Artaxerxes I of Persia

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Artaxerxes I
King of Kings
Great King
King of Persia
Pharaoh of Egypt
King of Countries
Artaxerxes I at Naqsh-e Rostam.jpg
Relief of Artaxerxes from his tomb in Naqsh-e Rustam
King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire
Reign465–424 BC
Predecessor Xerxes I
Successor Xerxes II
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign465–424 BC
Predecessor Xerxes I
Successor Xerxes II
BornUnknown
Died424 BC, Susa
Burial
SpouseQueen Damaspia
Alogyne of Babylon
Cosmartidene of Babylon
Andia of Babylon
Issue Xerxes II
Sogdianus
Darius II
Arsites
Parysatis
House Achaemenid
Father Xerxes I
Mother Amestris
Religion Zoroastrianism
Hiero Ca1.svg
Artaxerxes I of PersiaArtaxerxes I of Persia
Artaxerxes I of Persia
Artaxerxes I of PersiaArtaxerxes I of PersiaArtaxerxes I of PersiaArtaxerxes I of Persia
Hiero Ca2.svg
nomen or birth name
Artaxerxes [1]
in hieroglyphs

Artaxerxes I ( /ˌɑːrtəˈzɜːrksz/ , Old Persian : 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂Artaxšaça, [2] "whose rule (xšaça < *xšaϑram) is through arta ("truth"); [3] Hebrew : אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא, Modern: ʾArtaḥšásta, Tiberian: ʾArtaḥšasetāʾ; Ancient Greek : Ἀρταξέρξης, romanized: Artaxérxēs [4] ) was the sixth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, from 465-424 BC. [5] He was the third son of Xerxes I.

Asha Central and complex Zoroastrian theological concept

Asha is a Zoroastrian concept with a complex and highly nuanced range of meaning. It is commonly summarized in accord with its contextual implications of 'truth' and 'right(eousness)', 'order' and 'right working'. For other connotations, see meaning below. It is of cardinal importance to Zoroastrian theology and doctrine. In the moral sphere, aša/arta represents what has been called "the decisive confessional concept of Zoroastrianism". The opposite of Avestan aša is 𐬛𐬭𐬎𐬘 druj, "deceit, falsehood".

Hebrew language Semitic language native to Israel

Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel. Modern Hebrew was spoken by over nine million people worldwide in 2013. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name "Hebrew" in the Tanakh itself. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only Canaanite language still spoken, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.

Modern Hebrew language

Modern Hebrew or Israeli Hebrew, generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew, is the standard form of the Hebrew language spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew, a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of Aramaic beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is the official language of Israel.

Contents

He may have been the "Artasyrus" mentioned by Herodotus as being a satrap of the royal satrapy of Bactria.

Artasyrus or Ardashir was recorded as being the Satrap of Armenia during the reign of king Artaxerxes II. Referred to as the "King's Eye", Artasyrus was of Bactrian origin. His more "well known" son, Orontes, who was therefore sometimes referred to as "Orontes the Bactrian", served as the Satrap of Sophene and Matiene (Mitanni) during the reign of Artaxerxes II. There appears to be confusion in the historical records as to whether Artasyrus and Artaxerxes II were the same person. The daughter of Artaxerxes II, Rhodogune, was the wife of the satrap Orontes I. There are few English language sources to fully explain who he was, when he was born or died.

Herodotus Ancient Greek historian

Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire. He is known for having written the book The Histories, a detailed record of his "inquiry" on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars. He is widely considered to have been the first writer to have treated historical subjects using a method of systematic investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials and then critically arranging them into an historiographic narrative. On account of this, he is often referred to as "The Father of History", a title first conferred on him by the first-century BC Roman orator Cicero.

Satrap Ruler of a province in ancient Persia

Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to the king, though with considerable autonomy; and the word also came to suggest tyranny, or ostentatious splendour.

In Greek sources he is also surnamed "long-handed" (Ancient Greek : μακρόχειρMakrókheir; Latin : Longimanus), allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left. [6]

Succession to the throne

Artaxerxes was probably born in the reign of his grandfather Darius I, to the emperor's son and heir, Xerxes I. In 465 BC, Xerxes I was murdered by Hazarapat ("commander of thousand") Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard and the most powerful official in the Persian court, with the help of a eunuch, Aspamitres. [7] Greek historians give contradicting accounts of events. According to Ctesias (in Persica 20), Artabanus then accused Crown Prince Darius, Xerxes's eldest son, of the murder, and persuaded Artaxerxes to avenge the patricide by killing Darius. But according to Aristotle (in Politics 5.1311b), Artabanus killed Darius first and then killed Xerxes. After Artaxerxes discovered the murder, he killed Artabanus and his sons. [8] [9]

Xerxes I King of Kings

Xerxes I, called Xerxes the Great, was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia. Like his father and predecessor Darius I, he ruled the empire at its territorial apex. He ruled from 486 BC until his assassination in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard.

Artabanus of Persia was a Persian political figure during the Achaemenid dynasty who was reportedly Regent of Persia for a few months.

