Arnulf of Carinthia

Last updated
Arnulf of Carinthia
Seal of Arnulph of Carinthia (896).jpg
Seal of Arnulf of Carinthia c.896
Holy Roman Emperor
Reign22 February 896 – 8 December 899
Predecessor Lambert
Successor Louis the Blind
King of Italy
Reign894 – 8 December 899
Predecessor Lambert
Successor Louis the Blind
King of East Francia
Reign11 November 887 [1] – 8 December 899
Predecessor Charles the Fat
Successor Louis the Child
Bornc. 850
Died8 December 899
Ratisbon, Duchy of Bavaria, East Francia (now Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany) [2]
Spouse Ota
Oda of West Francia
Issue Louis the Child
Ratold of Italy
Glismut of Carinthia
Hedwig of Carinthia
House Carolingian
Father Carloman of Bavaria
signum manus (890) Arnulf signum 890.png

Arnulf of Carinthia (c. 850 – December 8, 899) was the duke of Carinthia who overthrew his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian king of East Francia [3] from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria.


Early life

Illegitimacy and early life

Arnulf was the illegitimate son of Carloman of Bavaria, [4] [5] and Liutswind, [6] who may have been the sister of Ernst, Count of the Bavarian Nordgau Margraviate in the area of the Upper Palatinate, or perhaps the burgrave of Passau, according to other sources. After Arnulf's birth, Carloman married, before 861, a daughter of that same Count Ernst, who died after 8 August 879. As it is mainly West-Franconian historiography [7] that speaks of Arnulf's illegitimacy, it is quite possible that the two females are actually one and the same person and that Carloman married Arnulf's mother, thus legitimizing his son. [8]

Arnulf was granted the rule over the Duchy of Carinthia, a Frankish vassal state and successor of the ancient Principality of Carantania by his father Carloman, after Carloman reconciled with his own father, king Louis the German and was made king in Duchy of Bavaria.

Arnulf spent his childhood in Mosaburch or Mosapurc, which is widely believed to be Moosburg in Carinthia, a few miles away from one of the Imperial residences, the Carolingian Kaiserpfalz at Karnburg (Krnski grad), which had been the residence of the Carantanian princes. Arnulf kept his seat here and from later events it may be inferred that the Carantanians, from an early time, treated him as their own Duke. Later, after he had been crowned King of East Francia, Arnulf turned his old territory of Carinthia into the March of Carinthia, a part of the Duchy of Bavaria.

Regional ruler

After King Carloman was incapacitated by a stroke in 879, Louis the Younger inherited Bavaria, Charles the Fat was given the Kingdom of Italy and Arnulf was confirmed in Carinthia by an agreement with Carloman. However, Bavaria was more or less ruled by Arnulf. [9] Arnulf already ruled Bavaria during the summer and autumn of 879 while his father arranged his succession and he himself was granted "Pannonia," in the words of the Annales Fuldenses , [10] or "Carantanum," in the words of Regino of Prüm. [11] The division of the realm was confirmed in 880 after Carloman's death.

When Engelschalk II of Pannonia in 882 rebelled against Aribo, Margrave of Pannonia and ignited the Wilhelminer War, Arnulf supported him and accepted his and his brother's homage. This ruined Arnulf's relationship with his uncle the Emperor and put him at war with Svatopluk of Moravia. Pannonia was invaded, but Arnulf refused to give up the young Wilhelminers. Arnulf did not make peace with Svatopluk until late 885, by which time Moravian ruler was loyal to the emperor. Some scholars see this war as destroying Arnulf's hopes at succeeding Charles the Fat.

King of East Francia

Arnulf took the leading role in the deposition of his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat. With the support of the Frankish nobles, Arnulf called a Diet at Tribur and deposed Charles in November 887, under threat of military action. [12] [13] Charles peacefully agreed to this involuntary retirement, but not without first chastising his nephew for his treachery and asking for a few royal villas in Swabia, which Arnulf granted him, [14] on which to live out his final months.[ citation needed ] Arnulf, having distinguished himself in the war against the Slavs, was then elected king by the nobles of East Francia (only the eastern realm, though Charles had ruled the whole of the Frankish Empire). [15] West Francia, the Kingdom of Burgundy and the Kingdom of Italy at this point elected their own kings from the Carolingian family.

