Official language in
|Regulated by|| Armenian National Academy of Sciences (Armenia) |
Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (Western Armenian, de facto)
The current distribution of the Armenian language in the southern Caucasus
Official language spoken by the majority
Recognized minority language
Significant number of speakers
Armenian (classical: հայերէն, reformed: հայերեն, [hɑjɛˈɾɛn] , hayeren) is an Indo-European language belonging to an independent branch of which it is the only member. It is the official language of Armenia. Historically spoken in the Armenian Highlands, today Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by the priest Mesrop Mashtots. The total number of Armenian speakers worldwide is estimated between 5 and 7 million.
The number of Armenian-speakers by country according to official government sources, including censuses and estimates:
|Armenia||2,956,615||"Mother tongue"||2011 census|
|Russia||829,345||"Native language"||2010 census|
|United States||240,402||"Language Spoken at Home"||2010 ACS|
|Georgia||144,812||"Native language"||2014 census|
|Artsakh||142,323||"Mother tongue"||2015 census|
|Ukraine||51,847||"Mother tongue"||2001 census|
|Canada||35,790||"Mother tongue"||2016 census|
|21,510||"Language spoken most often at home"|
|Australia||10,205||"Language spoken at home"||2016 census|
|Bulgaria||5,615||"Mother tongue"||2011 census|
|Belarus||5,245||"Mother tongue"||2019 census|
|1,710||"Language spoken most often at home"|
|Poland||2,115||"Mother tongue"||2011 census|
|1,847||"Language used in home relations"|
|Lithuania||575||"Mother tongue"||2011 census|
|Hungary||444||"Mother tongue"||2011 census|
|Tajikistan||219||"Mother tongue"||2010 census|
|History of the Armenian language|
| Armenian alphabet |
Romanization of Armenian
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Armenian is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages.It is of interest to linguists for its distinctive phonological developments within that family. Armenian exhibits more satemization than centumization, although it is not classified as belonging to either of these subgroups. Some linguists tentatively conclude that Armenian, Greek (and Phrygian) and Indo-Iranian were dialectally close to each other; within this hypothetical dialect group, Proto-Armenian was situated between Proto-Greek (centum subgroup) and Proto-Indo-Iranian (satem subgroup). Ronald I. Kim has noted unique morphological developments connecting Armenian to Balto-Slavic languages.
Armenia was a monolingual country by the 2nd century BC at the latest.Its language has a long literary history, with a 5th-century Bible translation as its oldest surviving text. Its vocabulary has historically been influenced by Western Middle Iranian languages, particularly Parthian; its derivational morphology and syntax were also affected by language contact with Parthian, but to a lesser extent. Contact with Greek, Persian, and Syriac also resulted in a number of loanwords. There are two standardized modern literary forms, Eastern Armenian and Western Armenian, with which most contemporary dialects are mutually intelligible.
Although Armenians were known to history much earlier (for example, they were mentioned in the 6th-century BC Behistun Inscription and in Xenophon's 4th century BC history, The Anabasis ),the oldest surviving Armenian-language text is the 5th century AD Bible translation of Mesrop Mashtots, who created the Armenian alphabet in 405, at which time it had 36 letters. He is also credited by some with the creation of the Georgian alphabet and the Caucasian Albanian alphabet.
While Armenian constitutes the sole member of the Armenian branch of the Indo-European family, Aram Kossian has suggested that the hypothetical Mushki language may have been a (now extinct) Armenic language.
W. M. Austin (1942) concludedthat there was early contact between Armenian and Anatolian languages, based on what he considered common archaisms, such as the lack of a feminine gender and the absence of inherited long vowels. However, unlike shared innovations (or synapomorphies ), the common retention of archaisms (or symplesiomorphy ) is not considered conclusive evidence of a period of common isolated development. There are words used in Armenian that are generally believed to have been borrowed from Anatolian languages, particularly from Luwian, although some researchers have identified possible Hittite loanwords as well. One notable loanword from Anatolian is Armenian xalam, "skull", cognate to Hittite ḫalanta, "head".
In 1985, Soviet linguist Igor M. Diakonoff noted the presence in Classical Armenian of what he calls a "Caucasian substratum" identified by earlier scholars, consisting of loans from the Kartvelian and Northeast Caucasian languages.Noting that Hurro-Urartian-speaking peoples inhabited the Armenian homeland in the second millennium BC, Diakonoff identifies in Armenian a Hurro-Urartian substratum of social, cultural, and animal and plant terms such as ałaxin "slave girl" ( ← Hurr. al(l)a(e)ḫḫenne), cov "sea" ( ← Urart. ṣûǝ "(inland) sea"), ułt "camel" ( ← Hurr. uḷtu), and xnjor "apple (tree)" ( ← Hurr. ḫinzuri). Some of the terms he gives admittedly have an Akkadian or Sumerian provenance, but he suggests they were borrowed through Hurrian or Urartian. Given that these borrowings do not undergo sound changes characteristic of the development of Armenian from Proto-Indo-European, he dates their borrowing to a time before the written record but after the Proto-Armenian language stage.
Loan words from Iranian languages, along with the other ancient accounts such as that of Xenophon above, initially led linguists to erroneously classify Armenian as an Iranian language. Scholars such as Paul de Lagarde and F. Müller believed that the similarities between the two languages meant that Armenian belonged to the Iranian language family.The distinctness of Armenian was recognized when philologist Heinrich Hübschmann (1875) used the comparative method to distinguish two layers of Iranian words from the older Armenian vocabulary. He showed that Armenian often had 2 morphemes for the one concept, and the non-Iranian components yielded a consistent PIE pattern distinct from Iranian, and also demonstrated that the inflectional morphology was different from that in Iranian languages.
