Arkhangelsk

Last updated
Arkhangelsk

Архангельск
Arkhangelsk view from Vysotka.jpg
View of Arkhangelsk at night
Gerb Arkhangel'ska -- osnovnoi na svetlom fone.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Arkhangelsk
Russia edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Arkhangelsk
Location of Arkhangelsk
Outline Map Archangelsk Oblast mainland.svg
Red pog.svg
Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk (Arkhangelsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 64°32′N40°32′E / 64.533°N 40.533°E / 64.533; 40.533 Coordinates: 64°32′N40°32′E / 64.533°N 40.533°E / 64.533; 40.533
Country Russia
Federal subject Arkhangelsk Oblast [1]
Novo-Kholmogory1584 [2]
City status since1584
Government
  Body City Council of Deputies
  Head [3] Igor Godzish [3]
Area
[4]
  Total294.42 km2 (113.68 sq mi)
Elevation
3 m (10 ft)
Population
  Total348,783
  Estimate 
(2018) [6]
349,742 (+0.3%)
  Rank 50th in 2010
  Density1,185/km2 (3,070/sq mi)
  Subordinated to city of oblast significance of Arkhangelsk [7]
   Capital of Arkhangelsk Oblast [7] , city of oblast significance of Arkhangelsk [7]
  Urban okrugArkhangelsk Urban Okrug [8]
   Capital ofArkhangelsk Urban Okrug [8] , Primorsky Municipal District [8]
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK Blue pencil.svg [9] )
Postal code(s) [10]
163000-163071
Dialing code(s) +7 8182 [11]
City DayLast Sunday of June [12]
Twin towns Mulhouse, Słupsk, Ashdod, Emden Blue pencil.svg
OKTMO ID11701000001
Website www.arhcity.ru

Arkhangelsk (Russian :Арха́нгельск,IPA:  [ɐrˈxanɡʲɪlʲsk] ), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia. It lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea. The city spreads for over 40 kilometers (25 mi) along the banks of the river and numerous islands of its delta. Arkhangelsk was the chief seaport of medieval and early modern Russia until 1703. A 1,133-kilometer-long (704 mi) railway runs from Arkhangelsk to Moscow via Vologda and Yaroslavl, and air travel is served by the Talagi Airport and a smaller Vaskovo Airport. As of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 348,783, [5] down from 356,051 recorded in the 2002 Census, [13] and further down from 415,921 recorded in the 1989 Census. [14]

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.

Arkhangelsk Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Arkhangelsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It includes the Arctic archipelagos of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya, as well as the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. Arkhangelsk Oblast also has administrative jurisdiction over Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Including Nenetsia, Arkhangelsk Oblast has an area of 587,400 km2. Its population was 1,227,626 as of the 2010 Census.

Contents

Coat of arms

The arms of the city display the Archangel Michael in the act of defeating the Devil. Legend states that this victory took place near where the city stands, hence its name, and that Michael still stands watch over the city to prevent the Devil's return. [15]

Michael (archangel) archangel in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic teachings

Saint Michael the Archangel is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran traditions, he is called "Saint Michael the Archangel" and "Saint Michael". In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox religions, he is called "Saint Michael the Taxiarch".

History

Early history

Vikings knew the area around Arkhangelsk as Bjarmaland. Ohthere of Hålogaland told circa 890 of his travels in an area by a river and the White Sea with many buildings. This was probably the place later known as Arkhangelsk.[ citation needed ] According to Snorri Sturluson, Vikings led by Thorir Hund raided this area in 1027.

Bjarmaland

Bjarmaland was a territory mentioned in Norse sagas since the Viking Age and in geographical accounts until the 16th century. The term is usually seen to have referred to the southern shores of the White Sea and the basin of the Northern Dvina River as well as, presumably, some of the surrounding areas. Today, those territories comprise a part of the Arkhangelsk Oblast of Russia.

