Army of the Ardennes

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The Army of the Ardennes (armée des Ardennes) was a French Revolutionary Army formed on the first of October 1792 by splitting off the right wing of the Army of the North, commanded from July to August that year by La Fayette. From July to September 1792 General Dumouriez also misused the name Army of the Ardennes for the right wing of what was left of the Army of the North after the split, encamped at Sedan and the name of Army of the North for the left flank of the army.

French Revolutionary Army

The French Revolutionary Army was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802. These armies were characterised by their revolutionary fervour, their poor equipment and their great numbers. Although they experienced early disastrous defeats, the revolutionary armies successfully expelled foreign forces from French soil and then overran many neighboring countries, establishing client republics. Leading generals included Jourdan, Bonaparte, Masséna and Moreau.

Army of the North (France)

The Army of the North or Armée du Nord is a name given to several historical units of the French Army. The first was one of the French Revolutionary Armies that fought with distinction against the First Coalition from 1792 to 1795. Others existed during the Peninsular War, the Hundred Days and the Franco-Prussian War.

Charles François Dumouriez French general

Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars. He shared the victory at Valmy with General François Christophe Kellermann, but later deserted the Revolutionary Army, and became a royalist intriguer during the reign of Napoleon as well as an adviser to the British government. Dumouriez is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 3.

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It was reorganized by a decree of the Conseil exécutif on the first of March 1793, leading to only the right flank of the army keeping the name of Army of the Ardennes. The first division of the Army of the Ardennes re-merged back into the Army of the North on 5 October 1793, at which date the rest of the Army of the Ardennes continued as the Army of the Ardennes until 29 June 1794, when it merged with the Army of the North's right wing and the Army of the Moselle's left wing to form the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse.

The Army of the Moselle was a French Revolutionary Army from 1791 through 1795. It was first known as the Army of the Centre and it fought at Valmy. In October 1792 it was renamed and subsequently fought at Trier, First Arlon, Biesingen, Kaiserslautern, Froeschwiller and Second Wissembourg. In the spring of 1794 the left wing was detached and fought at Second Arlon, Lambusart and Fleurus before being absorbed by the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse. In late 1794, the army captured Trier and initiated the Siege of Luxembourg. During the siege, the army was discontinued and its divisions were assigned to other armies.

Command of the army

After the command of La Fayette (July–August 1792), Dumouriez leads the whole army from the 1st of October 1792 to the 4th of April 1793, but he is replaced by Lanoue and Leveneur, both under the command of Miranda, from the 12th of January to the 22nd of February. Then by Valence.

Francisco de Miranda Venezuelan revolutionary

Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez de Espinoza, commonly known as Francisco de Miranda, was a Venezuelan military leader and revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated much of South America. He was known as "The First Universal Venezuelan" and "The Great Universal American". In the National Archive of Venezuela can be found the statute of the blood purity of the father of Francisco de Miranda.

Jean-Baptiste Cyrus de Valence French soldier and politician

Jean-Baptiste Cyrus de Timbrune de Thiembronne, Comte de Valence commanded French troops during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. A nobleman, he joined the French Royal Army as a captain of cavalry in 1778. By the time of the French Revolution he commanded a cavalry regiment. Valence led troops at Valmy in 1792 and was soon appointed to command the Army of the Ardennes. He led the right wing at Neerwinden. Becoming involved in Charles Francois Dumouriez's failed plot to seize control of the army, he defected in April 1793.

On the 5th of April 1793, Dumouriez is replaced by Dampierre which is himself replaced by Lamarche on the 29th of April 1793. Lamarche will remain in command until the 28th of July 1793, but will be subordinated to Dampierre from the 29th of April to the 7th of May, then independent from the 8th to the 27th of May, subordinated again under Custine from the 28th of May to the 16th of July, and finally under Kilmaine from the 17th to the 28th of July. Kilmaine then replaces Lamarche and is in command of the army from the 29th of July to the 10th of August 1793, and is replaced by Houchard. Houchard is in command from the 11th of August to the 12th of September 1793, and is replaced on the 13th of September by Jourdan. Jourdan will then command directly the army until the 4th of November, Ferrand will then subordinately command the army for Jourdan until the 4th of December, he is replaced by Sistrières.

Auguste Marie Henri Picot de Dampierre French revolutionary general

Auguste Marie Henri Picot de Dampierre, styled the Marquis de Dampierre and usually known as Dampierre, was a French general during the time of the French Revolution. He served in many of the early battles of the French Revolutionary Wars, and was killed in action in 1793. For him, the name Dampierre is among those inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe.

François Joseph Drouot de Lamarche

François Joseph Drouot de Lamarche briefly commanded a French army during the French Revolutionary Wars. He served in the French Royal Army as a cavalryman. In 1792 he was raised to the rank of general officer and fought at Valmy and Jemappes. The following year he led his troops at Neerwinden, was promoted to general of division and appointed to lead the Army of the North. Within three weeks he was defeated at Famars and resigned his army command. Soon afterward, he was denounced by the Revolutionary authorities and sacked, but he was lucky to escape the guillotine. A young Michel Ney served as his aide de camp. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 5.

Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine French general

Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine was a French general. As a young officer in the Bourbon Royal army, he served in the Seven Years' War. In the American Revolutionary War he joined Rochambeau's Expédition Particulière supporting the American colonists. Following the successful Virginia campaign and the Battle of Yorktown, he returned to France and rejoined his unit in the Royal Army.

Sistrières will then be subordinated to the Head General of the Army of the North, Charbonnier, from the 4th of February to the 2nd of June 1794. He is finally replaced by Jourdan, now subordinated to Pichegru, until the army ceased to exist due to its fusion with the Army of Moselle and the Army of the North.

Louis Charbonnier was a general of mediocre talent who commanded a French army for several months during the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1780 he enlisted in the French Royal Army. With the advent of the French Revolution his promotion became very rapid. In 1792 he was elected second in command of a volunteer battalion. He led his troops at Jemappes and Neerwinden. He was promoted to general of brigade in November 1793 and general of division in January 1794. A week later he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Army of the Ardennes.

Jean-Charles Pichegru French general

Jean-Charles Pichegru was a distinguished French general of the Revolutionary Wars. Under his command, French troops overran Belgium and the Netherlands before fighting on the Rhine front. His royalist positions led to his loss of power and imprisonment in Cayenne, French Guiana during the Coup of 18 Fructidor in 1797. After escaping into exile in London and joining the staff of Alexander Korsakov, he returned to France and planned the Pichegru Conspiracy to remove Napoleon from power, which led to his arrest and death. Despite his defection, his surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 3.

Left flank command

The left flank of the army is under the command of Général Beurnonville from the 13th to the 20th of October 1792, and by Général Lanoue from the 12th of January to the 22nd of February 1793, under the name of Army of Belgium.

Pierre de Ruel, marquis de Beurnonville Marshal of France

Pierre de Ruel, marquis de Beurnonville was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and later a marshal of France and Deputy Grand Master of Grand Orient de France.

Right flank command

The right flank of the army in 1792 is successively under the command of Général Kellermann from the 6th to the 24th of October, and by Général Valence , subordinated to Dumouriez, from the 25th of October to the 29th of December. It will be commanded by Général Leveneur from the 12th of January to the 22nd of February, before becoming the only part of the army under the name of Army of the Ardennes by decree on the 1st of March 1793.

See also

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