The hypothesis that Greek is Armenian's closest living relative originates with Holger Pedersen (1924), who noted that the number of Greek-Armenian lexical cognates is greater than that of agreements between Armenian and any other Indo-European language. Antoine Meillet (1925, 1927) further investigated morphological and phonological agreement, postulating that the parent languages of Greek and Armenian were dialects in immediate geographical proximity in the Proto-Indo-European period. Meillet's hypothesis became popular in the wake of his book Esquisse d'une histoire de la langue latine (1936). Georg Renatus Solta (1960) does not go as far as postulating a Proto-Graeco-Armenian stage, but he concludes that considering both the lexicon and morphology, Greek is clearly the dialect most closely related to Armenian. Eric P. Hamp (1976, 91) supports the Graeco-Armenian thesis, anticipating even a time "when we should speak of Helleno-Armenian" (meaning the postulate of a Graeco-Armenian proto-language). Armenian shares the augment, and a negator derived from the set phrase Proto-Indo-European language *ne h₂oyu kʷid ("never anything" or "always nothing"), and the representation of word-initial laryngeals by prothetic vowels, and other phonological and morphological peculiarities with Greek. Nevertheless, as Fortson (2004) comments, "by the time we reach our earliest Armenian records in the 5th century AD, the evidence of any such early kinship has been reduced to a few tantalizing pieces".
Graeco-(Armeno)-Aryan is a hypothetical clade within the Indo-European family, ancestral to the Greek language, the Armenian language, and the Indo-Iranian languages. Graeco-Aryan unity would have become divided into Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian by the mid-third millennium BC. Conceivably, Proto-Armenian would have been located between Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian, consistent with the fact that Armenian shares certain features only with Indo-Iranian (the satem change) but others only with Greek (s > h).
Graeco-Aryan has comparatively wide support among Indo-Europeanists who believe the Indo-European homeland to be located in the Armenian Highlands, the "Armenian hypothesis".Early and strong evidence was given by Euler's 1979 examination on shared features in Greek and Sanskrit nominal flection.
Used in tandem with the Graeco-Armenian hypothesis, the Armenian language would also be included under the label Aryano-Greco-Armenic, splitting into proto-Greek/Phrygian and "Armeno-Aryan" (ancestor of Armenian and Indo-Iranian).
Classical Armenian (Arm: grabar), attested from the 5th century to the 19th century as the literary standard (up to the 11th century also as a spoken language with different varieties), was partially superseded by Middle Armenian, attested from the 12th century to the 18th century. Specialized literature prefers "Old Armenian" for grabar as a whole, and designates as "Classical" the language used in the 5th century literature, "Post-Classical" from the late 5th to 8th centuries, and "Late Grabar" that of the period covering the 8th to 11th centuries. Later, it was used mainly in religious and specialized literature, with the exception of a revival during the early modern period, when attempts were made to establish it as the language of a literary renaissance, with neoclassical inclinations, through the creation and dissemination of literature in varied genres, especially by the Mekhitarists. The first Armenian periodical, Azdarar , was published in grabar in 1794.
The classical form borrowed numerous words from Middle Iranian languages, primarily Parthian, օ" and "ֆ"), bringing the total number to 38.and contains smaller inventories of loanwords from Greek, Syriac, Aramaic, Arabic, Mongol, Persian, and indigenous languages such as Urartian. An effort to modernize the language in Bagratid Armenia and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (11–14th centuries) resulted in the addition of two more characters to the alphabet ("
The Book of Lamentations by Gregory of Narek (951–1003) is an example of the development of a literature and writing style of Old Armenian by the 10th century. In addition to elevating the literary style and vocabulary of the Armenian language by adding well above a thousand new words,through his other hymns and poems Gregory paved the way for his successors to include secular themes and vernacular language in their writings. The thematic shift from mainly religious texts to writings with secular outlooks further enhanced and enriched the vocabulary. “A Word of Wisdom”, a poem by Hovhannes Sargavak devoted to a starling, legitimizes poetry devoted to nature, love, or female beauty. Gradually, the interests of the population at large were reflected in other literary works as well. Konsdantin Yerzinkatsi and several others even take the unusual step of criticizing the ecclesiastic establishment and addressing the social issues of the Armenian homeland. However, these changes represented the nature of the literary style and syntax, but they did not constitute immense changes to the fundamentals of the grammar or the morphology of the language. Often, when writers codify a spoken dialect, other language users are then encouraged to imitate that structure through the literary device known as parallelism.
In the 19th century, the traditional Armenian homeland was once again divided. This time Eastern Armenia was conquered from Qajar Iran by the Russian Empire, while Western Armenia, containing two thirds of historical Armenia, remained under Ottoman control. The antagonistic relationship between the Russian and Ottoman empires led to creation of two separate and different environments under which Armenians lived. Halfway through the 19th century, two important concentrations of Armenian communities were further consolidated.Because of persecutions or the search for better economic opportunities, many Armenians living under Ottoman rule gradually moved to Istanbul, whereas Tbilisi became the center of Armenians living under Russian rule. These two cosmopolitan cities very soon became the primary poles of Armenian intellectual and cultural life.