Ohthere of Hålogaland was a Viking Age Norwegian seafarer known only from an account of his travels that he gave to King Alfred of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex in about 890 AD. His account was incorporated into an Anglo-Saxon, or Old English, version of a Latin historical book written early in the 5th century by Paulus Orosius, called Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII, or Seven Books of History Against the Pagans. The Old English version of this book is believed to have been written in Wessex in King Alfred's lifetime or soon after his death, and the earliest surviving copy is attributed to the same place and time.

In 1989, an unusually impressive silver treasure was found by local farm workers by the mouth of Dvina, right next to present-day Arkhangelsk. [16] It was probably buried in the beginning of the 12th century, and contained articles that may have been up to two hundred years old at that time.

Most of the findings comprised a total of 1.6 kilograms (3.5 lb) of silver, largely in the form of coins. Jewelry and pieces of jewelry come from Russia or neighboring areas. The majority of the coins were German, but the hoard also included a smaller number of Kufan, English, Bohemian, Hungarian, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian coins.

Kufa City in Najaf, Iraq

Kufa is a city in Iraq, about 170 kilometres (110 mi) south of Baghdad, and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River. The estimated population in 2003 was 110,000. Currently, Kufa and Najaf are joined into a single urban area that is mostly commonly known to the outside world as 'Najaf'.

Bohemia Historical land in Czech Republic

Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. In a broader meaning, Bohemia sometimes refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia, especially in a historical context, such as the Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by Bohemian kings.

It is hard to place this find historically until further research is completed. There are at least two possible interpretations. It may be a treasure belonging to the society outlined by the Norse source material. Generally such finds, whether from Scandinavia, the Baltic area, or Russia, are closely tied to well-established agricultural societies with considerable trade activity.

Scandinavia Region in Northern Europe

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, which is always known locally as the Nordic countries.

Baltic region geographic region

The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries, and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

Alternatively, like the Russian scientists[ who? ] who published the find in 1992, one may see it as evidence of a stronger case of Russian colonization than previously thought.

Novgorodians arrive

In the 12th century, the Novgorodians established the Archangel Michael Monastery (named after Michael the Archangel) in the estuary of the Northern Dvina River.

The main trade center of the area at that time was Kholmogory, located 75 kilometers (47 mi) southeast of Arkhangelsk, up the Dvina River, about 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) downstream from where the Pinega River flows into the Dvina. Written sources indicate that Kholmogory existed early in the 12th century, but there is no archeological material to illuminate the early history of the town. It is not known whether the origin of this settlement was Russian, or if it goes back to pre-Russian times. In the center of the small town (or Gorodok) that is there today is a large mound of building remains and river sand, but it has not been archeologically excavated.

Norwegian-Russian conflict

Location of Arkhangelsk in northwestern Russia Map of St. Petersburg.png
Location of Arkhangelsk in northwestern Russia

The area of Arkhangelsk came to be important in the rivalry between Norwegian and Russian interests in the northern areas. From Novgorod, the spectrum of Russian interest was extended far north to the Kola Peninsula in the 12th century. However, here Norway enforced taxes and rights to the fur trade. A compromise agreement entered in 1251 was soon broken.[ clarification needed ][ citation needed ]

In 1411, Yakov Stepanovich from Novgorod went to attack Northern Norway. This was the beginning of a series of clashes. In 1419, Norwegian ships with five hundred soldiers entered the White Sea. The "Murmaners", as the Norwegians were called (cf. Murmansk), plundered many Russian settlements along the coast, among them the Archangel Michael Monastery. [17]

Novgorod managed to drive the Norwegians back. However, in 1478 the area was taken over by Ivan III and passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow with the rest of the Novgorod Republic.

Trade with England, Scotland, and the Netherlands

Three English ships set out to find the Northeast passage to China in 1553; two disappeared, and one ended up in the White Sea, eventually coming across the area of Arkhangelsk. Ivan the Terrible found out about this, and brokered a trade agreement with the ship's captain, Richard Chancellor. Trade privileges were granted to English merchants in 1555, leading to the founding of the Company of Merchant Adventurers, which began sending ships annually into the estuary of the Northern Dvina. Dutch merchants also started bringing their ships into the White Sea from the 1560s. Scottish and English merchants also traded in the 16th century; however, by the 17th century it was mainly the Dutch that sailed to the White Sea area.

