Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day

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Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day
Tsitsernakaberd24.04.2009.JPG
Also calledArmenian Genocide Memorial Day
Observed by Armenia
Artsakh
State of California [1]
Canada [2]
France [3]
Argentina [4]
TypeNational
SignificanceCommemoration of the Armenian Genocide
Date 24 April
Frequencyannual

Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day (Armenian : Մեծ Եղեռնի զոհերի հիշատակի օրMets Yegherrni zoheri hishataki or; Turkish : Ermeni Soykırımı Anma Günü) or Armenian Genocide Memorial Day [5] is a public holiday in Armenia and the Republic of Artsakh and is observed by the Armenian diaspora on 24 April. [5] [6] It is held annually to commemorate the victims of the Armenian Genocide of 1915. It was a series massacres and starvations of 1.5 million Armenians by the Turks. In Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, hundreds of thousands of people walk to the Tsitsernakaberd Genocide Memorial to lay flowers at the eternal flame.

Armenian language Indo-European language

The Armenian language is an Indo-European language that is the only language in the Armenian branch. It is the official language of Armenia as well as the de facto Republic of Artsakh. Historically being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, today, Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Turkish language Turkic language mainly spoken and used in Turkey

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish,, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

The following is a list of holidays in Armenia.

Contents

History

Genocide memorial in Saint Sarkis Cathedral, Tehran Armenian Genocide memorial in Saint Sarkis Cathedral, Tehran.jpg
Genocide memorial in Saint Sarkis Cathedral, Tehran

The date 24 April commemorates the deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April 1915 from Constantinople (current Istanbul, Turkey). The first commemoration, organized by a group of Armenian Genocide survivors, was held in Istanbul in 1919 at the local St. Trinity Armenian church. [7] Many prominent figures in the Armenian community participated in the commemoration. Following its initial commemoration in 1919, the date became the annual day of remembrance for the Armenian Genocide. [7]

Deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April 1915 part of Armenian Genocide

The deportation of Armenian intellectuals, sometimes known as Red Sunday, was the first major event of the Armenian Genocide. Leaders of the Armenian community in the Ottoman capital of Constantinople, and later other locations, were arrested and moved to two holding centers near Angora. The order to do so was given by Minister of the Interior Talaat Pasha on 24 April 1915. On that night, the first wave of 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals of Constantinople were arrested. Eventually, the total number of arrests and deportations amounted to 2,345. With the adoption of the Tehcir Law on 29 May 1915, these detainees were later relocated within the Ottoman Empire; most of them were ultimately killed. A few, such as Vrtanes Papazian and Komitas, were saved through intervention.

Memorialization generally refers to the process of preserving memories of people or events. It can be a form of address or petition, or a ceremony of remembrance or commemoration.

On 9 April 1975, the US House of Representatives passed Joint Resolution 148 designating 24 April as a National Day of Remembrance of Man's Inhumanity to Man. [8] The Resolution commemorated the victims of genocide, especially those of Armenian ancestry who succumbed to the genocide perpetrated in 1915, The resolution however failed to pass in the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee due to President Gerald R. Ford’s strong opposition to what he saw as a threat to the country's strategic alliance with Turkey. [9]

In 1988, Soviet Armenia formally adopted 24 April as a public day of commemoration. [10] :215

In 1997 the California State Assembly declared 24 April as a Day of Remembrance for the Armenian Genocide of 1915–1923, and for the victims of the Sumgait Pogroms of 1988 and Baku Riots of 1990. [10] :232

California State Assembly lower house of the California State Legislature

The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature, the upper house being the California State Senate. The Assembly convenes, along with the State Senate, at the California State Capitol in Sacramento.

In 2007, Argentina passed the Law 26,199, designating 24 April as "Day of Action for Tolerance and Respect among Peoples", in which Armenian Argentine are excused from work. [4]

Argentina Federal republic in South America

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation. The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

Armenian Argentine

Armenian Argentines are ethnic Armenians who live in Argentina. Between 70,000 and 135,000 people of Armenian ancestry live in the country, forming one of the largest groups in the Armenian diaspora worldwide. The core of the population came from Cilicia, Syria and Lebanon. In Buenos Aires, the Armenian community is known to share their common culture with the Basque community through musical events and cultural activities.

In 2015, the House of Commons of Canada unanimously passed Motion M-587, proposed by Brad Butt, marking April to be Genocide Remembrance, Condemnation and Prevention Month, and designating 24 April as Armenian Genocide Memorial Day. [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

Armenian Genocide systematic killing of Armenians residing in the Ottoman Empire

The Armenian Genocide, also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported from Constantinople to the region of Angora (Ankara), 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were eventually murdered. The genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly, and the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre. Other ethnic groups were similarly targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, and their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy. Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide.

Cenotaph "empty tomb" or monument erected in honor of a person whose remains are elsewhere

A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs honour individuals, many noted cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of a country or of an empire.

Holocaust Memorial Day (UK) national event in the United Kingdom

Holocaust Memorial Day is a national commemoration day in the United Kingdom dedicated to the remembrance of those who suffered in The Holocaust, under Nazi Persecution, and in subsequent genocides in Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia, and Darfur. It was first held in January 2001 and has been on the same date every year since. The chosen date is the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp by the Soviet Union in 1945, the date also chosen for the International Holocaust Remembrance Day and some other national Holocaust Memorial Days.

The 1965 Yerevan demonstrations took place in Yerevan, Armenia on April 24, 1965, on the 50th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. It is said that this event constitutes the first step in the struggle for the recognition of the Armenian Genocide of 1915.