Like all early Germanic rulers, he was heavily involved in ecclesiastical disputes. In 895, at the Diet of Tribur, he presided over a dispute between the Episcopal sees of Bremen, Hamburg and Cologne over jurisdictional authority, which saw Bremen and Hamburg remain a combined see, independent of the see of Cologne. [16]

Arnulf was a fighter, not a negotiator. In 890 he was successfully battling Slavs in Pannonia. [17] In early/mid-891, Vikings invaded Lotharingia, [18] and crushed an East Frankish army at Maastricht. [19] Terms such as "Vikings", "Danes", "Northmen" and "Norwegians" have been used loosely and interchangeably to describe these invaders. [20] At the subsequent Battle of Leuven (September 891), in Lotharingia, Arnulf repelled the Vikings, [19] and essentially ended their attacks on that front.[ citation needed ] The Annales Fuldenses report that there were so many dead Northmen that their bodies blocked the run of the river. After this victory Arnulf built a new castle on an island in the Dijle river (Dutch: Dijle, English and French: Dyle). [21]

Intervention in West Francia

Arnulf took advantage of the problems in West Francia after the death of Charles the Fat to secure the territory of Lotharingia, which he converted into a kingdom for his son Zwentibold. [22] In 889 Arnulf supported the claim of Louis the Blind to the kingdom of Provence, after receiving a personal appeal from Louis' mother, Ermengard, who came to see Arnulf at Forchheim in May 889. [23]

Recognising the superiority of Arnulf's position, in 888 king Odo of France formally accepted the suzerainty of Arnulf. [24] In 893 Arnulf switched his support from Odo to Charles the Simple after being persuaded by Fulk, Archbishop of Reims, that it was in his best interests. [25] Arnulf then took advantage of the following fighting between Odo and Charles in 894, taking more territory from West Francia. [26] At one point, Charles the Simple was forced to flee to Arnulf and ask for his protection. [27] His intervention soon forced Pope Formosus to get involved, as he was worried that a divided and war weary West Francia would be easy prey for the Vikings. [26]

In 895 Arnulf summoned both Charles and Odo to his residence at Worms. Charles's advisers convinced him not to go, and he sent a representative in his place. Odo, on the other hand, personally attended, together with a large retinue, bearing many gifts for Arnulf. [28] Angered by the non-appearance of Charles, he welcomed Odo at the Diet of Worms in May 895, and again supported Odo's claim to the throne of West Francia. [28] In the same assembly he crowned his illegitimate son Zwentibold as the king of Lotharingia. [28]

Wars with Moravia

As early as 880 Arnulf had designs on Great Moravia, and had the Frankish bishop Wiching of Nitra interfere with the missionary activities of Eastern Orthodox priest Methodius, with the aim of preventing any potential for creating a unified Moravian state. [29] Arnold communicated political relations with the ruler of the Moravian Kingdom Svatopluk, and learned military and political secrets of Svatopluk. Later were used these tactics to occupy the territory of the Greater Moravian state. [30]

Arnulf failed to conquer the whole of Great Moravia in wars of 892, 893, and 899. Yet Arnulf did achieve some successes, in particular in 895, when Duchy of Bohemia broke away from Great Moravia and became his vassal state. An accord was reached between him and Duke of Bohemia Borivoj I (reigned 870-95). Bohemia was thus freed from the dangers of Frankish invasion. In 893 or 894 Great Moravia probably lost a part of its territory — present-day Western Hungary — to him. As a reward, Wiching became Arnulf's chancellor in 892. [31] In his attempts to conquer Moravia, in 899 Arnulf reached out to Magyars who had settled in Pannonia, and with their help he imposed a measure of control over Moravia. [32] [32] [33]

King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor

Arnulf of Carinthia, 13c picture Arnulf Korutansky.jpg
Arnulf of Carinthia, 13c picture
Arnulf of Carinthia and Louis the Child by Johann Jakob Jung (19th century). Johann Jakob Jung Ludwig das Kind und Arnulf von Karnten.jpg
Arnulf of Carinthia and Louis the Child by Johann Jakob Jung (19th century).