The introduction of new literary forms and styles, as well as many new ideas sweeping Europe, reached Armenians living in both regions. This created an ever-growing need to elevate the vernacular, Ashkharhabar, to the dignity of a modern literary language, in contrast to the now-anachronistic Grabar. Numerous dialects existed in the traditional Armenian regions, which, different as they were, had certain morphological and phonetic features in common. On the basis of these features two major standards emerged:
Both centers vigorously pursued the promotion of Ashkharhabar. The proliferation of newspapers in both versions (Eastern & Western) and the development of a network of schools where modern Armenian was taught, dramatically increased the rate of literacy (in spite of the obstacles by the colonial administrators), even in remote rural areas. The emergence of literary works entirely written in the modern versions increasingly legitimized the language's existence. By the turn of the 20th century both varieties of the one modern Armenian language prevailed over Grabar and opened the path to a new and simplified grammatical structure of the language in the two different cultural spheres. Apart from several morphological, phonetic, and grammatical differences, the largely common vocabulary and generally analogous rules of grammatical fundamentals allows users of one variant to understand the other as long as they are fluent in one of the literary standards.
After World War I, the existence of the two modern versions of the same language was sanctioned even more clearly. The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (1920–1990) used Eastern Armenian as its official language, whereas the diaspora created after the Armenian genocide preserved the Western Armenian dialect.
The two modern literary dialects, Western (originally associated with writers in the Ottoman Empire) and Eastern (originally associated with writers in the Russian Empire), removed almost all of their Turkish lexical influences in the 20th century, primarily following the Armenian genocide.
Proto-Indo-European voiceless stop consonants are aspirated in the Proto-Armenian language, one of the circumstances that is often linked to the glottalic theory, a version of which postulated that the voiceless occlusives of Proto-Indo-European were aspirated.
In Armenian, the stress falls on the last syllable unless the last syllable contains the definite article [ə] or [n], and the possessive articles ս and դ, in which case it falls on the penultimate one. For instance, [ɑχɔɾˈʒɑk], [mɑʁɑdɑˈnɔs], [ɡiˈni] but [vɑˈhɑɡən] and [ˈdɑʃtə]. Exceptions to this rule are some words with the final letter է (ե in the reformed orthography) (մի՛թէ, մի՛գուցե, ո՛րեւէ) and sometimes the ordinal numerals (վե՛ցերորդ, տա՛սներորդ, etc.), as well as նաեւ, նամանաւանդ, հիմա, այժմ, and a small number of other words.
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Modern Armenian has six monophthongs. Each vowel phoneme in the table is represented by three symbols. The first is the sounds transcription in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). After that appears the corresponding letter of the Armenian alphabet. The last symbol is its Latin transliteration.
|Close||/ i /|
|/ u /|
|Mid||/ ɛ /|
ե , է
|/ ə /|
|/ ɔ /|
ո , օ
|Open||/ ɑ /|
The following table lists the Eastern Armenian consonantal system. The occlusives and affricates have an aspirated series, commonly transcribed with a reversed apostrophe after the letter. Each phoneme in the table is represented by IPA, Armenian script and romanization.
|Nasal||/m/մ – m||/n/ն – n||[ŋ]|
|Stop||voiced||/b/բ – b||/d/դ – d||/ɡ/գ – g|
|voiceless||/p/պ – p||/t/տ – t||/k/կ – k|
|aspirated||/pʰ/փ – pʻ||/tʰ/թ – tʻ||/kʰ/ք – kʻ|
|Affricate||voiced||/d͡z/ձ – j||/d͡ʒ/ջ – ǰ|
|voiceless||/t͡s/ծ – ç||/t͡ʃ/ճ – č|
|aspirated||/t͡sʰ/ց – cʻ||/t͡ʃʰ/չ – čʻ|
|Fricative||voiceless||/f/ֆ – f||/s/ս – s||/ʃ/շ – š||/x ~ χ/1խ – x||/h/հ – h|
|voiced||/v/վ – v||/z/զ – z||/ʒ/ժ – ž||/ɣ ~ ʁ/1ղ – ġ|
|Approximant||[ʋ]||/l/լ – l||/j/յ – y|
|Trill||/r/ռ – ṙ|
|Flap||/ɾ/ր – r|
The major phonetic difference between dialects is in the reflexes of Classical Armenian voice-onset time. The seven dialect types have the following correspondences, illustrated with the t–d series:
Armenian corresponds with other Indo-European languages in its structure, but it shares distinctive sounds and features of its grammar with neighboring languages of the Caucasus region. Armenian is rich in combinations of consonants. չ to the positive conjugation. Grammatically, early forms of Armenian had much in common with classical Greek and Latin, but the modern language, like modern Greek, has undergone many transformations, adding some analytic features.Both classical Armenian and the modern spoken and literary dialects have a complicated system of noun declension, with six or seven noun cases but no gender. In modern Armenian, the use of auxiliary verbs to show tense (comparable to will in "he will go") has generally supplemented the inflected verbs of Classical Armenian. Negative verbs are conjugated differently from positive ones (as in English "he goes" and "he does not go") in many tenses, otherwise adding only the negative
Classical Armenian has no grammatical gender, not even in the pronoun, but there is a feminine suffix (-ուհի "-uhi"). For example, ուսուցիչ (usuts'ich, "teacher") becomes ուսուցչուհի (usuts'chuhi, female teacher). This suffix, however, does not have a grammatical effect on the sentence. The nominal inflection, however, preserves several types of inherited stem classes. Nouns are declined for one of seven cases: nominative (ուղղական uxxakan), accusative (հայցական hayc'akan), locative (ներգոյական nergoyakan), genitive (սեռական seṙakan), dative (տրական trakan), ablative (բացառական bac'aṙakan), or instrumental (գործիական gorciakan).