Founding and further development

Plan of New Dvina Fort in Arkhangelsk Newdvina.jpg
Plan of New Dvina Fort in Arkhangelsk

In 1584 Ivan ordered the founding of New Kholmogory (which would later be renamed after the nearby Archangel Michael Monastery). At the time access to the Baltic Sea was still mostly controlled by Sweden, so while Arkhangelsk was icebound in winter, it remained Moscow's almost sole link to the sea-trade. Local inhabitants, called Pomors, were the first to explore trade routes to Northern Siberia as far as the trans-Urals city of Mangazeya and beyond. In December 1613, during the Time of Troubles, Arkhangelsk was besieged by Polish-Lithuanian marauders commanded by Stanislaw Jasinski (Lisowczycy), who failed to capture the fortified town. In 1619 and in 1637 a fire broke out, and the complete city was burned down.

In 1693, Peter the Great ordered the creation of a state shipyard in Arkhangelsk. A year later the ships Svyatoye Prorochestvo (Holy Prophecy), Apostol Pavel (Apostle Paul), and the yacht Svyatoy Pyotr (Saint Peter) were sailing in the White Sea. However, he also realized that Arkhangelsk would always be limited as a port due to the five months of ice cover, and after a successful campaign against Swedish armies in the Baltic area, he founded St. Petersburg in May 1703. Nonetheless, Akhangelsk continued to be an important naval base and maritime centre in the Russian north. [18]

Icon of Archangel Michael, shown as protector of Arkhangelsk Archangel Michael and City of Archangel.jpg
Icon of Archangel Michael, shown as protector of Arkhangelsk

In 1722, Peter the Great decreed that Arkhangelsk should no longer accept goods that amounted to more than was sufficient for the town (for so-called domestic consumption). It was due to the Tsar's will to shift all international marine trade to St. Petersburg. This factor greatly contributed to the deterioration of Arkhangelsk that continued up to 1762 when this decree was canceled.

Arkhangelsk declined in the 18th century as the Baltic trade became ever more important. In the early years of the 19th century, the arrest and prolonged detention by Russian authorities of John Bellingham, an English export representative based at Arkhangelsk, was the indirect cause of Bellingham later assassinating British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval.

Arkhangelsk's economy revived at the end of the 19th century when a railway to Moscow was completed and timber became a major export. The city resisted Bolshevik rule from 1918 to 1920 and was a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army supported by the military intervention of British-led Entente forces along an Allied expedition, including a North American contingent known as the Polar Bear Expedition. [19] It was also the scene of Mudyug concentration camp.

During both world wars, Arkhangelsk was a major port of entry for Allied aid. During World War II, the city became known in the West as one of the two main destinations (along with Murmansk) of the Arctic Convoys bringing supplies in to assist the Soviet Union. During Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, Arkhangelsk was one of two cities (the other being Astrakhan) selected to mark the envisaged eastern limit of Nazi control. This military operation was to be halted at this A-A line but never reached it as the German forces failed to capture either of the two cities and also failed to capture Moscow.

Arkhangelsk was also the site of Arkhangelsk ITL, or the Arkhangelsk Labour Camp, in the 1930s and 1940s.

Today, Arkhangelsk remains a major seaport, now open year-round due to improvements in icebreakers. The city is primarily a center for the timber and fishing industries.

On March 16, 2004, fifty-eight people were killed in an explosion at an apartment block in the city.

Administrative and municipal status

Arkhangelsk is the administrative center of the oblast [7] and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Primorsky District, even though it is not a part of it. [20] As an administrative division, it is, together with five rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Arkhangelsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [7] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Arkhangelsk is incorporated as Arkhangelsk Urban Okrug. [8]

The mayor (as of July 2017) is Igor Viktorovich Godzish, who was elected in 2015. [21]

City divisions

For administrative purposes, the city is divided into nine territorial okrugs: [22]

Economy and infrastructure

Nordavia (formerly Aeroflot Nord) airline has its head office on the grounds of the Talagi Airport in Arkhangelsk. [23]

Education

A monument to Peter the Great, a sailing ship, and the sea terminal in Arkhangelsk are depicted on a 500-ruble banknote Banknote 500 rubles 2010 front.jpg
A monument to Peter the Great, a sailing ship, and the sea terminal in Arkhangelsk are depicted on a 500-ruble banknote

Arkhangelsk was home to Pomorsky State University and Arkhangelsk State Technical University which merged with several other institutions of higher learning in 2010 to form the Northern (Arctic) Federal University.