In Italy Guy III of Spoleto and Berengar of Friuli fought over the Iron Crown of Lombardy. Berengar had been crowned king in 887, but Guy was then crowned in 889. While Pope Stephen V supported Guy, even crowning him Roman Emperor in 891, Arnulf threw his support behind Berengar. [34]

In 893 the new Pope Formosus, not trusting the newly crowned co-emperors Guy III of Spoleto and his son Lambert II of Spoleto, sent an embassy to Omuntesberch, where Arnulf was meeting with Svatopluk I of Moravia, [35] to request that Arnulf come and liberate Italy, [36] where he would be crowned emperor in Rome. Arnulf met the Primores of the Kingdom of Italy, dismissed them with gifts and promised to assist the pope. [37] Arnulf then sent his son Zwentibold with a Bavarian army to join Berengar of Friuli. They defeated Guy, but were bought off and left in autumn.

When pope Formosus again asked Arnulf to invade, the duke personally led an army across the Alps early in 894. In January 894 Bergamo fell, and Count Ambrose, Guy's representative in the city, was hung from a tree by the city's gates. [38] Conquering all of the territory north of the Po River, Arnulf forced the surrender of Milan and then drove Guy out of Pavia, where he was crowned King of Italy. [24] Arnulf went no further before Guy died suddenly in late autumn, and a fever incapacitated his troops. [37] His march northward through the Alps was interrupted by Rudolph I of Burgundy, and it was only with great difficulty that Arnulf crossed the mountain range. [38] In retaliation, Arnulf ordered his illegitimate son Zwentibold to ravage Rudolph's kingdom. [38] In the meantime, Lambert and his mother Ageltrude travelled to Rome to receive papal confirmation of his imperial succession, but when pope Formosus, still desiring to crown Arnulf, refused, he was imprisoned in Castel Sant'Angelo.

In September 895 a new papal embassy arrived in Regensburg beseeching Arnulf's aid. In October Arnulf undertook his second campaign into Italy. [37] He crossed the Alps quickly and again, took Pavia, but then he continued slowly, garnering support among the nobility of Tuscany. First Maginulf, Count of Milan, and then Walfred of Friuli, joined him. Eventually even Adalbert II of Tuscany abandoned Lambert. Finding Rome locked against him and held by Ageltrude, [37] Arnulf had to take the city by force on February 21, 896, freeing the pope. [39] Arnulf was then greeted at the Ponte Milvio by the Roman Senate who escorted him into the Leonine City, where he was received by Pope Formosus on the steps of the Santi Apostoli. [39]

On February 22, 896 Formosus led the king into the church of St. Peter, anointed and crowned him as emperor, and saluted him as Augustus . [40] Arnulf then proceeded to the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, where he received the homage of the Roman people, [39] who swore "never to hand over the city to Lambert or his mother Ageltrude". [41] Arnulf then proceeded to exile to Bavaria two leading senators, Constantine and Stephen, who had helped Ageltrude to seize Rome. [42]

Leaving one of his vassals, Farold, to hold Rome, two weeks later Arnulf marched on Spoleto, where Ageltrude had fled to join Lambert, [41] but now Arnulf suffered a stroke, forcing him to call off the campaign and return to Bavaria. [43] Rumours of the time made Arnulf's condition to be a result of poisoning at the hand of Ageltrude. [41]

Arnulf retained power in Italy only as long as he was personally there. [44] [45] On his way north, he stopped at Pavia where he crowned his illegitimate son Ratold, as sub-King of Italy, after which he left Ratold in Milan in an attempt to preserve his hold on Italy. [46] That same year pope Formosus died, leaving Lambert once again in power, and both he and Berengar proceeded to kill any officials who had been appointed by Arnulf, forcing Ratold to flee from Milan to Bavaria. [47] For the rest of his life Arnulf exercised very little control in Italy, and his agents in Rome did not prevent the accession of Pope Stephen VI in 896. [48] Pope initially gave his support to Arnulf, but eventually became a supporter of Lambert. [49]

