.

In Theravada Buddhism, the Buddha himself is first identified as an arhat, as are his enlightened followers, because they are free from all defilements, existing without greed, hatred, delusion, ignorance and craving. Lacking "assets" which will lead to future birth, the arhat knows and sees the real here and now. This virtue shows stainless purity, true worth, and the accomplishment of the end, nibbana. [19] [20]

In his study of the roles of arhats, buddhas, and bodhisattvas, Nathan Katz writes that there is a tendency in the Theravāda school to exclude laypeople from the possibility of achieving arhatship. [21]

While in the Sutta Piṭaka, arhattā was open to all, both in principle and in fact, there was a growing tendency among later Theravāda saṅghikas to restrict arhattā to those wearing the robe. Earlier we indicated a Milindapañha verse which held that while arhattā might be attainable by a layperson, within one day of its attainment he would have to either enter the saṅgha or die.

In the Pali canon, Ānanda states that he knows monastics to achieve nibbana in one of four ways:[ original research? ] [22] [note 2]

For those that have destroyed greed and hatred (in the sensory context) with some residue of delusion, are called anagami (non-returner). Anagamis will not be reborn into the human world after death, but into the heaven of the Pure Abodes, where only anagamis live. There, they will attain full enlightenment.

The Theravadin commentator Buddhaghosa placed the arhat at the completion of the path to liberation. [note 3]

In Mahāyāna Buddhism

Seated Luohan from Yixian, around 1000, one of a famous Group of glazed pottery luohans from Yixian Luohan at British Museum.jpg
Seated Luohan from Yixian, around 1000, one of a famous Group of glazed pottery luohans from Yixian

Mahayana Buddhists see Gautama Buddha himself as the ideal towards which one should aim in one's spiritual aspirations. A hierarchy of general attainments is envisioned with the attainments of arhats and pratyekabuddhas being clearly separate and below that of samyaksambuddha or tathāgatas such as Gautama Buddha. [7]

In contrast to the goal of becoming a fully enlightened buddha, the path of a śrāvaka in being motivated by seeking personal liberation from saṃsāra is often portrayed as selfish and undesirable. [23] There are even some Mahāyāna texts that regard the aspiration to arhatship and personal liberation as an outside path. [24] Instead of aspiring for arhatship, Mahayanins are urged to instead take up the path of the bodhisattva and to not fall back to the level of arhats and śrāvakas. [7] Therefore, it is taught that an arhat must go on to become a bodhisattva eventually. If they fail to do so in the lifetime in which they reach the attainment, they will fall into a deep samādhi of emptiness, thence to be roused and taught the bodhisattva path, presumably when ready. According to the Lotus Sutra , any true arhat will eventually accept the Mahāyāna path. [25]

Mahāyāna teachings often consider the śrāvaka path to be motivated by fear of saṃsāra, which renders them incapable of aspiring to buddhahood, and that they therefore lack the courage and wisdom of a bodhisattva. [26] Novice bodhisattvas are compared to śrāvakas and arhats at times. In the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, there is an account of sixty novice bodhisattvas who attain arhatship despite themselves and their efforts at the bodhisattva path because they lacked the abilities of prajnaparamita and skillful means to progress as bodhisattvas toward complete enlightenment (Skt. Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi). This is because they are still viewed as having innate attachment and fear of saṃsāra. The Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra compares these people to a giant bird without wings that cannot help but plummet to the earth from the top of Sumeru. [26]

Mahayan Buddhism has viewed the śrāvaka path culminating in arhatship as a lesser accomplishment than complete enlightenment, but still accords due respect to arhats for their respective achievements. Therefore, buddha-realms are depicted as populated by both śrāvakas and bodhisattvas. [26] Far from being completely disregarded, the accomplishments of arhats are viewed as impressive, essentially because they have transcended the mundane world. [27] Chinese Buddhism and other East Asian traditions have historically accepted this perspective, and specific groups of arhats are venerated as well, such as the Sixteen Arhats, the Eighteen Arhats, and the Five Hundred Arhats. [28] The first famous portraits of these arhats were painted by the Chinese monk Guanxiu (Chinese :貫休; pinyin :Guànxiū) in 891 CE. He donated these portraits to Shengyin Temple in Qiantang (modern Hangzhou), where they are preserved with great care and ceremonious respect. [29]