Arkhangelsk is also home to the Northern State Medical University, Makarov state Maritime Academy,and a branch of the All-Russian Distance Institute of Finance and Economics.

Culture

The city's Cathedral of the Archangel Michael nearing completion in 2014 Saint Michael Archangel Cathedral (new) in Arkhangelsk.jpg
The city's Cathedral of the Archangel Michael nearing completion in 2014
The Sutyagin House, claimed to be the world's tallest wooden single-family house Sutyagin house 2.JPG
The Sutyagin House, claimed to be the world's tallest wooden single-family house

Mikhail Lomonosov came from a Pomor village near Kholmogory. A monument to him was installed to a design by Ivan Martos in 1829. A monument to Peter the Great was designed by Mark Antokolsky in 1872 and installed in 1914.

After its historic churches were destroyed during Joseph Stalin's rule, the city's main extant landmarks are the fort-like Merchant Yards (1668–1684) and the New Dvina Fortress (1701–1705). The Assumption Church on the Dvina embankment (1742–1744) was rebuilt in 2004.

In 2008, it was decided that the city's cathedral, dedicated to the Archangel Michael, which had been destroyed under the Soviets, would be rebuilt. The foundation stone was laid in November 2008 by the regional Bishop Tikhon. [25] The cathedral, situated near the city's main bus station and river port, is expected to be completed and consecrated in 2019. [26]

Another remarkable structure is the Arkhangelsk TV Mast, a 151-meter (495 ft) tall guyed mast for FM-/TV-broadcasting built in 1964. This tubular steel mast has six crossbars equipped with gangways, which run in two levels from the central mast structure out to the each of the three guys. On these crossbars there are also several antennas installed (image).

An unusual example of local "vernacular architecture" was the so-called Sutyagin house. This thirteen-story, 44-meter (144 ft) tall [27] [28] residence of the local entrepreneur Nikolay Petrovich Sutyagin was reported to be the world's, or at least Russia's, tallest wooden house. Constructed by Mr. Sutyagin and his family over the course of fifteen years (starting in 1992), without plans or a building permit, the structure deteriorated while Mr. Sutyagin spent a few years in prison on racketeering charges. In 2008, it was condemned by the city as a fire hazard, and the courts ordered it to be demolished by February 1, 2009. [27] [29] On December 26, 2008, the tower was pulled down, [30] [31] and the remainder of the building was dismantled manually by early February 2009. [32] [33]

The promenade alongside River Dvina Arkhangelsk, Russia.jpg
The promenade alongside River Dvina

The cultural life of Arkhangelsk includes:

An airstrip in Arkhangelsk was the fictional setting for a level in the 1997 hit videogame Goldeneye 007.[ citation needed ]

Literature

The Russian North, and, in particular, the area of Arkhangelsk, is notable for its folklore. Until the mid-20th century, fairy tales and bylinas were still performed on the daily basis by performers who became professionals. Starting from the 1890s, folkloric expeditions have been organized to the White Sea area and later to other areas of the Arkhangelsk Governorate in order to write down the tales and the bylinas, especially in Pomor dialects. In the 1920s, mostly due to the efforts of Anna Astakhova, these expeditions became systematic. By the 1960s, the performing art was basically extinct. These folkloric motives and fairy tales inspired the literary works of Stepan Pisakhov and Boris Shergin, who were both natives of Arkhangelsk.

Geography

Climate

Arkhangelsk experiences a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc), with long (November-March) and very cold winters and short (June-August) and cool summers.