Animate nouns do not decline for locative case.
|դաշտ / tašd (field)||կով / gov (cow)|
|Nom-Acc (Ուղղական-Հայցական)||դաշտ / tašd||դաշտեր / tašder||կով / gov||կովեր / gover|
|Gen-Dat (Սեռական-Տրական)||դաշտի / tašdi||դաշտերու / tašderu||կովու / govu||կովերու / goveru|
|Abl (Բացառական)||դաշտէ / tašde||դաշտերէ / tašdere||կովէ / gove||կովերէ / govere|
|Instr (Գործիական)||դաշտով / tašdov||դաշտերով / tašderov||կովով / govov||կովերով / goverov|
|գարուն / karun (Spring)||օր / or (day)||Քոյր / kuyr (sister)|
|հայր / hayr (father)||Աստուած / Asdvadz (God)||գիտութիւն / kidutiun (science)|
Verbs in Armenian have an expansive system of conjugation with two main verb types in Eastern Armenian and three in Western Armenian changing form based on tense, mood and aspect.
Armenian is a pluricentric language, having two modern standardized forms: Eastern Armenian and Western Armenian. The most distinctive feature of Western Armenian is that it has undergone several phonetic mergers; these may be due to proximity to Arabic- and Turkish-speaking communities.
Classical Armenian (Grabar), which remained the standard until the 18th century, was quite homogenous across the different regions that works in it were written; it may have been a cross-regional standard.The Middle Armenian variety used in the court of Cilician Armenia (1080-1375) provides a window into the development of Western Armenian, which came to be based on what became the dialect of Istanbul, while the standard for Eastern Armenian was based on the dialect around Mount Ararat and Yerevan. Although the Armenian language is often divided into "east" and "west", the two standards are actually relatively close to each other in light of wealth of the diversity present among regional non-standard Armenian dialects. The different dialects have experienced different degrees of language contact effects, often with Turkic and Caucasian languages; for some, the result has been significant phonological and syntactic changes. Fortson notes that the modern standard as well has now attained a subordinate clausal structure that greatly resembles a Turkic language.
Eastern Armenian speakers pronounce (թ) as [tʰ], (դ) as [d], and (տ) as a tenuis occlusive [t˭]. Western Armenian has simplified the occlusive system into a simple division between voiced occlusives and aspirated ones; the first series corresponds to the tenuis series of Eastern Armenian, and the second corresponds to the Eastern voiced and aspirated series. Thus, the Western dialect pronounces both (թ) and (դ) as [tʰ], and the (տ) letter as [d].
There is no precise linguistic border between one dialect and another because there is nearly always a dialect transition zone of some size between pairs of geographically identified dialects.
Armenian can be divided into two major dialectal blocks and those blocks into individual dialects, though many of the Western Armenian dialects have become extinct due to the effects of the Armenian genocide. In addition, neither dialect is completely homogeneous: any dialect can be subdivided into several subdialects. Although Western and Eastern Armenian are often described as different dialects of the same language, many subdialects are not readily mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, a fluent speaker of one of two greatly varying dialects who is also literate in one of the standards, when exposed to the other dialect for a period of time will be able to understand the other with relative ease.
Distinct Western Armenian varieties currently in use include Homshetsi, spoken by the Hemshin peoples;the dialects of Armenians of Kessab (Քեսապի բարբառ), Latakia and Jisr al-Shughur (Syria), Anjar, Lebanon, and Vakıflı, Samandağ (Turkey), part of the "Sueidia" dialect (Սուէտիայի բարբառ).
Forms of the Karin dialect of Western Armenian are spoken by several hundred thousand people in Northern Armenia, mostly in Gyumri, Artik, Akhuryan, and around 130 villages in Shirak Province,and by Armenians in Samtskhe–Javakheti province of Georgia (Akhalkalaki, Akhaltsikhe).
Nakhichevan-on-Don Armenians speak another Western Armenian variety based on the dialect of Armenians in Crimea, where they came from in order to establish the town and surrounding villages in 1779 (Նոր Նախիջևանի բարբառ).
Western Armenian dialects are currently spoken also in Gavar (formerly Nor Bayazet and Kamo, on the west of Lake Sevan), Aparan, and Talin in Armenia (Mush dialect), and by the large Armenian population residing in Abkhazia, where they are considered to be the first or second ethnic minority, or even equal in number to the local Abkhaz population
|Eastern Armenian||Western Armenian|
|English||Eastern Armenian||Western Armenian|
|Yes||Ayo (Այո)||Ayo (Այո)|
