Arichi Shinanojō

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Baron Arichi Shinanojō

Arichi Shinanojo.jpg

Japanese admiral Arichi Shinanojō
Native name有地 品之允
Born(1843-03-15)15 March 1843
Chōshū domain, Japan
Died 17 January 1919(1919-01-17) (aged 75) [1]
Tokyo, Japan
Allegiance Empire of Japan
Service/branchNaval ensign of the Empire of Japan.svg  Imperial Japanese Navy
Years of service 1871–1911
Rank Admiral
Commands held Chief of the Navy General Staff, Readiness Fleet, Kure Naval District
Battles/wars Boshin War
Other work Privy Council (Japan)

BaronArichi Shinanojō(有地 品之允, 15 March 1843 17 January 1919) was an admiral in the early Imperial Japanese Navy, and served as Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff in the late 19th century.

Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". The rank is generally thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر‎, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin admirabilis ("admirable") or admiratus ("admired"), although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version – amiral without the additional d – tends to add evidence for the Arab origin.

Imperial Japanese Navy Naval branch of the Empire of Japan

The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed after the dissolution of the IJN.

Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff

The Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff was the highest organ within the Imperial Japanese Navy. In charge of planning and operations, it was headed by an Admiral headquartered in Tokyo.

Contents

Biography

Arichi was born in Chōshū Domain (now Yamaguchi Prefecture. His younger brother was Admiral Nashiba Tokioki. As a samurai youth, he fought in the Boshin War to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate, participating in combat in the northern Tohoku campaign. He was then dispatched by the domain to Europe for studies, observing military operations in the Franco-Prussian War first-hand. On his return to Japan, he was commissioned as a major in the new Imperial Japanese Army in 1871. Under the new Meiji government, he served in the Ministry of War, and transferred to the fledgling Imperial Japanese Navy in 1873 with the rank of lieutenant commander. He was thus was of the few men from Chōshū Domain to choose the navy over the army as a career. It is not certain why he made this choice, but some historians theorize it was part of a strategy by the Chōshū clan leaders to ensure that the navy did not become a Satsuma monopoly.

Chōshū Domain Japanese historical estate in Nagato and Suō province

The Chōshū Domain was a feudal domain of Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867). It occupied the whole of modern-day Yamaguchi Prefecture. The capital city was Hagi. The name Chōshū was shorthand for Nagato Province. The domain played a major role in the Late Tokugawa shogunate. It is also known as the Hagi Domain.

Yamaguchi Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Yamaguchi Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan in the Chūgoku region of the main island of Honshu. The capital is the city of Yamaguchi, in the center of the prefecture. The largest city, however, is Shimonoseki.

Nashiba Tokioki Japanese politician

BaronNashiba Tokioki was an admiral in the early Imperial Japanese Navy, noted for his role in the battleship Yashima naval disaster of 1904.

Arichi was captain of the frigate Fujisan in 1878 and corvette Nisshin in 1881. After his promotion to the rank of captain in 1882, he was assigned as commanding officer of the corvette Hiei, followed by Tsukuba. In 1884, while captain of Tsukuba, the ship suffered from an outbreak of beriberi in which 23 crewmen died. Subsequently, Tsukuba was used as the basis of a successful experiment by naval doctor Takaki Kanehiro into the sailors' diet, which later eliminated beriberi as an issue within the Japanese navy.

Frigate Type of warship

A frigate is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.

Corvette Small warship

A corvette is a small warship. It is traditionally the smallest class of vessel considered to be a proper warship. The warship class above the corvette is that of the frigate, while the class below was historically that of the sloop-of-war. The modern types of ship below a corvette are coastal patrol craft and fast attack craft. In modern terms, a corvette is typically between 500 tons and 2,000 tons although recent designs may approach 3,000 tons, which might instead be considered a small frigate.

Japanese warship <i>Nisshin</i>

Nisshin (日進) was an iron-ribbed, wooden-hulled three-masted screw sloop with a coal-fired steam engine of the early Meiji period, serving with the fledgling Imperial Japanese Navy.

Arichi was promoted to rear admiral on 15 June 1886 and became commandant of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy from 1887 to 1889. He was Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff from 1889 to 1891.

Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore and captain, and below that of a vice admiral. It is generally regarded as the lowest of the "admiral" ranks, which are also sometimes referred to as "flag officers" or "flag ranks". In many navies it is referred to as a two-star rank (OF-7)/(O-7).

Imperial Japanese Naval Academy

The Imperial Japanese Naval Academy was a school established to train officers for the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was originally located in Nagasaki, moved to Yokohama in 1866, and was relocated to Tsukiji, Tokyo in 1869. It moved to Etajima, Hiroshima in 1888. Students studied for three or four years, and upon graduation were commissioned as midshipmen, attaining the rank of ensign after a period of active duty and an overseas cruise. In 1943, a separate school for naval aviation was opened in Iwakuni, and in 1944, another naval aviation school was established in Maizuru. The Academy was closed in 1945, when the Imperial Japanese Navy was abolished. The Naval Academy Etajima opened in 1956 and the site now serves as the location for Officer Candidate School of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.

From 1891 to 1892, Arichi served as commander in chief of the Readiness Fleet. He was promoted to vice admiral in 1892. During the First Sino-Japanese War, he was initially commander in chief of Kure Naval District, and became commander in chief of the Combined Fleet from May to October 1895, overseeing in the Japanese invasion of Taiwan. During this campaign, the captain of the cruiser Yaeyama provoked a diplomatic incident with the United Kingdom when he stopped and boarded the British-flagged merchant ship SS Thales in international waters off of Amoy on the morning of 21 October 1895 in search of Liu Yongfu, the fugitive president of the Republic of Formosa. Due to the diplomatic protest over the violation of British neutrality, the Japanese government was forced to issue an official apology and forced Arichi into retirement.

Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to a rear admiral and junior to an admiral. In many navies, vice admiral is a three-star rank with a NATO code of OF-8, although in some navies like the French Navy it is an OF-7 rank, the OF-8 code corresponding to the four-star rank of squadron vice-admiral.

First Sino-Japanese War war (1894–1895) between the Qing dynasty and the Empire of Japan over influence in Joseon, fought chiefly in Joseon

The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between China and Japan primarily over influence in Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese land and naval forces and the loss of the port of Weihaiwei, the Qing government sued for peace in February 1895.

Kure Naval District was the second of four main administrative districts of the pre-war Imperial Japanese Navy. Its territory included the Inland Sea of Japan and the Pacific coasts of southern Honshū from Wakayama to Yamaguchi prefectures, eastern and northern Kyūshū and Shikoku.

On 5 June 1896, Arichi was ennobled with the title of baron (danshaku) under the kazoku peerage system.

Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary. The female equivalent is baroness.

<i>Kazoku</i> historical Japanese nobility system that was abolished in the 1947 constitution

The Kazoku was the hereditary peerage of the Empire of Japan, which existed between 1869 and 1947.

Arichi served in the House of Peers from 1897 to 1904. He retired in 1911, but continued to serve as a member of the Privy Council from 1914 until his death in 1919. His grave is at Aoyama Cemetery in Tokyo.

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References

Books

Military offices
Preceded by
Itō Toshiyoshi
Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff
17 May 1889 – 17 June 1891
Succeeded by
Inoue Yoshika

Notes

  1. Nishida, Imperial Japanese Navy.