Gail Valley with Arnoldstein and Süd Autobahn
|• Mayor||Erich Kessler|
|• Total||67.4 km2 (26.0 sq mi)|
|Elevation||578 m (1,896 ft)|
|• Density||110/km2 (270/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Arnoldstein (Slovene : Podklošter, Italian : Oristagno) is a market town in the district of Villach-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
Slovene or Slovenian belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is spoken by approximately 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia. It is the first language of about 2.1 million Slovenian people and is one of the 24 official and working languages of the European Union.
Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. In spite of not existing any Italian community in their respective national territories and of not being spoken at any level, Italian is included de jure, but not de facto, between the recognized minority languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Romania. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages.
Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city. On the European continent, a town may be correctly described as a "market town" or as having "market rights", even if it no longer holds a market, provided the legal right to do so still exists.
Arnoldstein is located at Austria's southern border between the Carnic Alps and the Karawanken mountain range, near the confluence of the Gailitz (Slovene: Ziljica, Italian: Slizza) and the Gail River (Slovene: Zilja, Italian: Zeglia). The tripoint with Tarvisio in Italy and Kranjska Gora in Slovenia is south of the town at the top of the mountain Ofen (Slovene: Peč, Italian: Monte Forno) at 1,509m/4,951 ft. Today there is a marker at this location.
The Carnic Alps are a range of the Southern Limestone Alps in Austria and northeastern Italy. They are within Austrian East Tyrol and Carinthia, and Italian Friuli and marginally in Veneto of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region.
The Slizza (Italian) or Gailitz is an Alpine torrent in Italy and Austria, a right tributary of the Gail river.
A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet.
Arnoldstein can be reached via the A2 Süd Autobahn from Vienna and the parallel Austrian Southern Railway (Rudolfsbahn), running from Klagenfurt to the Italian border, where it is continued by the Italian Pontebbana line to Udine.
The Süd Autobahn (A2) is a motorway (Autobahn) in Austria. Completed in 1999, it runs from the outskirts of Vienna south via the cities of Graz and Klagenfurt to the border of Italy at Arnoldstein, where it joins the Autostrada A23. With a total length of 377.3 km (234.4 mi), the A2 is Austria's longest motorway.
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
The Southern Railway is a railway in Austria that runs from Vienna to Graz and the border with Slovenia at Spielfeld via Semmering and Bruck an der Mur. It was originally built by the Austrian Southern Railway company and ran to Ljubljana and Trieste, the main seaport of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy; a main obstacle in its construction was getting over the Semmering Pass over the Northern Limestone Alps. The twin-track, electrified section that runs through the current territory of Austria is owned and operated by Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) and is one of the major lines in the country.
Arnoldstein is divided into six Katastralgemeinden: Arnoldstein (Podklošter), Hart (Ločilo), Maglern (Megvarje), Pöckau (Peče), Riegersdorf (Rikarja vas), and Seltschach (Sovče). It can be further divided into 21 Ortschaften (with population totals 2001):
|German name||Slovene name||Italian name||Population|
|Neuhaus an der Gail||Poturje||282|
|St. Leonhard bei Siebenbrünn||Šentlenart pri Sedmih studencih||241|
|Thörl-Maglern-Greuth||Rute pri Vratih||Porticina||15|
The area around Arnoldstein was already settled in ancient times, when a Roman Road along the Gailitz creek connected Aquileia with Virunum near present-day Klagenfurt, capital of the Noricum province.
Ancient history as a term refers to the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as the post-classical history. The phrase may be used either to refer to the period of time or the academic discipline.
Aquileia is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 kilometres (6 mi) from the sea, on the river Natiso, the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. Today, the city is small, but it was large and prominent in Antiquity as one of the world's largest cities with a population of 100,000 in the 2nd century AD. and is one of the main archeological sites of Northern Italy.
Claudium Virunum was a Roman city in the province of Noricum, on today's Zollfeld in the Austrian State of Carinthia. Virunum may also have been the name of the older Celtic-Roman settlement on the hilltop of Magdalensberg nearby. Virunum (Virunensis) is today a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Arnoldstein's name derives from the alleged founder of its castle, one knight Arnold, probably a ministerialis serving the Bishops of Bamberg. Upon his coronation in 1014, Emperor Henry II had granted large estates in the Duchy of Carinthia to the Bamberg diocese, that originally had been a possession of the Patriarchs of Aquileia. The castle itself was first mentioned about 1085, here Bishop Otto of Bamberg established a Benedictine abbey in 1106 to secure his Carinthian fiefs. Nevertheless, in 1176, the monks had to accept the secular Vogt overlordship of the Carinthian Sponheim dukes. In the mid-14th century their estates were devastated both by the 1348 Friuli earthquake and the Black Death pandemic.
Ministerialis were people raised up from serfdom to be placed in positions of power and responsibility. In the Holy Roman Empire, in the High Middle Ages, the word and its German translations, Ministeriale(n) and Dienstmann, came to describe those unfree nobles who made up a large majority of what could be described as the German knighthood during that time. What began as an irregular arrangement of workers with a wide variety of duties and restrictions rose in status and wealth to become the power brokers of an empire. The ministeriales were not legally free people, but held social rank. Legally, their liege lord determined whom they could or could not marry, and they were not able to transfer their lords' properties to heirs or spouses. They were, however, considered members of the nobility since that was a social designation, not a legal one. Ministeriales were trained knights, held military responsibilities and surrounded themselves with the trappings of knighthood, and so were accepted as noblemen. Both women and men held the ministerial status, and the laws on ministeriales made no distinction between the sexes in how they were treated.
The Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg was an ecclesiastical State of the Holy Roman Empire. It goes back to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bamberg established at the 1007 synod in Frankfurt, at the behest of King Henry II to further expand the spread of Christianity in the Franconian lands. The bishops obtained the status of Imperial immediacy about 1245 and ruled their estates as Prince-bishops until they were subsumed to the Electorate of Bavaria in the course of the German Mediatisation in 1802.
Henry II, also known as Saint Henry the Exuberant, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children. The Duke of Bavaria from 995, Henry became King of Germany following the sudden death of his second cousin, Emperor Otto III in 1002, was crowned King of Italy in 1004, and was crowned by the Pope as Emperor in 1014.
To improve the economic situation, the abbot of Arnoldstein with the consent of the Bamberg bishop in 1495 allowed the Augsburg merchants Ulrich, Georg and Jakob Fugger to exploit the surrounding ore deposits and to build up smelting works, mainly for copper and silver. At their Fuggerau enterprise, the Fugger family was largely engaged in the trade on the route to Venice, until the premises were repurchased by the Arnoldstein monastery in 1570. The debt, together with the effects of the Protestant Reformation, nearly ruined the abbey's finances. Today a shot tower built in 1814 marks the site of the former foundry.
Arnoldstein again flourished in the course of the Counter-Reformation. Despite all attempts by the Austrian House of Habsburg to seize the estates, the monastery was not abolished until 1783 by decree of Emperor Joseph II. The building burnt down in 1883 and only ruins remained. Since 1980, the premises have been gradually restored
The town council is made up of 27 members of the following parties:
Carinthia is the southernmost Austrian state or Land. Situated within the Eastern Alps, it is noted for its mountains and lakes. The main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Bavarian group. Carinthian Slovene dialects, which predominated in the southern part of the region up to the first half of the 20th century, are now spoken by a small minority.
Völkermarkt is a town of about 11,000 inhabitants in the Austrian state of Carinthia, the administrative capital of Völkermarkt District. It is located within the Drava valley east of the Carinthian capital Klagenfurt, north of the Karawanken mountain range.
Wolfsberg[ˈvɔlfsbɛʁk] is a town in Carinthia, Austria, the capital of Wolfsberg District.
Ferlach in the district of Klagenfurt-Land in Carinthia is the southernmost town in Austria. It is known for its centuries-old gunsmith tradition, part of the Austrian intangible cultural heritage since 2010.
Seeboden am Millstätter See is a market town in Spittal an der Drau District in Carinthia, Austria.
Feldkirchen in Kärnten is a town in the Austrian state of Carinthia and the capital of the district of the same name. It consists of the Katastralgemeinden Fasching, Feldkirchen, Glanhofen, Gradisch, Hoefling, Klein Sankt Veit, Pernegg, Rabensdorf, Sankt Ulrich, Sittich, Tschwarzen and Waiern.
Hermagor-Pressegger See is a town in the Austrian state of Carinthia. It is the administrative centre of Hermagor District. The town is named after Saint Hermagoras, the first bishop of Aquileia.
Maria Saal is a market town in the district of Klagenfurt-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia. It is located in the east of the historic Zollfeld plain, the wide valley of the Glan river. The municipality includes the cadastral communes of Kading, Karnburg, Möderndorf, Possau and St. Michael am Zollfeld.
Maria Wörth is a municipality in the district of Klagenfurt-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia. The centre of the resort town is situated on a peninsula at the southern shore of the Wörthersee. In the east, the municipal area borders the Carinthian capital Klagenfurt. The municipality consists of the two Katastralgemeinden Maria Wörth and Reifnitz (Ribnica).
Moosburg is a market town in the Klagenfurt-Land district in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
Sankt Georgen am Längsee is a municipality in the district of Sankt Veit an der Glan in Carinthia, Austria.
Bad Bleiberg is a market town in the district of Villach-Land, in Carinthia, Austria. Originally a mining area, especially for lead, Bad Bleiberg today due to its hot springs is a spa town.
Finkenstein am Faaker See is a market town in the district of Villach-Land in Carinthia, Austria.
Hohenthurn is a municipality in the district of Villach-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
Wernberg is a municipality in the district of Villach-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
Eberndorf is a market town of the Völkermarkt District in Carinthia, Austria.
Griffen is a market town in the district of Völkermarkt in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
Bad Sankt Leonhard im Lavanttal is a spa town in the district of Wolfsberg in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
Klosterruine Arnoldstein is a former Benedictine abbey in Arnoldstein, in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
Arnoldstein Abbey was a Benedictine abbey in Arnoldstein in Carinthia, Austria. Its church was dedicated to St George and first mentioned in historical records in 1316 - its choir, tower, west door and a few buttresses can still be seen. The monastery buildings from the Gothic and 17th century eras were arranged around the church in an oval.
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