In some respects, the path to arhatship and the path to complete enlightenment are seen as having common grounds. However, a distinctive difference is seen in the Mahāyāna doctrine pushing emotional and cognitive non-attachment to their logical consequences. Of this, Paul Williams writes that in Mahāyāna Buddhism, "Nirvāṇa must be sought without being sought (for oneself), and practice must be done without being practiced. The discursive mode of thinking cannot serve the basic purpose of attainment without attainment." [30]


A range of views on the attainment of arhats existed in the early Buddhist schools. The Sarvāstivāda, Kāśyapīya, Mahāsāṃghika, Ekavyāvahārika, Lokottaravāda, Bahuśrutīya, Prajñaptivāda and Caitika schools all regarded arhats as being imperfect in their attainments compared to buddhas. [5] [6] [4]

The Dharmaguptaka sect believed that "the Buddha and those of the Two Vehicles, although they have one and the same liberation, have followed different noble paths." [31]

The Mahīśāsaka and the Theravada regarded arhats and buddhas as being similar to one another. The 5th century Theravadin commentator Buddhaghosa regarded arhats as having completed the path to enlightenment. [note 4] According to Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Pāli Canon portrays the Buddha declaring himself to be an arahant. [33] [note 5] According to Bhikkhu Bodhi, nirvāṇa is "the ultimate goal", and one who has attained nirvana has attained arhatship: [note 6] Bhikkhu Bodhi writes, "The defining mark of an arahant is the attainment of nirvāṇa in this present life." [33]

The Mahayana discerned a hierarchy of attainments, with samyaksambuddhas at the top, mahāsattvas below that, pratyekabuddhas below that and arhats further below. [34] "But what was it that distinguished the bodhisattva from the sravaka, and ultimately the buddha from the arhat? The difference lay, more than anywhere else, in the altruistic orientation of the bodhisattva." [35]


The term arhat is often rendered in English as arahat. The term arhat was transliterated into some East Asian languages phonetically, for example, the Chinese āluóhàn (Ch. 阿羅漢), often shortened to simply luóhàn (Ch. 羅漢). This may appear in English as luohan or lohan. In Japanese the pronunciation of the same Chinese characters is rakan (Ja. 羅漢) or arakan (Ja. 阿羅漢). [36] [37] [38]

The Tibetan term for arhat was translated by meaning from Sanskrit. This translation, dgra bcom pa, means "one who has destroyed the foes of afflictions". [39] Thus the Tibetan translators also understood the meaning of arhat to be ari-hanta.