|No||Voch' (Ոչ)||Voch' (Ոչ)|
|I see you||Yes kez tesnum em (Ես քեզ տեսնում եմ)||Yes kez(i) gə desnem (Ես քեզ(ի) կը տեսնեմ)|
|Hello||Barev (Բարև)||Parev (Բարեւ)|
|I'm going||Gnum em (Գնում եմ)||G'ertam (gor) (Կ՚երթամ (կոր))|
|Come!||Ari! (Արի՛)||Yegur! (Եկո՛ւր)|
|I will eat||Utelu em (Ուտելու եմ)||Bidi udem (Պիտի ուտեմ)|
|I must do||Petk e anem (Պետք է անեմ)||Bedk e ənem (Պէտք է ընեմ)|
|I was going to eat||Utelu ei (Ուտելու էի)||Bidi udeyi (Պիտի ուտէի)|
|Is this yours?||Sa k'onn e? (Սա քո՞նն է)||Asiga kuget e? (Ասիկա քո՞ւկդ է)|
|His grandma||Nra tatikə (Նրա տատիկը)||Anor nenen / medz maman (Անոր նէնէն / մեծ մաման)|
|Look at that one!||Dran nayir (Դրան նայիր)||Ador naye / Anor naye (Ատոր նայէ / Անոր նայէ)|
|Have you brought these?||Du es berel srank'? (Դո՞ւ ես բերել սրանք)||Asonk tun perir? (Ասոնք դո՞ւն բերիր)|
|How are you? I'm fine.||Inchpes es? / Vonc' es? Lav em (Ինչպե՞ս ես։ / Ո՞նց ես։ Լավ եմ։)||Inchbes es? Lav em (Ինչպէ՞ս ես։ Լաւ եմ։)|
|Did you say it? Say it!||Du es asel da? Asa! (Դո՞ւ ես ասել դա: Ասա՛։)||Tun əsir? Əse! (Դո՞ւն ըսիր։ Ըսէ՛։)|
|Have you taken it from us?||Mezanic' es vertsrel? (Մեզանի՞ց ես վերցրել)||Mezme aradz es? (Մեզմէ՞ առած ես)|
|Good morning||Bari luys (Բարի լույս)||Pari luys (Բարի լոյս)|
|Good evening||Bari yereko (Բարի երեկո)||Pari irigun / Parirgun (Բարի իրիկուն / Բարիրկուն)|
|Good night||Bari gišer (Բարի գիշեր)||Kisher pari (Գիշեր բարի)|
|You love me||Sirum es indz (Սիրում ես ինձ)||Indzi gə sires (Ինծի կը սիրես)|
|I am Armenian||Yes hay em (Ես հայ եմ)||Yes hay em (Ես հայ եմ)|
|I missed you||Karotel em k'ez (Կարոտել եմ քեզ)||Garodtsa kezi (Կարօտցայ քեզի)|
The Armenian alphabet (Armenian : Հայոց գրեր, romanized: Hayots grer or Armenian : Հայոց այբուբեն, romanized: Hayots aybuben) is a graphically unique alphabetical writing system that is used to write the Armenian language. It was introduced around AD 405 by Mesrop Mashtots, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader, and originally contained 36 letters. Two more letters, օ (o) and ֆ (f), were added in the Middle Ages.
During the 1920s orthography reform in Soviet Armenia, a new letter և (capital ԵՎ) was added, which was a ligature before ե+ւ, whereas the letter Ւ ւ was discarded and reintroduced as part of a new letter ՈՒ ու (which was a digraph before). This alphabet and associated orthography is used by most Armenian speakers of the Republic of Armenia and the countries of the former Soviet Union. Neither the alphabet nor the orthography has been adopted by Diaspora Armenians, including Eastern Armenian speakers of Iran and all Western Armenian speakers, who keep using the traditional alphabet and spelling.
Armenian is an Indo-European language, so many of its Proto-Indo-European-descended words are cognates of words in other Indo-European languages such as English, Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit.
However, due to extensive loaning, only around 450 words are known to have been inherited from Indo-European by the Classical Armenian stage; the rest were lost, a fact that presents a major challenge to endeavors to better understand Proto-Armenian and its place within the family, especially as many of the sound changes along the way from Indo-European to Armenian remain quite difficult to analyze.
This table lists only some of the more recognizable cognates that Armenian shares with English (more specifically, with English words descended from Old English). (Source: Online Etymology Dictionary.)
|Armenian||English||Latin||Persian||Classical and Hellenistic Greek||Sanskrit||Russian||Old Irish||PIE|
|մայր mayr "mother"||mother ( ← OE mōdor)||māter "mother"||مادرmɒdær "mother"||μήτηρ mētēr "mother"||मातृ mātṛ "mother"||мать mat'||máthair "mother"||*méh₂tēr "mother"|
|հայր hayr "father"||father ( ← OE fæder)||pater "father"||پدرpedær "father"||πατήρ patēr "father"||पितृ pitṛ "father"||папа "daddy" |
|athair "father"||*ph₂tḗr "father"|
|եղբայր eġbayr "brother"||brother ( ← OE brōþor)||frāter "brother"||برادرbærɒdær "brother"||φράτηρ phrātēr "brother"||भ्रातृ bhrātṛ "brother"||брат brat||bráthair "brother"||*bʰréh₂tēr "brother"|
|դուստր dustr "daughter"||daughter ( ← OE dohtor)||(Oscan futrei "daughter")||دخترdoxtær "daughter"||θυγάτηρ thugatēr "daughter"||दुहितृ duhitṛ "daughter"||дочь doč'||der, Dar- "daughter (of)"||*dʰugh₂tḗr "daughter"|
|կին kin "woman"||queen ( ← OE cwēn "queen, woman, wife")||کیانهkianæ "woman, wife"||γυνή gunē "a woman, a wife"||ग्ना gnā/ जनि jani "woman"||жена žena "wife"||ben "woman"||*gʷḗn "woman, wife"|
|իմ im "my"||my, mine ( ← OE min)||me-us, -a, -um etc. "my"||من/ـمmæn/æm "my"||ἐμ-ός, -ή, -όν em-os, -ē, -on etc. "my, of mine"||मम mama "my"||мой moy||mo "my, me"||*h₁me- "my, mine"|
|անուն anun "name"||name ( ← OE nama)||nōmen "name"||نامnɒm "name" |
