New South Wales
Looking across Armidale city, December 2013
|Elevation||980 m (3,215 ft)|
|LGA(s)||Armidale Regional Council|
|State electorate(s)||Northern Tablelands|
|Federal Division(s)||New England|
Armidale is a city in the Northern Tablelands, New South Wales, Australia.Armidale had a population of 24,351 as at June 2017. It is the administrative centre for the Northern Tablelands region. It is approximately halfway between Sydney and Brisbane at the junction of the New England Highway and Waterfall Way. Armidale traditional owners are Anaiwan people. Many Gumbaynggirr people have settled in Armidale since colonisation.
The Northern Tablelands, also known as the New England Tableland, is a plateau and a region of the Great Dividing Range in northern New South Wales, Australia. It includes the New England Range, the narrow highlands area of the New England region, stretching from the Moonbi Range in the south to the Queensland border in the north. The region corresponds generally to the Bureau of Meteorology forecast area for the Northern Tablelands which in this case includes Inverell although it is significantly lower in elevation.
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In March 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 7.9 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.
Armidale is on the banks of Dumaresq Creek, in the Northern Tablelands in the New England region about midway between Sydney and Brisbane at an altitude (980 m AHD)ranging from 970 metres at the valley's floor to 1,110 metres above sea level at the crests of the hills. A short distance to the east of Armidale are heavily forested steep gorges dropping down to the eastern coastal plain. Large parts of the highlands are covered by Palaeozoic aged metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. Intruding into these meta-sediments are granite plutons which decompose to form sandy soil, slightly deficient in nutrients. There are also basalt flows which are more fertile for the soil substrates. Those areas away from the deep gorge country tend to display gently undulating terrain mainly used for pastures and where granites occur the areas are usually covered in bushland.
New England or New England North West is the name given to a generally undefined region in the north of the state of New South Wales, Australia about 60 kilometres (37 miles) inland, that includes the Northern Tablelands and the North West Slopes regions.
The Australian Height Datum is a vertical datum in Australia. According to Geoscience Australia, "In 1971 the mean sea level for 1966-1968 was assigned the value of 0.000m on the Australian Height Datum at thirty tide gauges around the coast of the Australian continent. The resulting datum surface, with minor modifications in two metropolitan areas, has been termed the Australian Height Datum (AHD) and was adopted by the National Mapping Council as the datum to which all vertical control for mapping is to be referred."
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar.
The area contains a number of areas of outstanding natural beauty and scientific interest as well as several World Heritage national parks in the area including the New England National Park and the Oxley Wild Rivers National Park. To the west is Mount Yarrowyck Nature Reserve.
The New England National Park is a protected national park located on the Northern Tablelands in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia. The 67,303-hectare (166,310-acre) park was created in May 1935 and is situated approximately 560 kilometres (350 mi) north of Sydney, and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south of Waterfall Way, just 85 kilometres (53 mi) east of Armidale and 65 kilometres (40 mi) west of Coffs Harbour. The closest village to New England National Park is Ebor, located 20 kilometres (12 mi) away.
The Oxley Wild Rivers National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Northern Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia. The 145,223-hectare (358,850-acre) park is situated 445 kilometres (277 mi) north of Sydney and is named in memory of the Australian explorer John Oxley, who passed through the area in 1818 and is one of the largest national parks in New South Wales.
Mount Yarrowyck is a mountain in northern New South Wales, Australia and has an elevation of 1153 metres. The mountain is located 23.4 km west of Uralla, 27.8 km west of Armidale and 38 km west of Guyra. The nearest sealed road to Mount Yarrowyck is located 18 km away named as the Bundarra Road.
The coastal plain can be reached directly at Coffs Harbour via Waterfall Way to Dorrigo and Bellingen on the Bellinger River, a two-hour drive.
Coffs Harbour is a city on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales, Australia, 540 km (340 mi) north of Sydney, and 390 km (240 mi) south of Brisbane. It is one of the largest urban centres on the North Coast, with an estimated population of 70,000 in 2017.