Climate data for Arkhangelsk
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)5.0
(41.0)
5.2
(41.4)
12.1
(53.8)
25.3
(77.5)
31.7
(89.1)
33.0
(91.4)
34.4
(93.9)
33.4
(92.1)
27.7
(81.9)
18.3
(64.9)
10.0
(50.0)
5.8
(42.4)
34.4
(93.9)
Average high °C (°F)−9.2
(15.4)
−7.7
(18.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
5.4
(41.7)
12.5
(54.5)
18.7
(65.7)
21.8
(71.2)
18.0
(64.4)
12.2
(54.0)
4.8
(40.6)
−2.5
(27.5)
−6.4
(20.5)
5.5
(41.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)−12.7
(9.1)
−11.4
(11.5)
−5.5
(22.1)
0.4
(32.7)
6.9
(44.4)
13.0
(55.4)
16.3
(61.3)
13.1
(55.6)
8.2
(46.8)
2.3
(36.1)
−5.1
(22.8)
−9.8
(14.4)
1.3
(34.3)
Average low °C (°F)−16.5
(2.3)
−15.2
(4.6)
−9.4
(15.1)
−3.9
(25.0)
2.2
(36.0)
7.7
(45.9)
11.3
(52.3)
8.9
(48.0)
5.1
(41.2)
0.1
(32.2)
−7.7
(18.1)
−13.4
(7.9)
−2.6
(27.3)
Record low °C (°F)−45.2
(−49.4)
−41.2
(−42.2)
−37.1
(−34.8)
−27.3
(−17.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−3.9
(25.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.1
(24.6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−21.1
(−6.0)
−36.5
(−33.7)
−43.2
(−45.8)
−45.2
(−49.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)38
(1.5)
29
(1.1)
30
(1.2)
30
(1.2)
49
(1.9)
61
(2.4)
73
(2.9)
70
(2.8)
61
(2.4)
66
(2.6)
53
(2.1)
46
(1.8)
606
(23.9)
Average rainy days2241017171819221994143
Average snowy days272623136100.031132528163
Average relative humidity (%)85848072686975818588898780
Mean monthly sunshine hours 1356117193262298301203116591961,643
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net [34]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990) [35]

Sports

Vodnik's home stadium Trud, the arena for the final of the 2011-2012 season Stadium Trud Arkhangelsk.jpg
Vodnik's home stadium Trud, the arena for the final of the 2011–2012 season
Women costumed as brides in celebration of the 450th anniversary of the founding of Arkhangelsk. Prazdnichnyi parad v Arkhangel'ske (28).JPG
Women costumed as brides in celebration of the 450th anniversary of the founding of Arkhangelsk.
The tallest building in Arkhangelsk Arkhangelsk Chumbarova-Luchinskogo.jpg
The tallest building in Arkhangelsk

Bandy is the biggest sport in the city and is considered a national sport in Russia. [36] Vodnik, the local team, nine times became the Russian champion (1996–2000 and 2002–2005). Their home arena has the capacity of 10000. [37] Arkhangelsk hosted the Bandy World Championship in 1999 and 2003. [38] The 2011–2012 season Russian Bandy League final was played here on March 25, 2012. [39] [40] The 2016 Youth-17 Bandy World Championship was played in Arkhangelsk between 28–31 January. [41]

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Arkhangelsk is twinned with: [43]

Related Research Articles

Plesetsk Urban-type settlement in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Plesetsk is an urban locality and the administrative center of Plesetsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, situated about 800 kilometers (500 mi) northeast of Moscow and 180 kilometers (110 mi) south of Arkhangelsk. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Plesetskoye Urban Settlement, one of eight urban settlements in the district. Population: 11,037 (2010 Census); 11,300 (2002 Census); 14,027 (1989 Census).

Kargopol Town in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Kargopol is a town and the administrative center of Kargopolsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on both sides of the Onega River, several miles north of Lake Lacha, in the southwestern corner of the oblast. Population: 10,214 (2010 Census); 11,192 (2002 Census); 12,495 (1989 Census).