See also


  1. Peter Harvey, The Selfless Mind. Curzon Press 1995, p. 227:
    Before focusing on key passages on the tathagata, it is first necessary to clarify which persons the word refers to. The Buddha often used it when talking of himself as an enlightened being, rather than as the individual Gotama. In general, "tathagata" is used specifically of the Buddha, the one who discovers and proclaims the path to nibbana (A.II.8–9, S.III.65-6), with the "tathagata, Arahat, perfectly and completely enlighteneed one" being contrasted with a "disciple of the tathagata" (D.II.142). Nevertheless, "tathagata" is sometimes used of any Arahat. S.V.327, for example, discusses the "dwelling of a learner" and that of a tathagata, and explains the second by describing the qualities of an Arahat. At M.I.139–140 and 486-7, moreover, there is a switching between talk of a "tathagata" and of "a monk whose mind is freed thus", as if they were simple equivalents. Tathagata literally means "thus-gone" or "thus-come", probably meaning one who is "attained-to-truth" or "whose-nature-is-from-truth".
  2. Bodhi (2005), p. 268, translates this fourth way as: "a monk's mind is seized by agitation about the teaching." Thanissaro (1998) gives a seemingly contrary interpretation of: "a monk's mind has its restlessness concerning the Dhamma [Comm: the corruptions of insight] well under control." Thus, it appears possible to interpret the excitation (Pali: uddhacca, see Rhys Davids & Stede, 1921–25) as either something that the future arahant uses to impel their pursuit of the path or something that the future arahant controls in order to pursue the path.
  3. Keown and Prebish (2007), Routledge Encyclopedia of Buddhism, p. 36: "When the great Theravada commentator, Buddhaghosa, wrote the Visuddhimagga delineating the nature of the gradual path to enlightenment, he placed the arahant at the completion of that path. The arahant stands as a transcendent figure in Theravada, one who has followed to its end the way of Dharma set out by the Buddha."
  4. Routledge Encyclopedia of Buddhism: "When the great Theravada commentator, Buddhaghosa, wrote the Visuddhimagga delineating the nature of the gradual path to enlightenment, he placed the arahant at the completion of that path. The arahant stands as a transcendent figure in Theravada, one who has followed to its end the way of Dharma set out by the Buddha." [32]
  5. Bhikkhu Bodhi: "The Buddha is the first of the arahants, while those who reach the goal by following his path also become arahants. In the verse of homage to the Buddha, it is said: "Iti pi so Bhagavā Arahaṃ... — The Blessed One is an arahant..." Shortly after his enlightenment, while walking to Benares to meet the five monks, a wanderer stopped the Buddha and asked who he was. The Buddha replied: "I am the arahant in the world, I am the supreme teacher" (MN 26/I 171). So the Buddha first of all declares himself to be an arahant." [33]
  6. "From the perspective of the Nikāyas, the ultimate goal – the goal in strict doctrinal terms – is nirvāṇa, and the goal in human terms is arahantship, the state of a person who has attained nirvāṇa in this present life." [33]

Related Research Articles

Bodhisattva Any person who is on the path towards Buddhahood but has not yet attained it

In Buddhism, a bodhisattva is any person who is on the path towards Buddhahood.

Four Noble Truths Basic framework of Buddhist thought

In Buddhism, the Four Noble Truths are "the truths of the Noble Ones", the truths or realities for the "spiritually worthy ones". The truths are:

Hinayana sect of Buddhism

"Hīnayāna" is a Sanskrit term literally meaning the "small/deficient vehicle". Classical Chinese and Tibetan teachers translate it as "smaller vehicle". The term was applied to the Śrāvakayāna, the Buddhist path followed by a śrāvaka who wished to become an arhat. This term appeared around the first or second century. Hīnayāna was often contrasted with Mahāyāna, which means the "great vehicle".

Pāramitā Buddhist concept of perfection or completion

Pāramitā or pāramī (Pāli) is "perfection" or "completeness". While, technically, pāramī and pāramitā are both Pāli terms, Pali literature makes far greater reference to pāramī.

Buddhahood Condition or rank of fully awakened enlightenment

In Buddhism, buddhahood is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".

Enlightenment in Buddhism "bodhi": knowledge, wisdom, wakeful intellect, or awakened divinity of a Buddha

The English term enlightenment is the western translation of the abstract noun bodhi,, the knowledge or wisdom, or awakened intellect, of a Buddha. The verbal root budh- means "to awaken," and its literal meaning is closer to "awakening." Although the term buddhi is also used in other Indian philosophies and traditions, its most common usage is in the context of Buddhism. The term "enlightenment" was popularised in the Western world through the 19th century translations of Max Müller. It has the western connotation of a sudden insight into a transcendental truth or reality.

Tathāgata Buddhist term, referring to the Buddha as transcendent

Tathāgata is a Pali and Sanskrit word; Gautama Buddha uses it when referring to himself in the Pāli Canon. The term is often thought to mean either "one who has thus gone" (tathā-gata) or "one who has thus come" (tathā-āgata). This is interpreted as signifying that the Tathāgata is beyond all coming and going – beyond all transitory phenomena. There are, however, other interpretations and the precise original meaning of the word is not certain.

Karuṇā The concept of compassion within Buddhism

Karuā is generally translated as compassion and self-compassion. It is part of the spiritual path of both Buddhism and Jainism.