The Waterfall Way is a road in New South Wales, Australia. It runs east-west from the Pacific Highway to the New England Highway at Armidale. The route passes through some of New South Wales' most scenic countryside and has become well known as New South Wales best and Australia's third most beautiful tourist drive. Seven national parks, of which three are listed as World Heritage Areas by UNESCO and form part of the Gondwana Rainforests of Australia, are located on or close to the route. Dorrigo National Park encompasses the waterfalls that give the route its name. It also provides one of the few road links between coastal and inland New South Wales, and is therefore more heavily trafficked than its condition might otherwise suggest.
Dorrigo, a small town on the Waterfall Way, is located on the Northern Tablelands, in northern New South Wales, Australia. The town is part of Bellingen local government area.
Armidale has a noted problem with air pollution caused by the use of solid fuel domestic wood heaters during the winter months.A peer-reviewed study carried out by the University of New England found winter woodsmoke causes 8.8 additional visits per day to GPs in Armidale for respiratory complaints, i.e., about 750 additional visits per year. Another peer-reviewed study estimated the use of wood heaters in Armidale was responsible for about 11.5 premature deaths per year with estimated annual health cost of $14.95 million – about $4720 per year for every woodheater in the city. A local retired doctor (now Associate Professor at the UNE Medical school) said he is so concerned by the wood smoke situation, he urges people with respiratory problems to leave town.
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Armidale has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) influence. Armidale's elevation gives it a milder climate, but the summers are still very warm. Winters are long and cool, with many frosty nights. Snowfall is rare, on average only one day in every three years.
The presence of four distinct seasons, unlike most of the rest of Australia, is the reason for the "New England" moniker and the autumn colours are a notable feature of the city. Summers are characterised by warm to very warm days followed almost always by cool, sometimes cold, nights. Thunderstorms often produce heavy falls of rain and occasionally hail in the afternoons and early evenings, also bringing a sudden drop in temperature. Unlike nearby coastal areas, Armidale does not usually experience high humidity levels making most of the summer days quite comfortable. Temperatures exceed 30 °C on average of 13 days per year, but rarely reach higher than 35 °C. The highest temperature recorded at Armidale Airport was 37.1 °C, recorded in February 2017.
As the leaves turn yellow and fall, day temperatures are mostly still warm, particularly in March and April. Days are sunny, the thunderstorm season is over, and rain becomes more sporadic. Nights become colder, and residents often awake to a thick fog blanketing the Armidale valley, but by 9 am fogs have cleared to be followed by a bright sunny day. The year's first frosts usually occur in April, but they are not severe.
Winters are cold; overnight temperatures drop below −5 °C with frost on the ground. These cold frosty mornings are usually followed by sunny days. Day temperatures may make it as high as 16 °C, but sometimes may not climb beyond 10 °C. These are typical Northern Tablelands winter days with westerly winds, bleak grey clouds, and showers of rain and very occasionally snow. Rainfall during the winter months not infrequent but is usually light.
In spring temperatures are warmer, although occasional morning frosts still can continue well into October. September is usually a pleasantly mild but windy month, and by late October with increasing heat and humidity the thunderstorm season is starting with increasing rainfalls. The spring months produce the most variable weather of the year. A week of very warm sunny weather can be followed by several milder days with temperatures right back at winter levels before gradually warming up again. This cycle often repeats itself many times until the start of summer.
|Climate data for Armidale Airport|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||26.1|
|Average low °C (°F)||13.4|
|Record low °C (°F)||4.5|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||91.0|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2mm)||11.7||12.5||11.9||11.3||11.9||15.0||12.6||9.8||10.0||10.8||12.8||13.3||143.6|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
|Climate data for Armidale|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.1|
|Average high °C (°F)||26.9|
|Average low °C (°F)||12.8|
|Record low °C (°F)||2.6|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||86.9|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2mm)||11.0||11.3||10.3||8.5||7.6||10.9||9.3||8.1||8.0||9.8||11.9||11.6||118.3|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Armidale has been prone to severe hailstorms and has experienced three such storms over a period of ten years.
On 29 September 1996, hail of up to 80 millimetres (3.1 in) in diameter and southerly winds of up to 150 kilometres per hour (93 mph) were reported at the airport weather station. The area was declared a disaster zone and State Emergency Service crews were brought in from across the state. Damage was estimated to be in excess of A$200 million.
On 1 January 2000, many homes were damaged by extreme weather conditions which brought large hail stones, strong winds and flash flooding.