Eunuch castrated male human

The term eunuch generally refers to a man, typically from antiquity, who had been castrated to serve a specific social function.

Egyptian revolt

The ancient Egyptian god Amun-Min in front of Artaxerxes' cartouche. Cartouche Artaxerxes I Lepsius.jpg
The ancient Egyptian god Amun-Min in front of Artaxerxes' cartouche.

Artaxerxes had to face a revolt in Egypt in 460–454 BC led by Inaros II, who was the son of a Libyan prince named Psamtik, presumably descended from the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt. In 460 BC, Inaros II revolted against the Persians with the help of his Athenian allies, and defeated the Persian army commanded by satrap Akheimenes. The Persians retreated to Memphis, and the Athenians were finally defeated in 454 BC, by the Persian army led by Megabyzus, after a two-year siege. Inaros was captured and carried away to Susa.

Inaros II Libyan Egyptian ruler

Inaros (II), also known as Inarus, was an Egyptian rebel ruler who was the son of a Libyan prince named Psamtik, presumably of the old Saite line, and grandson of Psamtik III. In 460 BC, he revolted against the Persians with the help of his Athenian allies under Admiral Charitimides, and defeated the Persian army commanded by satrap Achaemenes in 460 BCE. The Persians retreated to Memphis, but the Athenians were finally defeated in 454 BC by the Persian army led by Megabyzus, satrap of Syria, and Artabazus, satrap of Phrygia, after a two-year siege. Inaros was captured and carried away to Susa where he was reportedly crucified in 454 BC.

Libya Country in north Africa

Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest. The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres (700,000 sq mi), Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, and is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The second-largest city is Benghazi, which is located in eastern Libya.

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC. The dynasty's reign is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.

Relations with Greece

Themistocles stands silently before Artaxerxes He stoods silent before King.jpg
Themistocles stands silently before Artaxerxes

After the Achaemenid Empire had been defeated at the Battle of the Eurymedon (c. 469 BC), military action between Greece and Persia was at a standstill. When Artaxerxes I took power, he introduced a new Persian strategy of weakening the Athenians by funding their enemies in Greece. This indirectly caused the Athenians to move the treasury of the Delian League from the island of Delos to the Athenian acropolis. This funding practice inevitably prompted renewed fighting in 450 BC, where the Greeks attacked at the Battle of Cyprus. After Cimon's failure to attain much in this expedition, the Peace of Callias was agreed among Athens, Argos and Persia in 449 BC.

Achaemenid Empire first Persian Empire founded by Cyrus the Great

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires.

Battle of the Eurymedon Battle between the Delian League and the Achaemenid Empire

The Battle of the Eurymedon was a double battle, taking place both on water and land, between the Delian League of Athens and her Allies, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I. It took place in either 469 or 466 BCE, in the vicinity of the mouth of the Eurymedon River in Pamphylia, Asia Minor. It forms part of the Wars of the Delian League, itself part of the larger Greco-Persian Wars.

Delian League Association of ancient Greek city-states under Athenian hegemony

The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330 under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece. The League's modern name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos, where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture, Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 BC.

Artaxerxes I offered asylum to Themistocles, who was probably his father Xerxes's greatest enemy for his victory at the Battle of Salamis, after Themistocles was ostracized from Athens. Also, Artaxerxes I gave him Magnesia, Myus, and Lampsacus to maintain him in bread, meat, and wine. In addition, Artaxerxes I gave him Skepsis to provide him with clothes, and he also gave him Percote with bedding for his house. [10] Themistocles would go on to learn and adopt Persian customs, Persian language, and traditions. [11] [12]

Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and Nehemiah

A King Artaxerxes (Hebrew : אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתְּא, pronounced  [artaχʃast] ) is described in the Bible as having commissioned Ezra, a kohen and scribe, by means of a letter of decree (see Cyrus's edict), to take charge of the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the Jewish nation.

Ezra thereby left Babylon in the first month of the seventh year [13] of Artaxerxes' reign, at the head of a company of Jews that included priests and Levites. They arrived in Jerusalem on the first day of the fifth month of the seventh year according to the Hebrew calendar. The text does not specify whether the king in the passage refers to Artaxerxes I (465–424 BCE) or to Artaxerxes II (404–359 BCE). [14] [15] Most scholars hold that Ezra lived during the rule of Artaxerxes I, though some have difficulties with this assumption: [16] Nehemiah and Ezra "seem to have no knowledge of each other; their missions do not overlap", however, in Nehemiah 12, both are leading processions on the wall as part of the wall dedication ceremony. So, they clearly were contemporaries working together in Jerusalem at the time the wall and the city of Jerusalem was rebuilt in contrast to the previously stated viewpoint.;." [17] These difficulties have led many scholars to assume that Ezra arrived in the seventh year of the rule of Artaxerxes II, i.e. some 50 years after Nehemiah. This assumption would imply that the biblical account is not chronological. The last group of scholars regard "the seventh year" as a scribal error and hold that the two men were contemporaries. [16] [18] However, Ezra appears for the first time in Nehemiah 8, having probably been at the court for twelve years. [19]

The rebuilding of the Jewish community in Jerusalem had begun under Cyrus the Great, who had permitted Jews held captive in Babylon to return to Jerusalem and rebuild Solomon's Temple. Consequently, a number of Jews returned to Jerusalem in 538 BC, and the foundation of this "Second Temple" was laid in 536 BC, in the second year of their return (Ezra 3:8). After a period of strife, the temple was finally completed in the sixth year of Darius, 516 BC (Ezra 6:15).