Śrāvakayāna Mahāyāna Buddhist term referring to certain types of Buddhist doctrine

Śrāvakayāna is one of the three yānas known to Indian Buddhism. It translates literally as the "vehicle of listeners [i.e. disciples]". Historically it was the most common term used by Mahāyāna Buddhist texts to describe one hypothetical path to enlightenment. Śrāvakayāna is the path that meets the goals of an Arhat—an individual who achieves liberation as a result of listening to the teachings of a Samyaksaṃbuddha.

Nikaya Buddhism

The term Nikāya Buddhism was coined by Masatoshi Nagatomi as a non-derogatory substitute for Hinayana, meaning the early Buddhist schools. Examples of these groups are pre-sectarian Buddhism and the early Buddhist schools. Some scholars exclude pre-sectarian Buddhism when using the term. The term Theravada refers to Buddhist practices based on these early teachings, as preserved in the Pāli Canon.


Caitika was an early Buddhist school, a sub-sect of the Mahāsāṃghika. They were also known as the Caityaka sect.

Śrāvaka (Sanskrit) or Sāvaka (Pali) means "hearer" or, more generally, "disciple". This term is used in Buddhism and Jainism. In Jainism, a śrāvaka is any lay Jain so the term śrāvaka has been used for the Jain community itself. Śrāvakācāras are the lay conduct outlined within the treaties by Śvetāmbara or Digambara mendicants. "In parallel to the prescriptive texts, Jain religious teachers have written a number of stories to illustrate vows in practice and produced a rich répertoire of characters.".

Brahmavihara Four virtues In Buddhist ethics and meditation practice

The brahmavihārās are a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices made to cultivate them. They are also known as the four immeasurables. The Brahma-viharas are:

  1. loving-kindness or benevolence (metta)
  2. compassion (karuna)
  3. empathetic joy (mudita)
  4. equanimity (upekkha)

Mahīśāsaka is one of the early Buddhist schools according to some records. Its origins may go back to the dispute in the Second Buddhist council. The Dharmaguptaka sect is thought to have branched out from Mahīśāsaka sect toward the end of the 2nd or the beginning of the 1st century BCE.

Four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism, the four stages one goes through to achieve nibbana/nirvana: sotāpanna/srotāpanna (stream-enterer), sakadāgāmin/sakṛdāgāmin (once-returner), anāgāmi (non-returner), and arahant/arhat

The four stages of enlightenment in Theravada and Early Buddhism are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahant.

Uppalavanna Foremost female disciple of Gautama Buddha, Buddhist nun

Uppalavanna was a Buddhist bhikkhuni, or nun, who was considered one of the foremost female disciples of the Buddha. She was given the name Uppalavanna, meaning "color of a blue water lily", at birth due to the bluish color of her skin.

In English translations of Buddhist texts, householder denotes a variety of terms. Most broadly, it refers to any layperson, and most narrowly, to a wealthy and prestigious familial patriarch. In contemporary Buddhist communities, householder is often used synonymously with laity, or non-monastics.

Nirvana (Buddhism) Release from rebirths in saṃsāra

Nirvana is the goal of the Buddhist path. The literal meaning of the term is "blowing out" or "quenching." Nirvana is the ultimate spiritual goal in Buddhism and marks the soteriological release from rebirths in saṃsāra. Nirvana is part of the Third Truth on "cessation of dukkha" in the Four Noble Truths, and the summum bonum destination of the Noble Eightfold Path.

Mahayana Branch of Buddhism

Mahāyāna is one of two main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. This movement added a further set of discourses, and although it was initially small in India, it had long-term historical significance. The Buddhist tradition of Vajrayana is sometimes classified as a part of Mahāyāna Buddhism, but some scholars consider it to be a different branch altogether.


Pratyekabuddhayāna is a Buddhist term for the path, or vehicle, of a pratyekabuddha. This term was used in Indian Buddhism by early Buddhist schools, and is also used by the Mahāyāna tradition.