On 21 December 2006, hail stones, high winds and flash flooding damaged more than 1,000 homes and destroyed the Armidale Livestock Exhibition Centre which collapsed entirely under the weight of accumulated hail. The city was declared a state of emergency by New South Wales Premier Morris Iemma the following day.
The Armidale railway station is on the Main North railway line and is served by daily passenger trains to and from Sydney. Armidale's airport has five daily scheduled flights to and from Sydney with Qantaslink. Regional airline Fly Corporate operates a scheduled air service with flights to and from Brisbane. ft), is the highest licensed airport in New South Wales.[ citation needed ]Armidale Airport, at 1,084 metres (3,556
The city is linked further north by daily coach to Tenterfield provided by NSW TrainLink. Other bus companies such as Greyhound also provide numerous daily services. Local city services are provided on six different routes by Edwards Coaches and Armidale is serviced by 16 taxis.[ citation needed ]
Although the hills to the north and the south can be a challenge, cycling is an option to get around Armidale. A cycleway exists from the University of New England through the city to the residential areas on the eastern side of city. This cycleway snakes back towards Ben Venue School. The passage through the city provides easy access for cyclists to the shopping centres. Bicycle racks are in strategic locations around the city centre, including at The Armidale Food Emporium, The Armidale Plaza, and Centro Armidale. Places are also provided outside the Armidale Dumeresq War Memorial Library, and at either end of the Mall. A maze of marked cycleways on the shoulder of the roads in the city's southern residential areas allows cyclists to safely ride on the roads. There are also separate cycleways from the Armidale Arboretum along Kellys Plains Road to the south and from the north of the city along Rockvale Road to the Armidale State forest (known as the Pine Forest by locals).
Before the British colonial settlement of New South Wales, the Indigenous Anēwan people occupied the area that encompasses current day Armidale.
Armidale was first settled in the early 1830s, following the earlier exploration of the area by John Oxley. It was named after Armadale on the Isle of Skye in Scotland by George James MacDonald. MacDonald was the Commissioner of Crown Lands and head of the local Border Police detachment in the New England district from 1839 to 1848.
Oxley recommended the region for grazing, and soon early pioneers set up small farms in the locality. The James Barnet-designed heritage-listed Armidale Post Office opened on 1 April 1843. The town, which was surveyed in 1848 and gazetted in 1849, was established to provide a market and administration for the farms, but soon after gold was discovered at nearby Rocky River and Gara Gorges, and a gold rush ensued, enlarging the town rapidly in the 1850s. The gold mining settlement of Hillgrove about 40 km east of Armidale was supplied by electricity from Australia's first hydro-electric scheme, the Gara River Hydro-Electric Scheme, remains of which are still visible on the Gara River below the Blue Hole at Castle Doyle. The nearby town of Uralla holds the grave of the famous Captain Thunderbolt – outlaw Fred Ward – who caused trouble in the area in the 1860s. As with Ned Kelly, the locals have adopted him as a larrikin hero and make the most of him as a tourist attraction.
Armidale became a municipality in 1863and was proclaimed a city in 1885.
Armidale has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
According to the 2016 census, there were 23,352 people in the Armidale significant urban area.
Armidale is a cathedral city, being the seat of the Anglican and Roman Catholic bishops of Armidale. St Peter's Anglican Cathedral, which replaced the original St Peter's Church, was designed by the Canadian architect John Horbury Hunt, who also designed Booloominbah at the University of New England. St Peter's Cathedral opened for worship in 1875 and the tower was added in 1938. The Catholic Cathedral of St Mary and St Joseph was dedicated on 12 December 1919.
The city centre is laid out in a grid of streets. The main street is called Beardy Street, named for two of the founding settlers who had beards.The court house was built in the 1850s and is still a prominent feature of the central district. Much of the rest of the city is residential.
The Australian Wool Fashion Awards, which showcases the use of Merino wool by fashion designers, are hosted by Armidale in March each year. The Autumn Festival is a popular annual event of April in Armidale. The festival features a street parade, stalls and celebrations throughout the city. It is a regular part of the city's attractions, often promoting Armidale's diverse culture (for instance, posters set up by council attempt to attract tourists with the motto "Foodies Thrive In Armidale") and autumn colours. During May the annual New England Wool Expo is staged to display wool fashions, handicrafts, demonstrations, shearing competitions, yard dog trials and demonstrations, a wool bale rolling competition and other activities.