(<MPers. nʾm /nām/)
|ὄνομα onoma "name"||नामन् nāman "name"||имя im'a||ainm "name"||*H₁noH₃m-n̥- "name"|
|յոթ (<եաւթն "eawtʿn") yotʿ "7"||seven ( ← OE seofon)||septem|
|هفتhaft' "seven" |
(< MPers. hp̄t /haft/)
|επτά heptá "seven"||सप्तन् saptán|
|семь semʹ||secht "seven"||*septḿ̥ "seven"|
|ութ utʿ "8"||eight ( ← OE eahta)||octō "eight"||هشتhæʃt "eight"||ὀκτώ oktō "eight"||अष्ट aṣṭa "eight"||во́семь vosem'||ocht "eight"||*oḱtṓw "eight"|
|ինն inn "9"||nine ( ← OE nigon)||novem "nine"||نهnoh "nine"||ἐννέα ennea "nine"||नवन् navan "nine"||де́вять dev'at'||noí "nine"||*h₁néwn̥ "nine"|
|տաս tas (<տասն "tasn") "10"||ten ( ← OE tien) ( ← P.Gmc. *tekhan)||decem "ten"||دهdæh "ten"||δέκα deka "ten"||दश daśa "ten"||де́сять des'at'||deich "ten"||*déḱm̥ "ten"|
|աչք ačʿkʿ "eye"||eye ( ← OE ēge)||oculus "eye"||ὀφθαλμός ophthalmos "eye"||अक्षि akṣi "eye"||око oko (archaic)||*H₃okʷ- "to see"|
|արմուկն armukn (<*h₂(e)rH-mo-+ -ուկն) "elbow"||arm ( ← OE earm "joined body parts below shoulder")||armus "shoulder"||آرنجɒrendʒ "elbow"||ἄρθρον arthron "a joint"||ईर्म īrma "arm"||рамя ram'a "shoulder" (archaic)||*h₂er- "fit, join (that which is fitted together)"|
|ծունկ cunk "knee"||knee ( ← OE cnēo)||genū "knee"||زانوzɒnu "knee"||γόνυ gonu "knee"||जानु jānu "knee"||glún "knee"||*ǵénu- "knee"|
|ոտք otkʿ "foot"||foot ( ← OE fōt)||pedis "foot"||پا، پایpɒ, pɒj "foot"||πούς pous "foot"||पाद् pād "foot"||пята p'ata|
|(Gaul. ades "feet")||*pod-, *ped- "foot"|
|սիրտ sirt "heart"||heart ( ← OE heorte)||cor "heart"||دلdel "heart"||καρδία kardia "heart"||हृदय hṛdaya "heart"||се́рдце serdce||cride "heart"||*ḱerd- "heart"|
|կաշի kaši "skin"||hide ( ← OE hȳdan "animal skin cover")||cutis "skin"||پوستpust "skin"||κεύθω keuthō "I cover, I hide"||कुटीर kuṭīra "hut"||кожа koža||(Welsh cudd "hiding place")||*keu- "to cover, conceal"|
|մուկ muk "mouse"||mouse ( ← OE mūs)||mūs "mouse"||موشmusc "mouse"||μῦς mūs "mouse"||मूष् mūṣ "mouse"||мышь myš'||*múh₂s "mouse, small rodent"|
|կով kov "cow"||cow ( ← OE cū)||bos "cow"||گاوgɒv "cow"||βοῦς bous "cow"||गो go "cow"||говядина gov'adina "beef"||bó "cow"||*gʷṓws "cow"|
|շուն šun "dog"||hound ( ← OE hund "hound, dog")||canis "hound, dog"||سگsæg "dog"||κύων kuōn "hound, dog"||श्वन् śvan "dog"||сука suka "bitch"||cú "dog"||*ḱwṓ "hound, dog"|
|ամիս amis "month"||moon, month ( ← OE mōnaþ)||mēnsis "month"||ماهmɒh "moon, month"||μήν mēn "moon, month"||मास māsa "moon, month"||месяц mes'ac||mí "month"||*meH₁ns- "moon, month"|
|ամառն amaṙn |
(< Proto-Armenian *sm̥h₂er-m̥ <*s(e)m-eh₂-)
|summer ( ← OE sumor)||هامینhāmīn|
(< MPers hʾmyn' /hāmīn/)
|समा samā "season"||saṃ "summer" *sem- "hot season of the year"||*semh₂-|
|ջերմ ǰerm "warm"||warm ( ← OE wearm)||formus "warm"||گرمgærm "warm"||θερμός thermos "warm"||घर्म gharma "heat"||жарко žarko "hot"||geirid "warm (v)"||*gʷʰerm- "warm"|
|լույս luys "light"||light ( ← OE lēoht "brightness")||lux "light"||روزruz "day"||λευκός leukos "bright, shining, white"||लोक loka "shining"||луч luč' "beam"||lóch "bright"||*leuk- "light, brightness"|
|հուր hur "flame"||fire ( ← OE fȳr)||(Umbrian pir "fire")||آذر، آدورɒzær, ɒdur "fire"||πῦρ pur "fire"||पु pu "fire"||*péh₂wr̥ "fire"|
|հեռու heṙu "far"||far ( ← OE feor "to a great distance")||per "through"||فراfærɒ "beyond"||πέρα pera "beyond"||परस् paras "beyond"||пере- pere-, про- pro-||ír "further"||*per- "through, across, beyond"|
|հեղել heġel "to pour"||flow ( ← OE flōwan)||pluĕre "to rain"||پورpur "pour"||πλύνω plunō "I wash"||प्लु plu "to swim"||плавать plavat' "swim"||luí "rudder"||*pleu- "flow, float"|
|ուտել utel "to eat"||eat ( ← OE etan)||edō "I eat"||هورhvor "eat"||ἔδω edō "I eat"||अद्मि admi "I eat"||есть jest'||ithid "eat"||*h₁ed- "to eat"|
|գիտեմ gitem "I know"||wit ( ← OE wit, witan "intelligence, to know")||vidēre "to see"||ویدهvidæ "knowledge"||εἰδέναι eidenai "to know"||विद् vid "to know"||видеть videt' "see, understand"||adfet "tells"||*weyd- "to know, to see"|
|գետ get "river"||water ( ← OE wæter)||(Umbrian utur "water")||رودrud "river"||ὕδωρ hudōr "water"||उदन् udan "water"||вода voda||uisce "water"||(*wodor, *wedor, *uder-) from *wed- "water"|
|գործ gorc "work "||work ( ← OE weorc)||urgēre "push, drive"||کارkɒr "work"||ἔργον ergon "work"||वर्चस् varcas "activity"||*werǵ- "to work"|
|մեծ mec "great "||much ( ← OE mycel "great, big, many")||magnus "great"||مه، مهستmeh, mæhest "great, large"||μέγας megas "great, large"||महति mahati "great"||много mnogo "many"||maige "great, mighty"||*meǵ- "great"|
|անծանոթ ancanotʿ "stranger, unfamiliar"||unknown ( ← OE uncnawen)||ignōtus "unknown"||ἄγνωτος agnōtos "unknown"||अज्ञात ajñāta "unfamiliar"||незнакомый neznakomyj||*n- + *ǵneH₃- "not" + "to know"|