Kotlas Town in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Kotlas is a town in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Northern Dvina and Vychegda Rivers. Population: 60,562 (2010 Census); 60,647 (2002 Census); 68,021 (1989 Census).

Velsk Town in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Velsk is a town and the administrative center of Velsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Vel River at its confluence with the Vaga River, 545 kilometers (339 mi) south of Arkhangelsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 23,885 (2010 Census); 26,241 (2002 Census); 25,967 (1989 Census).

Mirny, Arkhangelsk Oblast Town in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Mirny is a closed town in the west of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, serving the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. The town is located 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) from the urban-type settlement of Plesetsk and is connected to it by a road and a railway. Gorodskaya railway station is located within the town, being a terminus to cosmodrome's vast railway system. The Plestsy Airport is also located nearby. Population: 30,280 (2010 Census); 30,502 (2002 Census).

Kotlassky District District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Kotlassky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kotlassky Municipal District. It is located in the southeast of the oblast and borders with Krasnoborsky District in the north, Lensky District in the northeast, Vilegodsky District in the east, Luzsky District of Kirov Oblast and Velikoustyugsky District of Vologda Oblast in the south, and with Ustyansky District in the west. The area of the district is 6,300 square kilometers (2,400 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kotlas. Population: 21,005 (2010 Census); 24,964 (2002 Census); 32,800 (1989 Census).

Kholmogorsky District District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Kholmogorsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Kholmogorsky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the oblast and borders with Pinezhsky District in the east, Vinogradovsky District in the southeast, the territory of the town of oblast significance of Mirny in the south, Plesetsky District in the southwest, and with Primorsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 16,827 square kilometers (6,497 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kholmogory. District's population: 25,061 (2010 Census); 30,797 (2002 Census); 35,891 (1989 Census). The population of Kholmogory accounts for 16.6% of the district's total population.

Bereznik, Vinogradovsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast Work settlement in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Bereznik, also known as Dvinskoy Bereznik, is an urban locality and the administrative center of Vinogradovsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Northern Dvina River, 192 kilometers (119 mi) southeast of Kholmogorskaya railway station and 276 kilometers (171 mi) from Arkhangelsk. Within the framework of municipal divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Bereznikovskoye Urban Settlement, the only urban settlement in the district. Population: 6,018 (2010 Census); 6,464 (2002 Census); 7,006 (1989 Census); ~4,000 (1968).

Shipitsyno Urban-type settlement in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Shipitsyno is an urban locality in Kotlassky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Northern Dvina River 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) from Kotlas. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Shipitsynskoye Urban Settlement, one of the three urban settlements in the district. Population: 3,452 (2010 Census); 3,930 (2002 Census); 4,795 (1989 Census)..

Privodino Work settlement in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Privodino is an urban locality in Kotlassky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Northern Dvina River 23 kilometers (14 mi) from Kotlas. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Privodinskoye Urban Settlement, one of the three urban settlements in the municipal district. Population: 3,161 (2010 Census); 3,264 (2002 Census); 3,154 (1989 Census).

Urdoma, Lensky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast Urban-type settlement in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Urdoma is an urban locality in Lensky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Verkhnyaya Lupya River, a tributary of the Vychegda. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Urdomskoye Urban Settlement, the only urban settlement in the district. Population: 4,577 (2010 Census); 4,637 (2002 Census); 4,998 (1989 Census)..

Ustyansky District District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Ustyansky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Ustyansky Municipal District. It is located in the south of the oblast and borders with Verkhnetoyemsky District in the northeast, Krasnoborsky and Kotlassky Districts in the east, Velikoustyugsky, Nyuksensky, Tarnogsky, and Verkhovazhsky Districts, all of Vologda Oblast, in the south, Velsky District in the west, and with Shenkursky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 10,700 square kilometers (4,100 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Oktyabrsky. Population: 30,581 (2010 Census); 37,131 (2002 Census); 45,352 (1989 Census). The population of Oktyabrsky accounts for 30.4% of the district's total population.

