Arnold Allan Lazarus (27 January 1932 – 1 October 2013) was a South African-born clinical psychologist and researcher who specialized in cognitive therapy and is best known for developing multimodal therapy (MMT). A 1955 graduate of South Africa's CHIPS University of the Witwatersrand, Lazarus' accomplishments include authoring the first text on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) called Behaviour Therapy and Beyond and 17 other books, over 300 clinical articles, and presidencies of psychological associations; he received numerous awards including the Distinguished Psychologist Award of the Division of Psychotherapy from the American Psychological Association, the Distinguished Service Award from the American Board of Professional Psychology, and three lifetime achievement awards.Lazarus was a leader in the self-help movement beginning in the 1970s writing books on positive mental imagery and avoiding negative thoughts. He spent time teaching at various universities in the United States including Rutgers University, Stanford University, Temple University Medical School, and Yale University, and was executive director of The Lazarus Institute, a mental health services facility focusing on CBT.
Lazarus was born in South Africa, where he spent his childhood through post secondary education. He is the son of Benjamin and Rachel Lazarus, the youngest of four children to a middle class family. After episodes of being bullied by his brother-in-law, Lazarus took up body building and boxing, leading to a life long interest in health and nutrition.Lazarus was married to Daphne for 57 years before his death. He had two children Linda and Clifford. He was a grandfather to Linda's son, Taylor. Clifford married his daughter-in-law, Donna.
Lazarus completed his undergraduate and graduate education at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. Upon receiving his Ph.D. in 1960, he became a private practitioner in Johannesburg until 1963 when he was invited to Stanford University for a yearlong position as an assistant professor.He then returned to Johannesburg to teach at his alma mater until 1966 when he and his family returned to the United States for his position as the director of the Behavior Therapy Institute in Sausalito, California. He was a professor at Temple University Medical School from 1967-1970 and Yale University from 1970-1972 where he was director of Clinical training. Finally in 1972, Lazarus became a distinguished professor for the Graduate School of Applied Psychology at Rutgers University in New Jersey; Lazarus would remain in this position until 1999.
As a graduate student at Stanford University, Lazarus extended his knowledge beyond the typical psychological views of the time and is credited with coining the term for the growing field of "behavioral therapy." Lazarus and his mentor Joseph Wolpe published the book Behavioral Therapy Techniques in 1966 which was the first to show the importance of increasing adaptive behavior and decreasing maladaptive behaviors on mental health. In the process of writing their book, Lazarus and Wolpe came to differ in their stances on use of behavioral therapy. Wolpe favoring an approach centered on applying only therapy techniques and Lazarus favoring the supplementation of other techniques in addition to therapy.Later, in his book Behavior Therapy and Beyond, Lazarus presented his ideas for adding cognitive constructs to behavioral therapy as treatment for anxiety and depression. Lazarus' ideas continued to develop throughout his next few publications as his writings and theories gained popularity throughout the field.
In Multimodal Behavioral Therapy (1976) and The Practice of Multimodal Therapy (1981), arguably his most notable works, Lazarus introduced multimodal therapy (MMT). MMT is based on the idea that humans have modalities to their personality that must be addressed separately in order to properly treat a mental disorder. The modalities are referred to with the acronym BASIC ID which stands for Behavior, Affect, Sensation, Imagery, Cognition, Interpersonal Relationships, and Drugs/Biology.
Lazarus is also noted for his advocacy for the expansion of boundaries between patient and therapist. Lazarus advocated for the expansion of relationships beyond scheduled sessions, arguing that a relationship beyond scheduled professional sessions to be beneficial for patients. Lazarus himself would participate in meals, mall trips and weddings in belief that it would strengthen the adaptive abilities of patients.
The Lazarus Institute (TLI) was Lazarus' practice for the rest of his life. Founded in partnership with his son Clifford and daughter-in-law Donna, the mission of TLI was to broaden Cognitive-Behavior CHIPS Therapy; their motto "Think Well - Act Well - Feel Well - Be Well" reflects their focus on CBT. However, the Lazarus' went further by offering each client an individualized therapy plan to maximize their benefit. TLI promotes their use of broad practices while remaining rooted in approaches that have been scientifically supported.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that aims to improve mental health. CBT focuses on challenging and changing unhelpful cognitive distortions and behaviors, improving emotional regulation, and the development of personal coping strategies that target solving current problems. Originally, it was designed to treat depression, but its uses have been expanded to include treatment of a number of mental health conditions, including anxiety. CBT includes a number of cognitive or behaviour psychotherapies that treat defined psychopathologies using evidence-based techniques and strategies.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual's well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders. Others have been criticized as pseudoscience.
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenting with, and observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments. Most psychologists need a license to practice psychology. Typically, psychologists need a doctoral degree in psychology, although a master's degree is sufficient in some situations. Licensing and regulations can vary by country and profession.
Albert Ellis was an American psychologist who in 1955 developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). He held MA and PhD degrees in clinical psychology from Columbia University and the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). He also founded and was the President of the New York City-based Albert Ellis Institute for decades. He is generally considered to be one of the originators of the cognitive revolutionary paradigm shift in psychotherapy and an early proponent of cognitive-behavioral therapies.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory, and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Central to its practice are psychological assessment, clinical formulation, and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration. In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession.
Joseph Wolpe was a South African psychiatrist and one of the most influential figures in behavior therapy.