|մեռած meṙac "dead"||murder ( ← OE morþor)||mors "death"||مرگmærg "death" / مردهmorde "dead"||βροτός brotos "mortal"||मृत mṛta "dead"||смерть smert'|
|marb "dead"||*mrtro-, from (*mor-, *mr-) "to die"|
|միջին miǰin "middle"||mid, middle ( ← OE mid, middel)||medius "middle"||میانmiɒn "middle"||μέσος mesos "middle"||मध्य madhya "middle"||между meždu "between"||mide "middle"||*médʰyos from *me- "mid, middle"|
|այլ ayl "other"||else ( ← OE elles "other, otherwise, different")||alius "other"||ἄλλος allos "other, another"||aile "other"||*h₂élyos "beyond, other"|
|նոր nor "new"||new ( ← OE nīwe)||novus "new"||نوnow "new"||νέος neos "new"||नव nava "new"||новый novyj||núae "new"||*néwo- "new"|
|դուռ duṙ "door"||door ( ← OE dor, duru)||fores "door"||درdær "door"||θύρα thurā "door"||द्वार dvāra "door"||дверь dver'||dorus "door"||*dʱwer- "door, doorway, gate"|
|տուն tun "house"||timber ( ← OE timber "trees used for building material, structure")||domus "house"||مان، خانهmɒn, xɒne "home"||δόμος domos "house"||दम dama "house"||дом dom||dún "fort" (Welsh dinas "city")||*domo-, *domu- "house"|
|բերրի berri, berel "fertile, to carry"||bear ( ← OE beran "give birth, carry")||ferre "to bear"||بردن، برـbordæn, bær- "to bear, carry"||φέρειν pherein "to bear, carry"||भरति bharati "he/she/it carries"||брать brat' "to take"||beirid "carry"||*bʱer- "to bear, to carry"|
Article 110 Working Language of the Bodies of the Union. Language of International Treaties within the Union and Decisions of the Commission: 2. International treaties within the Union and decisions of the Commission that are binding on the Member States shall be adopted in Russian with subsequent translation into the official languages of the Member States, if it is provided for by their legislation, in the procedure determined by the Commission.
Dedicated to the two officially recognized minority languages of Cyprus, the event will focus on the teaching aspect of Western Armenian and Cypriot Arabic as mother tongues.
According to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages of the Council of Europe, Armenian was recognised as a minority language of Cyprus as of 1 December 2002.
As far as indigenous (autochthonous) minority languages are concerned, Hungarian legislation acknowledges the languages in the following list [...]: Armenian, Boyash, Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Greek, Polish, Romani, Romanian, Ruthenian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Ukrainian, and Hungarian Sign Language (HSL).
The right of Iraqis to educate their children in their mother tongue, such as Turkmen, Syriac, and Armenian shall be guaranteed in government educational institutions in accordance with educational guidelines, or in any other language in private educational institutions.
There are 9 national minorities: Belorussian, Czech, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, Ukrainian and Jewish; and 4 ethnic minorities - Karait, Lemko, Roma and Tartar.
In a Statement made by the Republic of Poland with relation to the ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Belarusian, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Karaim, Kashubian, Lithuanian, Lemkian, German, Armenian, Romani, Russian, Slovak, Tatar and Ukrainian were recognized as minority languages.
În cazul României, 10 limbi beneficiază de protecţie generală (albaneză, armeană, greacă, italiană, idiş, macedoneană, poloneză, romani, ruteană, tătară) şi 10 limbi beneficiază de protecţie sporită (bulgară, cehă, croată, germană, maghiară, rusă, sârbă, slovacă, turcă, ucraineană).
Стаття 7. Регіональні мови або мови меншин України [...] 2. У контексті Європейської хартії регіональних мов або мов меншин до регіональних мов або мов меншин України, до яких застосовуються заходи, спрямовані на використання регіональних мов або мов меншин, що передбачені у цьому Законі, віднесені мови: російська, білоруська, болгарська, вірменська, гагаузька, ідиш, кримськотатарська, молдавська, німецька, новогрецька, польська, ромська, румунська, словацька, угорська, русинська, караїмська, кримчацька.
Javakheti for use in the region's 144 Armenian schools ...
Armenian schools in Georgia are fully funded by the government ...
Other Languages: French, English and Armenian
Right of minorities to learn their language. The Lebanese curriculum allows Armenian schools to teach the Armenian language as a basic language.
Moreover, the Lebanese government approved a plan whereby the Armenian language was to be considered from now on as one of the few 'second foreign languages' that students can take as part of the official Lebanese secondary school certificate (Baccalaureate) exams.
No other language can be taught as a mother language other than Armenian, Greek and Hebrew, as agreed in the Lausanne Treaty ...
