|Born||November 26, 1904|
|Died||December 17, 1991 87)(aged|
|Awards|| Order of Canada |
National Order of Quebec
Order of the British Empire
Armand Frappier[ pronunciation? ], CC GOQ OBE MSRC (November 26, 1904 – December 17, 1991) was a physician, microbiologist, and expert on tuberculosis from Quebec, Canada.
The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, which is the personal gift of Canada's monarch.
The National Order of Quebec, termed officially in French as l'Ordre national du Québec, and in English abbreviation as the Order of Quebec, is a civilian honour for merit in the Canadian province of Quebec. Instituted in 1984 when Lieutenant Governor Jean-Pierre Côté granted Royal Assent to the Loi sur l'Ordre national du Québec, the order is administered by the Governor-in-Council and is intended to honour current or former Quebec residents for conspicuous achievements in any field, being thus described as the highest honour in Quebec.
Born in Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, Quebec, the son of Arthur-Alexis Frappier and Bernadette Codebecq, his mother died in 1923 from tuberculosis. This greatly affected him and he pursued a career devoted to fighting this tueuse de maman (mother killer). In 1924, he received a Bachelor of Arts and, in 1930, he received a medical degree from the Université de Montréal. In 1933, he obtained a Bachelor of Science also from the Université de Montréal.
The Université de Montréal (UdeM; French pronunciation: [ynivɛʁsite də mɔ̃ʁeal] translates to University of Montreal is a French-language public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the Outremont and Côte-des-Neiges boroughs. The institution comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two affiliated schools: the Polytechnique Montréal and HEC Montréal. It offers more than 650 undergraduate programmes and graduate programmes, including 71 doctoral programmes.
In 1938, he founded the Institut de microbiologie et d'hygiène de Montréal - following the model of the Pasteur Institute in Paris and the Connaught Laboratories of the University of Toronto (Malissard, 1998; 1999a, 1999b, 2000)- the first French-language school of hygiene in the world, and served as its director for 38 years. It was renamed Institut Armand-Frappier in 1975.
He was instrumental in the fight against tuberculosis in Canada and as one of the first researchers to confirm the safety and usefulness of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in the future. Vaccines can be prophylactic, or therapeutic.
In 1929, he married Thérèse Ostiguy. They had four children: Lise, Monique, Michèle, and Paul.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order.
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the US states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger. It is historically and politically considered to be part of Central Canada.
The Prix Armand-Frappier is an award by the Government of Quebec, part of the Prix du Québec, "given to people who have pursued a research career and have helped build up a research institution. Or it goes to those who have devoted themselves to administering or promoting research and have thereby helped train the next generation of scientists while raising public interest in science and technology". It is named in honour of Armand Frappier.
The Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) is a public university based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is a French-language university and is the largest constituent element of the Université du Québec system.
The Institut national de la recherche scientifique is the research-oriented branch of the Université du Québec that offers only graduate studies. INRS conducts research in four broad sectors: water, earth and the environment; energy, materials and telecommunications; human, animal and environmental health; and urbanization, culture and society.
The Institut canadien de Montréal was founded on 17 December 1844, by a group of 200 young liberal professionals in Montreal, Canada East, Province of Canada. The Institute provided a public library and debating room for its members. At the time, there were no French-language universities nor public libraries in Montreal. Between 1845 and 1871, some 136 lectures were held inside the Institute's walls. The Institute eventually came into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church over the contents of its library. Partly as a result of the dispute with the Church, the Institute eventually folded in the 1870s.
The Red Party was a political group that contested elections in the Eastern section of the Province of Canada. It was formed around 1847 by radical French-Canadians inspired by the ideas of Louis-Joseph Papineau, the Institut canadien de Montréal, and the reformist movement led by the Parti patriote of the 1830s.
Léon Charles Albert Calmette ForMemRS was a French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist, and an important officer of the Pasteur Institute. He discovered the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, an attenuated form of Mycobacterium bovis used in the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis. He also developed the first antivenom for snake venom, the Calmette's serum.
Jacques Genest was a Canadian physician and scientist. He founded the Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal (IRCM) and was an emeritus professor at Université de Montréal and a professor at McGill University. Dr. Genest was best known for founding and leading several organizations related to clinical research in Québec and for his work on arterial hypertension.
Joseph-Henri-Albiny Paquette was a Quebec politician and physician. He was a cabinet minister for 17 years in Maurice Duplessis' Union Nationale government.
Luc Vinet is a Canadian physicist and former rector of the Université de Montréal.
The following is an incomplete bibliography of the 1837-1838 insurrections in Lower Canada in the English and French languages, by publication date and document type.
Camille Roy was a Canadian priest and literary critic. He wrote extensively about the development of French-Canadian literature, and its importance in the promotion of French language and culture and of Christian ideals.
The Fédération étudiante universitaire du Québec (FEUQ) is a federation of university students' unions created following the lifting of the tuition freeze in 1989. It includes 9 member associations, which represent more than 71 000 Quebec university students.
The Estates General of French Canada were a series of three assizes held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada between 1966 and 1969. Organized by the Ligue d'action nationale and coordinated by the Fédération des Sociétés Saint-Jean-Baptistes du Québec (FSSJBQ), the stated objective of these Estates General was to consult the French-Canadian people on their constitutional future.
Jean-Luc Migué, born in Saint-Jacques (Québec), is a Canadian economist. He is a Senior Fellow at the Fraser Institute of Vancouver and at the Montreal Economic Institute.
Michel Gervais, was the 22nd rector of Université Laval from 1987 to 1997.
Léopold Nègre was a French biologist born in Montpellier.
Roger Le Moine was an emeritus professor of Québec and French literature at the University of Ottawa.
Jeanne Lapointe was a Canadian academic and intellectual.
Francine Saillant is a Canadian anthropologist and intellectual.
Benoît Lacroix was a Quebec theologian, philosopher, Dominican priest, professor in medieval studies and historian of the Medieval period, and author of almost 50 works and a great number of articles.
André Gaudreault is a Canadian film historian and theorist who holds the Canada Research Chair in Film and Media Studies.