Armenian Genocide denial fringe theory

Armenian Genocide denial is the act of denying the planned systematic genocide of 1.5 million Armenians during World War I, conducted by the Ottoman government. Turkey similarly denies the genocides perpetrated against indigenous Assyrians and Greeks during the same period. As form of denialism, it can be compared to similar negationist historical revisionisms such as Holocaust denial and Nanking Massacre denial.

Tsitsernakaberd Armenias official memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide,

The Armenian Genocide memorial complex is Armenia's official memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, built in 1967 on the hill of Tsitsernakaberd in Yerevan. Every year on April 24—the Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day—thousands of Armenians gather at the memorial to commemorate the victims of the genocide. The people who gather in Tsiternakaberd lay fresh flowers out of respect for all the people who died in the Armenian genocide. Over the years, from around the world, a wide range of politicians, artists, musician, athletes, and religious figures have visited the memorial.

Montebello Genocide Memorial

The Armenian Genocide Martyrs Monument, better known as Montebello Genocide Memorial, is a monument in Montebello, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide of 1915. The monument, opened in April 1968, is a tower of eight arches supported on 75-foot-tall (23 m) white concrete columns. The memorial was designed by Hrant Agbabian. It is the oldest and largest memorial in the United States dedicated to the Armenian Genocide victims. The inscription on the memorial plaque reads:

Armenian Martyrs Memorial Monument: This Monument erected by Americans of Armenian descent, is dedicated to the 1,500,000 Armenian victims of the Genocide perpetrated by the Turkish Government, 1915–1921, and to men of all nations who have fallen victim to crimes against humanity.

Arman Manookian Armenian-American painter

Arman Tateos Manookian was an Armenian-American painter best known for his works depicting Hawaiian scenes.

Martyrs' Day is an annual day observed by nations to salute the martyrdom of soldiers who lost their lives defending the sovereignty of the nation. The actual date may vary from one country to another. Here is a list of countries and Martyrs' Days.

Armenian Genocide recognition

Armenian Genocide recognition is the formal acceptance that the systematic massacres and forced deportation of Armenians committed by the Ottoman Empire from 1915 to 1923 constituted genocide. The consensus of historians and academic institutions on Holocaust and genocide studies recognize the Armenian Genocide. However, despite the recognition of the genocidal character of the massacre of Armenians in scholarship as well as in civil society, some governments have been reticent to officially acknowledge the killings as genocide because of political concerns about their relations with the Republic of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Imperial authorities which perpetrated the genocide. The governments of Turkey and its close ally The Republic of Azerbaijan are the only ones that directly deny the historical factuality of the Armenian Genocide, and both are adamantly opposed to the recognition of the genocide by other nations, threatening economic and diplomatic consequences to recognizers.

Madagh is an Armenian custom of commemorating victims through requiem services, most often associated with the annual remembrance of the Armenian Genocide. Madagh is typically celebrated with community gatherings sponsored by churches, which include public offerings of food. Food offerings often include lamb stew with pilaf made from bulgur, and Armenian flat bread or katah bread.

Aviation Martyrs Monument

The Aviation Martyrs' Monument, located in Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey, is a memorial dedicated to the first soldiers of the Ottoman Airforce to be killed in flight accidents. In Turkey, one use of the term "martyr" is as an honorific for people killed in action during war.

100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide

The 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide was commemorated on April 24, 2015. April 24, 1915 is considered the beginning of the Armenian Genocide, and is commonly known as Red Sunday, which saw the deportation and execution of many Armenian intellectuals.

Genocide Remembrance Day may refer to:

The following lists events that happened during 2014 in Armenia.

Istanbul Armenian Genocide memorial

The Istanbul Armenian Genocide memorial, also known as Huşartsan, was a marble monument that became the first memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide. It was erected in 1919 at a site now partly located within today's Gezi Park, near Taksim Square in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire. The monument was located on the premises of the former Pangaltı Armenian Cemetery. In 1922, during the Turkish National Movement, the monument was dismantled and subsequently lost under unknown circumstances.

Bengali Genocide Remembrance Day national day to be observed on 25 March in Bangladesh to commemorate the victims of the Bengali Genocide of 1971, approved unanimously in 2017

Bengali Genocide Remembrance Day or Bangladesh Genocide Memorial Day is a national day observed on 25 March in Bangladesh to commemorate the victims of the Bengali genocide of 1971, approved unanimously in 2017.

References

  1. "State of California Commemorates the Armenian Genocide". anca.org. Armenian National Committee of America. 21 April 2005.
  2. "April 24 Declared Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day in Canada". Asbarez . 28 April 2015.
  3. "Macron Declares April 24 Commemoration Day of Armenian Genocide in France". The New York Times . via Reuters. 5 February 2019.
  4. 1 2 "Ley 26199". Infoleg.
  5. 1 2 Jones, Adam (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Taylor & Francis. p. 156. ISBN   9780203846964.
  6. Hovannisian, Richard G., ed. (1992). The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 339. ISBN   9780312048471.
  7. 1 2 "At the Origins of Commemoration: The 90th Anniversary Declaring April 24 as a Day of Mourning and Commemoration of the Armenian Genocide". Armenian Genocide Museum. 10 March 2009.
  8. "United States House of Representatives Joint Resolution 148". Armenian National Institute. 9 April 1975. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  9. Gunter, Michael M. (15 April 2011). Armenian History and the Question of Genocide. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 76. ISBN   978-0-230-11059-5 . Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  10. 1 2 Bloxham, Donald (28 April 2005). The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians . Oxford University Press. p.  Google Books PT10. ISBN   978-0-19-150044-2.
  11. "Brad Butt – Private Members' Motions – 41st Parliament, 2nd Session" . Retrieved 24 April 2018.[ permanent dead link ]