In Artaxerxes' twentieth year, Nehemiah, the king's cup-bearer, apparently was also a friend of the king as in that year Artaxerxes inquired after Nehemiah's sadness. Nehemiah related to him the plight of the Jewish people and that the city of Jerusalem was undefended. The king sent Nehemiah to Jerusalem with letters of safe passage to the governors in Trans-Euphrates, and to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, to make beams for the citadel by the Temple and to rebuild the city walls. [20]

Interpretations of actions

Ethnicities of the Empire on the tomb of Artaxerxes I at Naqsh-e Rostam. Tomb of Artaxerxes I ethnicities with labels.jpg
Ethnicities of the Empire on the tomb of Artaxerxes I at Naqsh-e Rostam.

Roger Williams, a 17th-century Christian minister and founder of Rhode Island, interpreted several passages in the Old and New Testament to support limiting government interference in religious matters. Williams published The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience, arguing for a separation of church and state based on biblical reasoning. Williams believed that Israel was a unique covenant kingdom and not an appropriate model for New Testament Christians who believed that the Old Testament covenant had been fulfilled. Therefore, the more informative Old Testament examples of civil government were "good" non-covenant kings such as Artaxerxes, who tolerated the Jews and did not insist that they follow his state religion. [21]

Medical analysis

According to a paper published in 2011, [22] the discrepancy in Artaxerxes’ limb lengths may have arisen as a result of the inherited disease neurofibromatosis.

Children

By queen Damaspia

By Alogyne of Babylon

By Cosmartidene of Babylon

By Andia of Babylon

By another(?) unknown wife

By various wives

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Henri Gauthier, Le Livre des rois d'Égypte, IV, Cairo 1916 (=MIFAO 20), p. 152.
  2. Ghias Abadi, R. M. (2004). Achaemenid Inscriptions (کتیبه‌های هخامنشی) (in Persian) (2nd ed.). Tehran: Shiraz Navid Publications. p. 129. ISBN   964-358-015-6.
  3. Artaxerxes at Encyclopædia Iranica
  4. The Greek form of the name is influenced by Xerxes , Artaxerxes at Encyclopædia Iranica
  5. James D. G. Dunn; John William Rogerson (19 November 2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 321. ISBN   978-0-8028-3711-0.
  6. Plutarch, Artaxerxes, l. 1. c. 1. 11:129 - cited by Ussher, Annals, para. 1179
  7. Pirnia, Iran-e-Bastan book 1, p 873
  8. Dandamayev
  9. Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire, pp 289–290
  10. Plutarch. "Themistocles, Part II". Archived from the original on 2015-10-01.
  11. Thucydides I, 137
  12. Plutarch, Themistocles, 29
  13. The Book of Daniel. Montex Publish Company, By Jim McGuiggan 1978, p. 147.
  14. Porter, J.R. (2000). The Illustrated Guide to the Bible. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. pp. 115–16. ISBN   978-0-7607-2278-7.
  15. The dates of Nehemiah's and Ezra's respective missions, and their chronological relation to each other, are uncertain, because each mission is dated solely by a regnal year of an Achaemenian King Artaxerxes; and in either case we do not know for certain whether the Artaxerxes in question is Artaxerxes I (465–424 BCE) or Artaxerxes II (404–359 BCE). So we do not know whether the date of Ezra's mission was 458 BCE or 397 BCE' Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History, vol. 12 (1961) Oxford University Press, 1964 pp. 484–85 n.2
  16. 1 2 "Ezra". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  17. Winn Leith, Mary Joan (2001) [1998]. "Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period". In Michael David Coogan (ed.). The Oxford History of the Biblical World (Google Books). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 281. ISBN   978-0-19-513937-2. LCCN   98016042. OCLC   44650958 . Retrieved 13 December 2007.
  18. John Boederman, The Cambridge Ancient History, 2002, p. 272
  19. https://biblehub.com/commentaries/ellicott/nehemiah/8.htm
  20. Nehemiah 2:1-9
  21. James P. Byrd, The challenges of Roger Williams: Religious Liberty, Violent Persecution, and the Bible (Mercer University Press, 2002) (accessed on Google Book on July 20, 2009)
  22. Ashrafian, Hutan. (2011). "Limb gigantism, neurofibromatosis and royal heredity in the Ancient World 2500 years ago: Achaemenids and Parthians". J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 64 (4): 557. doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2010.08.025. PMID   20832372.
  23. Xenophon, Hellenica, Book II, Chapter 1
Artaxerxes I of Persia
Born: ?? Died: 424 BC
Preceded by
Xerxes I
Kings of Persia
464 BC – 424 BC
Succeeded by
Xerxes II
Pharaoh of Egypt
465 BC – 424 BC