Army of the Three Guarantees

Last updated
Ejército Trigrante
Participant in Mexican War of Independence Spanish American Wars of Independence
Flag of the Three Guarantees.svg
Active February 24, 1821
Ideology Patriots, Independentism
Groups
  • Mexican royalist troops
  • Mexican insurgent troops
Leaders
Army Commander Agustín de Iturbide
Guerrilla Commander Vicente Guerrero
Opponents Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Spain; Royalists

At the end of the Mexican War of Independence, the Army of the Three Guarantees (Spanish : Ejército Trigarante or Spanish : Ejército de las Tres Garantías) was the name given to the army after the unification of the Spanish troops led by Agustín de Iturbide and the Mexican insurgent troops of Vicente Guerrero, consolidating Mexico's independence from Spain. The decree creating this army appeared in the Plan de Iguala, which stated the three guarantees which it was meant to defend: religion, independence, and unity. Mexico was to be a Catholic empire, independent from Spain, and united against its enemies.

Mexican War of Independence armed conflict which ended the rule of Spain in the territory of New Spain

The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Agustín de Iturbide Mexican army general and politician, emperor of Mexico

Agustín de Iturbide, in full Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu, also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. After the secession of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821. A year later, he was announced as the Constitutional Emperor of Mexico, reigning briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. He is credited as the original designer of the first Mexican flag.

Contents

History

The Army of the Three Guarantees was created on February 24, 1821, and continued battling Spanish royalist forces which refused to accept Mexican independence. These battles continued until August 1821, when Iturbide and Spanish Viceroy Juan de O'Donojú signed the Treaty of Córdoba, virtually ratifying Mexico's independence. The Army was a decisive force during the Battle of Azcapotzalco. The victory in this last battle of the war cleared the way to Mexico City. On September 27, 1821, the Army of the Three Guarantees triumphantly entered Mexico City, led by Iturbide. The following day Mexico was declared independent.

Treaty of Córdoba treaty that established Mexican independence from Spain

The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence. It was signed on August 24, 1821 in Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico. The signatories were the head of the Army of the Three Guarantees, Agustín de Iturbide, and, acting on behalf of the Spanish government, Jefe Político Superior Juan O'Donojú. The treaty has 17 articles, which developed the proposals of the Plan of Iguala. The Treaty is the first document in which Spanish and Mexican officials accept the liberty of what will become the First Mexican Empire, but it is not today recognized as the foundational moment, since these ideas are often attributed to the Grito de Dolores. The treaty was rejected by the Spanish government. Spain did not recognize Mexico's independence until December 1836.

Battle of Azcapotzalco

The Battle of Azcapotzalco,, was fought on August 19, 1821, in the town of Azcapotzalco, near Mexico City. It was to be the last major and decisive military action of the Mexican War of Independence. The insurgents, commanded by the colonels Anastasio Bustamante and Luis Quintanar, defeated the Spanish forces commanded by Manuel de la Concha.

Mexico City Capital in Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

By that time, the Army of the Three Guarantees was composed of 7,616 infantrymen, 7,755 cavalry, 763 artillery with 68 cannons.

Generals

Generals of the Army of the Three Guarantees (left to right), a painting by Ferdinand Bastin.
- Toribio Cortina
- Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
- Melchor Muzquiz
- Guadalupe Victoria
- Leonardo Bravo
- Jose Antonio de Echavarri
- Miguel Barragan
- Vicente Valencia
- Ignacio Allende
- Jose Moran y del Villar
- Laureano Jose Teran
- Vicente Filisola
- Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga
- Pedro Celestino Negrete
- Agustin de Iturbide
- Anastasio Bustamante
- Vicente Guerrero
- Valentin Canalizo
- Juan Aldama y Gonzalez
- Juan Jose Minon
- Nicolas Bravo
- Fray Luis de Herrera
- Manuel Rincon
- Luis Cortazar Rabago Ejercito Trigarante.jpg
Generals of the Army of the Three Guarantees (left to right), a painting by Ferdinand Bastin.

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References