Final years

After 896 Arnulf's health – besides suffering a stroke he had morbus pediculosis, infestation of pubic lice of the eyelid – prevented him from effectively dealing with the problems besetting his reign. Italy was lost, [46] raiders from Moravia and Magyars were continually raiding his lands, and Lotharingia was in revolt against Zwentibold. [50] He was also plagued by escalating violence and power struggles between the lower Frankish nobility. [51]

On December 8, 899 Arnulf died at Ratisbon in present-day Bavaria. [2] He is entombed in St. Emmeram's Basilica at Regensburg, which is now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, the palace of the Princes of Thurn und Taxis.

He was succeeded as the king of East Francia by his only legitimate son from Ota (died 903), Louis the Child. [52] After his death in 911 at age 17 or 18, the east Frankish branch of Carolingian dynasty ceased to exist. Arnulf had had the nobility to recognize the rights of his illegitimate sons Zwentibold and Ratold as his successors. Zwentibold, whom he had made King of Lotharingia in 895, continued to rule there until his murder in 900.

See also

Related Research Articles

The 890s decade ran from January 1, 890, to December 31, 899.

895 895

Year 895 (DCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Carloman of Bavaria King of Bavaria

Carloman was a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of East Francia, and Hemma, daughter of a Bavarian count. His father appointed him margrave of Pannonia in 856, and upon his father's death in 876 he became King of Bavaria. He was appointed by King Louis II of Italy as his successor, but the Kingdom of Italy was taken by his uncle Charles the Bald in 875. Carloman only conquered it in 877. In 879 he was incapacitated, perhaps by a stroke, and abdicated his domains in favour of his younger brothers: Bavaria to Louis the Younger and Italy to Charles the Fat.

Louis the Child King of East Francia and Lotharingia

Louis the Child, sometimes called Louis III or Louis IV, was the king of East Francia from 900 until his death in 911 and was the last ruler of the Carolingian dynasty there. He succeeded his father, king Arnulf of Carinthia in 899, when he was six and reigned until his death aged 17 or 18. Louis also inherited the crown of Lotharingia with the death of his elder illegitimate half-brother Zwentibold in 900. During his reign the country was ravaged by Magyar raids.

Charles the Simple 10th-century King of West Francia

Charles III, called the Simple or the Straightforward, was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty.

The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The dynasty consolidated its power in the 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary, and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the Merovingian throne. In 751 the Merovingian dynasty which had ruled the Germanic Franks was overthrown with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, and Pepin the Short, son of Martel, was crowned King of the Franks. The Carolingian dynasty reached its peak in 800 with the crowning of Charlemagne as the first Emperor of Romans in the West in over three centuries. His death in 814 began an extended period of fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and decline that would eventually lead to the evolution of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire.

Lotharingia former medieval kingdom (855-959)

Lotharingia was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire and a later duchy of the Ottonian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France). It was named after King Lothair II who received this territory after the kingdom of Middle Francia of his father Lothair I was divided among his sons in 855.

Charles the Fat Holy Roman Emperor

Charles III, also known as Charles the Fat, was the emperor of the Carolingian Empire from 881 to 888. A member of the Carolingian dynasty, Charles was the youngest son of Louis the German and Hemma, and a great-grandson of Charlemagne. He was the last Carolingian emperor of legitimate birth and the last to rule over all the realms of the Franks.

Francia Territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks, or Frankish Empire, was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom in Western Europe. It was ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. It is the predecessor of the modern states of France and Germany. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, West Francia became the predecessor of France, and East Francia became that of Germany. Francia was among the last surviving Germanic kingdoms from the Migration Period era before its partition in 843.

Conrad I of Germany King of East Francia

Conrad I, called the Younger, was the king of East Francia from 911 to 918. He was the first king not of the Carolingian dynasty, the first to be elected by the nobility and the first to be anointed. He was chosen as the king by the rulers of the East Frankish stem duchies after the death of young king Louis the Child. Ethnically Frankish, prior to this election he had ruled the Duchy of Franconia from 906.