Private Minority Schools are the school established by Greek, Armenian and Hebrew minorities during the era of the Ottoman Empire and covered by Lausanne Treaty.
...trilingual street signs in English, Armenian, and Spanish at intersections...
Main Fields of Activity: investigation of the structure and functioning, history and comparative grammar of the Armenian language, exploration of the literary Eastern and Western Armenian Language, dialectology, regulation of literary language, development of terminology
At the forefront of the development of Western Armenian in everyday life as well as in arts and technology is the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.
The “core” activity of the Armenian Department is the preservation, advancement and revitalization of Western Armenian.
The total number of Armenians in the world is roughly estimated as 7-11 million, of which ca. 5-5,5 million speak Armenian.
About 7 million people speak the Armenian language worldwide.
5 lentelė. Gyventojai pagal tautybę ir gimtąją (-ąsias) kalbą (-as)
Although mutually intelligible, eastern Armenian preserved classical phonology, whereas western Armenian demonstrated sound loss among closely related consonants.
There are two main dialects: Eastern Armenian (Soviet Armenia, Persia), and Western Armenian (Middle East, Europe, and America) . They are mutually intelligible.
This second form is known as Western Armenian; Eastern Armenian is the written and spoken language used in the CIS. The two forms are mutually intelligible, indeed very close to each other.
...Classical (Grabar), Middle, and Modern: two mutually intelligible literary dialects, East and West Armenian.
Thus, even today the Erzerum dialect is widely spoken in the northernmost districts of the Armenian republic as well as in the Akhalkalak (Javakheti; Javakhk) and Akhaltskha (Akhaltsikh) districts of southern Georgia
Aramaic is a language that originated among the Arameans in the ancient region of Syria, at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, and later became one of the most prominent languages of the ancient Near East. During its three thousand years long history, Aramaic went through several stages of development. It has served as a language of public life and administration of ancient kingdoms and empires, and also as a language of divine worship and religious study. It subsequently branched into several Neo-Aramaic languages that are still spoken in modern times.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. Persian is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian and Tajiki Persian. It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan, as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning at least 3,400 years of written records. Its writing system is the Greek alphabet, which has been used for over 2,600 years; previously, Greek was recorded in writing systems such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European language family, whose earliest known members were spoken in the Italian Peninsula in the first millennium BC. The most important of the ancient languages was Latin, the official language of ancient Rome, which conquered the other Italic peoples before the common era. The other Italic languages became extinct in the first centuries AD as their speakers were assimilated into the Roman Empire and shifted to some form of Latin. Between the third and eighth centuries AD, Vulgar Latin diversified into the Romance languages, which are the only Italic languages natively spoken today.
The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. Some European languages of this family, such as English, French, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish, have expanded through colonialism in the modern period and are now spoken across several continents. The Indo-European family is divided into several branches or sub-families, of which there are 8 groups with languages still alive today: Albanian, Armenian, Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, Indo-Iranian, and Italic; and another 6 subdivisions which are now extinct.
The Kurdish languages constitute a dialect continuum, belonging to the Iranian language family, spoken by Kurds in the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan and the Kurdish diaspora. The three Kurdish languages are Northern Kurdish, Central Kurdish, and Southern Kurdish. A separate group of non-Kurdish Northwestern Iranian languages, the Zaza–Gorani languages, are also spoken by several million ethnic Kurds. The majority of the Kurds speak Kurmanji. Most Kurdish texts are written in Kurmanji and Sorani. Kurmanji is written in the Hawar alphabet, a derivation of the Latin script, and Sorani is written in the Sorani alphabet, a derivation of Arabic script.
Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic was the first Slavic literary language.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of the ancient region of Attica, including the polis of Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige dialect of the Greek world for centuries and remains the standard form of the language that is taught to students of ancient Greek. As the basis of the Hellenistic Koine, it is the most similar of the ancient dialects to later Greek. Attic is traditionally classified as a member or sister dialect of the Ionic branch.
The Anatolian languages are an extinct branch of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Anatolia, part of present-day Turkey. The best known Anatolian language is Hittite, which is considered the earliest-attested Indo-European language.
Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycenaean Greek, Dark Ages, the Archaic period, and the Classical period.
Armenians are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-European exists.
Classical Armenian is the oldest attested form of the Armenian language. It was first written down at the beginning of the 5th century, and all Armenian literature from then through the 18th century is in Classical Armenian. Many ancient manuscripts originally written in Ancient Greek, Persian, Hebrew, Syriac and Latin survive only in Armenian translation.
The Paleo-Balkan languages or Palaeo-Balkan languages is a grouping of various extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkans and surrounding areas in ancient times.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family that are spoken natively by the Iranian peoples.
The Proto-Albanian language is the unattested language from which Albanian later developed. Albanian evolved from an ancient Paleo-Balkan language, traditionally thought to be Illyrian, or otherwise a totally unattested Balkan Indo-European language that was closely related to Illyrian and Messapic.
Proto-Armenian is the earlier, unattested stage of the Armenian language which has been reconstructed by linguists. As Armenian is the only known language of its branch of the Indo-European languages, the comparative method cannot be used to reconstruct its earlier stages. Instead, a combination of internal and external reconstruction, by reconstructions of Proto-Indo-European and other branches, has allowed linguists to piece together the earlier history of Armenian.
Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. With about 7.5 million speakers, it comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language.
The Indo-European migrations were the migrations of Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) speakers, as proposed by contemporary scholarship, and the subsequent migrations of people speaking further developed Indo-European languages, which explains why the Indo-European languages are spoken in a large area in Eurasia, from India and Iran to Europe.
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