Vilegodsky District District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Vilegodsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Vilegodsky Municipal District. It is located in the southeast of the oblast and borders with Lensky District in the north, Sysolsky and Priluzsky Districts of the Komi Republic in the east, Luzsky District of Kirov Oblast in the south, and with Kotlassky District in the west. Its administrative center is the rural locality of Ilyinsko-Podomskoye. District's population: 11,158 (2010 Census); 13,241 (2002 Census); 16,616 (1989 Census). The population of Ilyinsko-Podomskoye accounts for 33.0% of the district's total population.

Krasnoborsk, Arkhangelsk Oblast Selo in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Krasnoborsk is a rural locality and the administrative center of Krasnoborsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Northern Dvina River. It also serves as the administrative center of Alexeyevsky Selsoviet, one of the ten selsoviets into which the district is administratively divided. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Alexeyevskoye Rural Settlement in Krasnoborsky Municipal District. Population: 4,771 (2010 Census); 5,030 (2002 Census); 5,110 (1989 Census).

Verkhnetoyemsky District District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Verkhnetoyemsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Verkhnetoyemsky Municipal District. It is located in the southeast of the oblast and borders with Pinezhsky District in the north, Udorsky District of the Komi Republic in the east, Krasnoborsky and Ustyansky Districts in the south, Shenkursky District in the west, and with Vinogradovsky District in the northwest. Its administrative center is the rural locality of Verkhnyaya Toyma. District's population: 17,060 (2010 Census); 22,630 (2002 Census); 27,989 (1989 Census). The population of Verkhnyaya Toyma accounts for 20.3% of the district's total population.

Ilyinsko-Podomskoye Selo in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Ilyinsko-Podomskoye is a rural locality and the administrative center of Vilegodsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Viled River. It also serves as the administrative center of Ilyinsky Selsoviet, one of the ten selsoviets into which the district is administratively divided. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Ilyinskoye Rural Settlement. Population: 3,682 (2010 Census); 2,973 (2002 Census); 3,365 (1989 Census).

Verkhnyaya Toyma, Arkhangelsk Oblast Selo in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Verkhnyaya Toyma is a rural locality and the administrative center of Verkhnetoyemsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Northern Dvina River. It also serves as the administrative center of Verkhnetoyemsky Selsoviet, one of the fourteen selsoviets into which the district is administratively divided. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Verkhnetoyemskoye Rural Settlement. Population:3,462 (2010 Census); 3,940 (2002 Census); 4,430 (1989 Census). It is served by Verkhnyaya Toyma Airport.

Shenkursky District District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Shenkursky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Shenkursky Municipal District. It is located in the south of the oblast and borders with Vinogradovsky District in the north, Verkhnetoyemsky District in the east, Ustyansky District in the southeast, Velsky District in the south, Nyandomsky District in the west, and with Plesetsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 11,298 square kilometers (4,362 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Shenkursk. Population: 15,196 (2010 Census); 18,680 (2002 Census); 22,597 (1989 Census). The population of Shenkursk accounts for 37.5% of the district's total population.

Severoonezhsk Urban-type settlement in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Severoonezhsk is an urban locality in Plesetsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located 55 kilometers (34 mi) west of the town of Mirny, on the left bank of the Onega River. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Severoonezhskoye Urban Settlement, one of the eight urban settlements in the district. Population: 5,289 (2010 Census); 5,624 (2002 Census); 6,223 (1989 Census)..

Primorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Primorsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Primorsky Municipal District, and also includes Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea and Franz Josef Land and Victoria Island in the Arctic Ocean. It is located in the north of the oblast and borders with Mezensky District in the northeast, Pinezhsky District in the east, Kholmogorsky District in the southeast, Plesetsky District in the south, and with Onezhsky District in the south. From the north, the district is washed by the White Sea. The area of the district is 46,100 square kilometers (17,800 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Arkhangelsk. Population: 25,466 (2010 Census); 29,365 (2002 Census); 31,813 (1989 Census).