Zwentibold King of Lotharingia and Saint

Zwentibold, a member of the Carolingian dynasty, was the illegitimate son of Emperor Arnulf. In 895, his father, then king of East Francia, granted him the Kingdom of Lotharingia, which he ruled until his death. After his death he was declared a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church.

Lambert of Italy Emperor of the Romans

Lambert was the King of Italy from 891, Holy Roman Emperor, co-ruling with his father from 892, and Duke of Spoleto and Camerino from his father's death in 894. He was the son of Guy III of Spoleto and Ageltrude, born in San Rufino. He was the last ruler to issue a capitulary in the Carolingian tradition.

Guy III of Spoleto Emperor of the Romans

Guy III of Spoleto was the margrave of Camerino from 880 and then duke of Spoleto and Camerino from 883. He was crowned king of Italy in 889 and emperor in 891. He died in 894 while fighting for control of the Italian Peninsula.

West Francia former country (843-987)

In medieval history, West Francia or the Kingdom of the West Franks was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987. West Francia was formed out of the division of the Carolingian Empire in 843 under the Treaty of Verdun after the death of Emperor Louis the Pious and the east–west division which "gradually hardened into the establishment of separate kingdoms ... of what we can begin to call Germany and France".

Middle Francia former country

Middle Francia was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire. Middle Francia was allocated to emperor Lothair I, the eldest son and successor of emperor Louis the Pious. His realm contained the imperial cities of Aachen, the residence of Charlemagne, as well as Pavia but lacked any geographic or ethnic cohesion, which prevented it from surviving and forming a nucleus of a larger state, as was the case with West Francia and East Francia.

Braslav, Duke of Lower Pannonia Duke of Pannonia

Braslav was an East Frankish Slavic nobleman with the title of dux (duke), the governor of Lower Pannonia between 884 and 896, serving Arnulf of Carinthia. He participated in the Frankish–Moravian War (882–84), and the Frankish invasion of Moravia (891–92). He was last mentioned when he was entrusted Pannonia by Arnulf in order to secure the Frankish frontier against the Hungarians (896), who subsequently overran all of Pannonia and continued into Italy.

Ageltrude was the Empress and Queen of Italy as wife and mother respectively of Guy and Lambert. She was the regent for her son and actively encouraged him in opposing her archenemies, the Carolingians, and in influencing papal elections in their favour.

March of Carinthia

The March of Carinthia was a frontier district (march) of the Carolingian Empire created in 889. Before it was a march, it had been a principality or duchy ruled by native-born Slavic princes at first independently and then under Bavarian and subsequently Frankish suzerainty. The realm was divided into counties which, after the succession of the Carinthian duke to the East Frankish throne, were united in the hands of a single authority as a march of defence against the Slavs of Pannonian Croatia. When the march of Carinthia was raised into a Duchy in 976, a new Carinthian march was created. It became the later March of Styria.

March of Pannonia

The Eastern March or March of Pannonia was a frontier march of the Carolingian Empire, named after the former Roman province of Pannonia. It was erected in the mid-ninth century in the lands of the former Avar Khaganate against the threat of Great Moravia and lasted only as long as the strength of that state. It was referred to in some documents as terminum regni Baioariorum in Oriente or "the end of the kingdom of the Bavarians in the east" and from this is sometimes called the "(Bavarian) eastern march," a term more commonly used to refer to the later Margraviate of Austria, established in 976 as a sort of late successor state. The East Frankish rulers appointed margraves (prefects) to govern the March.

Louis the Younger King of Saxony

Louis the Younger, sometimes Louis III, was the second eldest of the three sons of Louis the German and Emma. He succeeded his father as the King of Saxony on 28 August 876 and his elder brother Carloman as King of Bavaria from 880 to 882. He died in 882 and was succeeded in all his territories, which encompassed most of East Francia, by his younger brother, Charles the Fat, already king of Italy and emperor.