  1. Encyclopædia Britannica, Arhat (Buddhism)
  2. Warder 2000, p. 67.
  3. 1 2 Rhie & Thurman 1991, p. 102.
  4. 1 2 3 Baruah, Bibhuti. Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism. 2008. p. 446
  5. 1 2 3 4 Sree Padma. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. 2008. p. 44
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 277
  7. 1 2 3 Williams, Paul. Buddhism. Vol. 3: The origins and nature of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Routledge. 2004. p. 119
  8. 1 2 Rhie & Thurman 1991, p. 102-119.
  9. "Sixteen Arhats at Shengyin Temple-- the 15th: Ajita Arhat: Shi liu zun zhe xiang: 16 Lohans: A shi duo zun zhe xiang bing zan: Sheng yin si shi liu zun zhe xiang di shi wu". Chinese Rubbings Collection - CURIOSity Digital Collections. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  10. Whitney, D. W. Roots, Verb-forms and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language
  11. Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary
  12. RV 1.4.47, 2.5.51
  13. Richard Gombrich, 2009, What the Buddha Thought, Equinox: London, pp. 57–58.
  14. Richard Kieckhefer, George D. Bond. "Sainthood: Its Manifestations in World Religions" 1988. pp. 159-160.
  15. Walser, Joseph. Nāgārjuna in Context: Mahāyāna Buddhism and Early Indian Culture. 2005. p. 218.
  16. Baruah, Bibhuti. Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism. 2008. p. 48.
  17. 1 2 Kalupahana, David. Buddhist Thought and Ritual. 2001. p. 109
  18. Bhikkhu Bodhi. "Transcendental Dependent Arising". Access to Insight. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
  19. "Yahoo! Groups".
  20. "Yahoo! Groups".
  21. Katz, Natha. Buddhist Images of Human Perfection. 1982. p. 280
  22. Ānanda's teaching on achieving arhantship can be found in AN 4.170. Translations for this sutta can be found in Bodhi (2005) pp. 268–9, 439, and Thanissaro (1998).
  23. Baruah, Bibhuti. Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism. Sarup & Son. 2008. p. 192
  24. Sheng Yen. Orthodox Chinese Buddhism. North Atlantic Books. 2007. p. 149.
  25. Sheng Yen. Orthodox Chinese Buddhism. North Atlantic Books. 2007. p. 163.
  26. 1 2 3 Williams, Paul. Buddhism. Vol. 3: The origins and nature of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Routledge. 2004. p. 120
  27. Powers, John. A Concise Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion Publications. 2008. p. 36.
  28. Leidy, Denise. The Art of Buddhism: An Introduction to Its History and Meaning. Shambhala. 2009. p. 196
  29. Susan Bush and Ilsio-yen Shih (1985). Early Chinese Texts on Painting. Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London. p. 314.
  30. Williams, Paul. Buddhism. Vol. 3: The origins and nature of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Routledge. 2004. p. 50
  31. 《異部宗輪論述記》:謂佛雖在僧中所攝,然別施佛果大,非僧(果大)。於窣堵波興供養業獲廣大果。佛與二乘解脫雖一,而聖道異。無諸外道能得五通。阿羅漢身皆是無漏。餘義多同大眾部執。
  32. Charles Prebish and Damien Keown (2007), Routledge Encyclopedia of Buddhism, pp 36
  33. 1 2 3 4 Bhikkhu Bodhi, Arahants, Bodhisattvas, and Buddhas
  34. Williams, Paul. Buddhism. Vol. 3: The origins and nature of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Routledge. 2004. pp. 119-120
  35. prebish & Keown 2004, p. 88.
  36. "羅漢 - English translation – Linguee". Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  37. Visser, Marinus Willem de (1923). The Arhats in China and Japan. Oesterheld & Company.
  38. "Sixteen Arhats at Shengyin Temple-- the 15th: Ajita Arhat | Guanxiu". ResearchGate. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  39. Cozort, Daniel. Unique Tenets of the Middle Way Consequence School. Snow Lion Publications. 1998. p. 259.


Further reading