Multimodal therapy (MMT) is an approach to psychotherapy devised by psychologist Arnold Lazarus, who originated the term behavior therapy in psychotherapy. It is based on the idea that humans are biological beings that think, feel, act, sense, imagine, and interact—and that psychological treatment should address each of these modalities. Multimodal assessment and treatment follows seven reciprocally influential dimensions of personality known by their acronym BASIC I.D.: behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationships, and drugs/biology.
The Dodo bird verdict is a controversial topic in psychotherapy, referring to the claim that all empirically validated psychotherapies, regardless of their specific components, produce equivalent outcomes. It is named after The Dodo character of Alice in Wonderland. The conjecture was introduced by Saul Rosenzweig in 1936, drawing on imagery from Lewis Carroll's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, but only came into prominence with the emergence of new research evidence in the 1970s.
Acceptance and commitment therapy is a form of counseling and a branch of clinical behavior analysis. It is an empirically-based psychological intervention that uses acceptance and mindfulness strategies mixed in different ways with commitment and behavior-change strategies, to increase psychological flexibility. The approach was originally called comprehensive distancing. Steven C. Hayes developed Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in 1982 in order to create a mixed approach which integrates both cognitive and behavioral therapy. There are a variety of protocols for ACT, depending on the target behavior or setting. For example, in behavioral health areas a brief version of ACT is called focused acceptance and commitment therapy (FACT).
Daniel David is a Romanian academic. He is "Aaron T. Beck" professor of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy at the Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca. He was the head of the Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy of the Babeş-Bolyai University between 2007 and 2012. Daniel David is also an adjunct professor at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and is the head of the Research Program at Albert Ellis Institute in New York. He was born in Satu Mare.
Les Greenberg is a Canadian psychologist born in Johannesburg, South Africa, and is one of the originators and primary developers of Emotion-Focused Therapy for individuals and couples. He is a professor emeritus of psychology at York University in Toronto, and also director of the Emotion-Focused Therapy Clinic in Toronto. His research has addressed questions regarding empathy, psychotherapy process, the therapeutic alliance, and emotion in human functioning.
Although modern, scientific psychology is often dated at the 1879 opening of the first psychological clinic by Wilhelm Wundt, attempts to create methods for assessing and treating mental distress existed long before. The earliest recorded approaches were a combination of religious, magical and/or medical perspectives. Early examples of such psychological thinkers included Patañjali, Padmasambhava, Rhazes, Avicenna and Rumi.
Judith S. Beck, is an American psychologist who is best known for her work in cognitive therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Her father is Aaron Beck, MD, the founder of cognitive therapy, with whom she has worked on many occasions.
The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT) was founded in 1966. Its headquarters are in New York City and its membership includes researchers, psychologists, psychiatrists, physicians, social workers, marriage and family therapists, nurses, and other mental-health practitioners, researchers, and students who support, use, and/or disseminate behavioral and cognitive approaches. Notable past presidents of the association include Michelle Craske, Jonathan Abramowitz, Marsha M. Linehan, Linda C. Sobell, Kelly D. Brownell, Gerald Davison, and Alan E. Kazdin.
A clinical formulation, also known as case formulation and problem formulation, is a theoretically-based explanation or conceptualisation of the information obtained from a clinical assessment. It offers a hypothesis about the cause and nature of the presenting problems and is considered an adjunct or alternative approach to the more categorical approach of psychiatric diagnosis. In clinical practice, formulations are used to communicate a hypothesis and provide framework for developing the most suitable treatment approach. It is most commonly used by clinical psychologists and psychiatrists and is deemed to be a core component of these professions. Mental health nurses and social workers may also use formulations.
Gerhard Andersson is a Swedish psychologist, psychotherapist and Professor of clinical psychology at Linköping University, and Affiliated Professor at Karolinska Institutet. He was a co-recipient of the Nordic Medical Prize in 2014.
Mike Abrams is an American psychologist and co-author with Albert Ellis of several works on rational emotive and cognitive behavioral therapy. He was instrumental in the formalization of Ellis' model of personality while coauthoring Ellis's only college textbook. Abrams' research with Ellis into rational emotive and cognitive behavior therapies (CBT) led him to propose that all successful psychotherapies were actually performing CBT - irrespective of their stated theoretical orientation. After Ellis' death Abrams continued Ellis' work on sexuality taking an evolutionary perspective to love and intimacy. This work reached fruition in his book on sexuality in press by Sage Publications. It is among a few texts on human sexuality taking an exclusively evolutionary perspective. Abrams took a new approach by interviewing many of the best known evolutionary psychologists such as David Buss, Doug Kendrick, Helen Fisher, and J. Philipe Rushton to provide multiple and often conflicting perspectives.
Vic Meyer was a British psychologist at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School of the University of London and has been called the father of behavioral case formulation, an approach toward understanding complex psychiatric problems using learning principles derived from scientific psychological research and uniquely adapted to the individual case by means of the experimental method as a way to develop an effective intervention regimen. Meyer is credited by the British Psychological Society for his influential work in creating case formulation along with three other innovators: Hans Eysenck, Monte B. Shapiro, and Ira Turkat. Turkat credited Meyer as the pioneer of the framework of what is generally known today as case formulation, a required core skill for all British practicing psychologists since 2011.
Eclectic psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy in which the clinician uses more than one theoretical approach, or multiple sets of techniques, to help with clients' needs. The use of different therapeutic approaches will be based on the effectiveness in resolving the patient's problems, rather than the theory behind each therapy.