The city is home to a large number of education facilities, including the Armidale Waldorf School (1985),New England Girls' School (1895), The Armidale School (1894), and the Presbyterian Ladies' College, Armidale (PLC Armidale) (1887), schools of the Australian independent education sector. O'Connor Catholic College (1975) and St Mary's Primary School are systemic Catholic schools. Duval High School (1972) and Armidale High School (1911) are government-funded secondary schools. Approximately 27% of Armidale's total population is in the 10–24 year age group, compared with an equivalent NSW figure of 18%.
The university was founded in 1938, at first as a college of the University of Sydney, but then in its own right in 1954. The UNE contributes to Armidale's position as a city of culture and diversity, with a vibrant artistic and cultural element. The university has strong links to the rural community, and undertakes a lot of agricultural research. There is also a high-technology presence, as well as notable humanities teaching. UNE hosts a wide range of courses, and introduced a number of new courses in 2008, including a five-year Bachelor of Medical Science and Doctor of Medicine program as part of a joint medical program with the University of Newcastle.The university is built around the historic mansion Booloominbah, which is now used for administration and houses a restaurant. UNE is one of the city's main employers.
Armidale is a major regional retail centre, housing three shopping malls:
Armidale has a pedestrian mall which stretches over three blocks of Beardy Street in the centre of city. It features many shops and cafés with outdoor eating areas along with some notable architecture, including Tattersalls Hotel, built in the Art Deco style during the 1930s; Armidale Courthouse; the city's main post office; the former Commonwealth Bank and the New England Hotel. The mall was opened in 1973 and was the first of its kind in regional Australia.
Armidale Dumaresq Council has been undertaking major upgrades to the mall since 2003 as part of the Armidale CBD Streetscape Design Project which aims at easing traffic in the city centre by creating an emphasis on the "ring road" around the CBD with the assistance of signage, elevation of roads using paving and the creation of one-way streets.
The city is serviced by one local newspaper, many radio stations including four local outlets, and all major television stations.
Subscription Television services are provided by Foxtel.
The following notable people were either born in, currently live in or previously resided in Armidale
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John Horbury Hunt was a Canadian-born architect who worked in Sydney, Australia and rural New South Wales from 1863.
Booloominbah is a heritage-listed mansion at 60 Madgwick Drive, Armidale, Armidale Regional Council, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by John Horbury Hunt in the Federation Arts and Crafts style and built from 1884 to 1888 by William Seabrook and John Thomas Brown. Originally a private house for the pastoralist White family, it subsequently became the initial building of the New England University College, the predecessor of the University of New England. It continues to be owned by the university and is now used for university administration and as a cafe, bar and function venue. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 8 November 2006.
Uralla Shire is a local government area located in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia. The New England Highway passes through the Shire.
St Peter's Cathedral is an Anglican cathedral with heritage-listed building and grounds at 122 Rusden Street, Armidale, Armidale Regional Council, New South Wales, Australia. It is the mother church of the Anglican Diocese of Armidale. The cathedral was designed by John Horbury Hunt and Bishop James Francis Turner and built from 1871 to 1938. It is also known as the Anglican Cathedral Church of St Peter Apostle and Martyr. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 12 March 2014.
The Armidale Regional Council is a local government area in the New England and Northern Tablelands regions of New South Wales, Australia. This area was formed in 2016 from the merger of the Armidale Dumaresq Shire with the surrounding Guyra Shire.
Armidale Post Office is a heritage-listed post office at 158 Beardy Street, Armidale, Armidale Regional Council, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by NSW Colonial Architect's Office under James Barnet and Walter Liberty Vernon and built in 1880 by W. Seabrook and J. T. Brown. The property is owned by Australia Post. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 17 December 1999. It was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 08 November 2011.
The Commercial Bank of Australia Building is a heritage-listed former telegraph office and bank and now commercial premises at 164 Beardy Street, Armidale, Armidale Regional Council, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by NSW Colonial Architect's Office and built from 1882 to 1885 by C.T. Cook. It is also known as Comfort Lodge. The property is owned by Joe Barbato Pty Ltd (Private). It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
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