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 401», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 11 401, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  2. Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 25. ISBN   5-7107-7399-9.
  3. 1 2 Информация о мэре города (in Russian). Мэрия Архангельска. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  4. Паспорт города (in Russian). Мэрия Архангельска. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  5. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  6. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Oblast Law #65-5-OZ
  8. 1 2 3 4 Oblast Law #258-vneoch.-OZ
  9. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  10. "List of postal codes" (in Russian). Russian Post. Archived from the original on December 12, 2006. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
  11. Коды областных центров (PDF) (in Russian). Beeline. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 23, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
  12. "www.arhcity.ru" (in Russian). Мэрия Архангельска. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  13. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  14. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  15. "Archangel: Heraldic Argument in Russia". The Baronage Press.
  16. Nosov, E.N (1992). "THE ARKHANGELSK HOARD" (PDF). sarks.fi.
  17. Жилинский, К. А. (1919). Крайний север Европейской России (in Russian). Кольские карты. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  18. Hill, Alexander (2007). "Russian and Soviet Naval Power and the Arctic from the XVI Century to the Beginning of the Great Patriotic War". The Journal of Slavic Military Studies. 20 (3).
  19. "Detroit's Polar Bears and their confusing war". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
  20. Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 252», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 11 252, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  21. "Google Translate". translate.googleusercontent.com.
  22. Архангельский городской Совет народных депутатов. Решение №88 от 15 ноября 1991 г. «Об образовании территориальных городских округов». (Arkhangelsk City Council of People's Deputies. Decision #88 of November 15, 1991 On Establishing the City Territorial Okrugs. ).
  23. "Contact Us". Nordavia . Archived at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
  24. The 500-ruble Bank of Russia note
  25. "Archangelsk invests in new cathedral". Barents Observer. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  26. "Archangel Mikhail Cathedral". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  27. 1 2 Sutyagin House, Arkhangelsk, Russia: Standing tall. WorldArchitectureNews.com, Wednesday Mar 7, 2007. (Includes photo)
  28. According to other sources, twelve stories, 38 meters (125 ft)
  29. Ponomaryova, Hope (June 26, 2008). Гангстер-хаус: Самый высокий деревянный дом в России объявлен вне закона [Gangster house: Russia's tallest wooden house is now outlawed]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Moscow, Russia. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
  30. В Архангельске провалилась первая попытка снести самое высокое деревянное здание в мире [Arkhangelsk The first attempt to demolish the tallest wooden building in the world failed in Arkhangelsk]. NEWSru.com Realty (Недвижимость) (in Russian). Moscow, Russia. December 26, 2008. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
  31. mihai055 (December 26, 2008). Сутягин, снос дома [Demolition of Sutyagin's house](Flash video) (in Russian). YouTube. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
  32. В Архангельске разрушено самое высокое деревянное здание в мире [The tallest wooden building in the world has been destroyed in Arkhangelsk]. NEWSru.com Realty (Недвижимость) (in Russian). Moscow, Russia. February 6, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
  33. От самого высокого деревянного строения в мире осталась груда мусора [Only a heap of debris is left from the world's tallest wooden building](flash video and text). Channel One Russia (in Russian). Moscow, Russia: Web-службой Первого канала. February 6, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
  34. "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Arkhangelsk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  35. "Arhangelsk (Arkhangelsk) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  36. "Russian bandy players blessed for victory at world championship in Kazan". Tatar-Inform. January 21, 2011. Archived from the original on April 24, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
  37. Стадион "Труд", Архангельск (in Russian). Федерация хоккея с мячом России. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  38. Video from a home game against Baykal-Energiya from Irkutsk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1uAVZxVEoe0
  39. "Официальный сайт хоккейного клуба "Кузбасс" (Кемерово) — www.kuzbassbandyclub.ru". Kuzbassbandyclub.ru. 2011-11-27. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
  40. Video from the final of the Russian Championships in 2012 Archived June 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  41. "Состав юношеской сборной России (U-17) на ЧМ-2016" (in Russian). Russian Bandy Federation. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  42. Chessgames.com – Ilya Shumov
  43. Информация о городах-побратимах (in Russian). arhcity.ru. October 26, 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  44. "Ystävyyskaupungit (Twin Cities)". Oulun kaupunki (City of Oulu) (in Finnish). Retrieved 2013-07-27.

Sources

Further reading