  1. Hartland, Frederick D. (1854). A chronological dictionary: or index to the genealogical chart of the royal and distinguished houses of Europe. C. & E. Layton.
  2. 1 2 The Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. III, Part II (page 623), printed by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street, London, 1844
  3. East Francia had been split from the rest of Frankish Realm by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. It evolved into Holy Roman Empire after end of Carolingian rule.
  4. Bradbury, Jim. The Capetians: Kings of France 987-1328. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2007. p 31
  5. McDougall, Sara. Royal Bastards: The Birth of Illegitimacy, 800-1230. Oxford University Press, 2017. p 91
  6. Also Litwinde or Litwindie
  7. Konecny, Silvia. Die Frauen des karolingischen Königshauses. Die politische Bedeutung der Ehe und die Stellung der Frau in der fränkischen Herrscherfamilie vom 7. bis zum 10. Jahrhundert. PhD thesis Vienna 1976, p. 139
  8. Mediaeval Genealogy: Liutswind: Archived September 2, 2003, at the Wayback Machine Various theories about her descent and her relation to Carloman (in German)
  9. Reuter, Timothy (trans.) The Annals of Fulda. (Manchester Medieval series, Ninth-Century Histories, Volume II.) Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992. 882 (p. 104 and n3)
  10. Reuter, Timothy (trans.) The Annals of Fulda. (Manchester Medieval series, Ninth-Century Histories, Volume II.) Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992. 884 (pp 108–111)
  11. MacLean, Simon. Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the end of the Carolingian Empire. Cambridge University Press: 2003. pg. 135
  12. Comyn, pg. 78
  13. Mann III, pg. 376
  14. Duckett, pg. 12
  15. Comyn, pg. 80
  16. Mann IV, pg. 66
  17. Duckett, pg. 16
  18. Duckett, pg. 17
  19. 1 2 Duckett, pg. 20
  20. Arnulf's opponents in 890 have sometimes been described as "Normans", although the term has become more strongly associated with the Scandinavians that were allies of West Francia from 911 and settled in the Duchy of Normandy.
  21. Latin Luvanium, local Lovon.
  22. Comyn, pg. 82
  23. Mann III, pg. 382
  24. 1 2 Bryce, pg. xxxv
  25. Mann IV, pg. 55
  26. 1 2 Mann IV, pg. 56
  27. Duckett, pg. 25
  28. 1 2 3 Duckett, pg. 26
  29. Mann III, pg. 243
  30. "Ethics and politics of Great Moravia of the 9th century Vasil Gluchman" (PDF).
  31. Mann, III, pg. 244
  32. 1 2 Comyn, pg. 83
  33. Mann IV, pg. 13
  34. Mann III, pg. 378
  35. Mann III, pg. 379
  36. Mann IV, pg. 50
  37. 1 2 3 4 Mann IV, pg. 51
  38. 1 2 3 Duckett, pg. 22
  39. 1 2 3 Mann IV, pg. 52
  40. Annals of Fulda, an. 896
  41. 1 2 3 Mann IV, pg. 53
  42. Duckett, pg. 28
  43. Christopher, Kleinhenz (2004-08-02). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN   978-0-415-93929-4.
  44. Bryce, pg. 79
  45. Mann IV, pg. 80
  46. 1 2 Duckett, pg. 30
  47. Mann IV, pg. 81
  48. Mann IV, pg. 77
  49. Mann IV, pg. 84 – Silver coins from the pontificate of Stephen VI show the transition from Arnulf (“Arnolfvs Imp. Roma”) to Lambert (“Lamverto Imp. Roma”)
  50. Duckett, pg. 33
  51. Duckett, pg. 36
  52. Mann IV, pg. 100


Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia
 Died: 8 December 899
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles III
King of East Francia
Succeeded by
Louis the Child
Preceded by
(Holy) Roman Emperor
Disputed by: Lambert of Spoleto 896–898

Succeeded by
Louis III
King of Italy
With Ratold (896)
disputed by:
Lambert of Spoleto (896–898)
Berengar I (896–899)
Preceded by
Charles III the Fat
King of Lotharingia
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Bořivoj I
Rulers of Bohemia
Succeeded by
Spytihněv I