This article has an unclear citation style.February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)(
Arthur Claude Ruge
|Died||April 3, 2000 94) (aged|
C.A. Ferdinand Ruge
Arthur Claude Ruge (pronounced ROO-gee; July 28, 1905 – April 3, 2000) was an American mechanical engineer and inventor who developed and pioneered the modern bonded wire resistance strain gauge.
Ruge graduated from Carnegie Mellon University with a mechanical engineering degree in 1925, and worked as a structural engineer for several years thereafter. He then earned his master's degree in civil engineering and a doctorate in engineering seismology from MIT. In 1932, Ruge joined the faculty of MIT1, where he would spend the rest of his academic career, becoming America's first professor of engineering seismology2.
The 1933 Long Beach earthquake gave Ruge a new direction 3. The disaster had proved the importance of earthquake engineering. Buildings that had been appropriately engineered and reinforced sustained little to no structural damage, while the rest of Long Beach suffered catastrophic ruin. Ruge turned the focus of his research to the development of earthquake-resistant architecture, specifically a method to provide seismic insulation for water towers. In his lab at MIT, Ruge and his research assistant constructed a hydraulic shake table that simulated the effects of the Long Beach earthquake; on this table they placed a replica of a water tower 4. It was this research, and the need to measure stress caused by earthquakes that eventually led to Ruge's invention of the strain gauge.
During the course of his seismic insulation research, Ruge discovered that he needed to measure the stress on the water tanks that was caused by the earthquakes, and so he set about devising a means for attaining this measurement. According to Ruge, he had a Eureka moment on April 3, 1938, when “the invention just popped into my mind, whole. I could see it clearly and knew that it would work.” His solution was to glue a piece of cigarette paper on the tank and glue a small wire with end connections to the paper 4. Ruge and his assistants quickly developed this rudimentary deviceinto the more advanced version that would later be patented.
Barnaby Feder writes:
The SR-4 was a deceptively simple invention composed of four thin tungsten filaments, similar to those used in light bulbs, glued together in the shape of a diamond. When an electrical current is run across the wires, no voltage can be measured as long as they remain perfectly aligned. But if some force disturbs the symmetry, and thus the resistance in the wires, the gauge puts out a voltage proportional to the force.
When MIT released the right to Ruge's invention, saying that, while “interesting,” the strain gauge didn't show much potential, he immediately went about commercializing it. Only then did he discover that his strain gauge had already been invented the year before by Edward E. Simmons, an electrical engineer at Caltech. Though the Simmons was the first to invent the resistance wire strain gauge, both men are credited with the discovery and share the original patent. The trade name of the device, SR-4, which stands for “Simmons Ruge – 4 people,” acknowledges both men and indicates that four people (Simmons, Ruge and their respective assistants) were responsible for its realization5.
In 1939, Arthur Ruge and Alfred de Forest, a colleague from MIT and fellow inventor, founded a company, Ruge Consulting, that pioneered and manufactured the SR-4 and continued to innovate new, related technologies. They produced the first commercial shipment of strain gages – a 50,000-piece order in 19416. In 1955, Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton bought the Ruge Consulting and rights to the SR-4 strain gage and renamed the company BLH Electronics Inc. A new company, RdF Corporation was formed to continue development and manufacturing of temperature sensors. The name RdF is short for Ruge and de Forest.
An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to propel objects and people into the air, and wreak destruction across entire cities. The seismicity, or seismic activity, of an area is the frequency, type, and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling.
Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. The field also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, glacial, fluvial, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes such as explosions. A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology. A recording of Earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram. A seismologist is a scientist who does research in seismology.
A seismometer is an instrument that responds to ground motions, such as caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and explosions. Seismometers are usually combined with a timing device and a recording device to form a seismograph. The output of such a device—formerly recorded on paper or film, now recorded and processed digitally—is a seismogram. Such data is used to locate and characterize earthquakes, and to study the Earth's internal structure.
Granville Tailer Woods was an inventor who held more than 60 patents in the U.S. He was the first African American mechanical and electrical engineer after the Civil War. Self-taught, he concentrated most of his work on trains and streetcars. One of his notable inventions was a device he called the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph, a variation of induction telegraph which relied on ambient static electricity from existing telegraph lines to send messages between train stations and moving trains. His work assured a safer and better public transportation system for the cities of the United States.
A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object. Invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938, the most common type of strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern. The gauge is attached to the object by a suitable adhesive, such as cyanoacrylate. As the object is deformed, the foil is deformed, causing its electrical resistance to change. This resistance change, usually measured using a Wheatstone bridge, is related to the strain by the quantity known as the gauge factor.
Soil liquefaction occurs when a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress such as shaking during an earthquake or other sudden change in stress condition, in which material that is ordinarily a solid behaves like a liquid. In soil mechanics, the term "liquefied" was first used by Allen Hazen in reference to the 1918 failure of the Calaveras Dam in California. He described the mechanism of flow liquefaction of the embankment dam as:
If the pressure of the water in the pores is great enough to carry all the load, it will have the effect of holding the particles apart and of producing a condition that is practically equivalent to that of quicksand… the initial movement of some part of the material might result in accumulating pressure, first on one point, and then on another, successively, as the early points of concentration were liquefied.
The moment magnitude scale is a measure of an earthquake's magnitude based on its seismic moment. It was defined in a 1979 paper by Thomas C. Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori. Similar to the local magnitude scale (ML ) defined by Charles Francis Richter in 1935, it uses a logarithmic scale; small earthquakes have approximately the same magnitudes on both scales.
Robert Mallet, FRS, MRIA, Irish geophysicist, civil engineer, and inventor who distinguished himself in research on earthquakes and is sometimes called the father of seismology. His son, Frederick Richard Mallet was a geologist who worked in India.
Induced seismicity refers to typically minor earthquakes and tremors that are caused by human activity that alters the stresses and strains on the Earth's crust. Most induced seismicity is of a low magnitude. A few sites regularly have larger quakes, such as The Geysers geothermal plant in California which averaged two M4 events and 15 M3 events every year from 2004 to 2009. The Human-Induced Earthquake Database (HiQuake) documents all reported cases of induced seismicity proposed on scientific grounds and is the most complete compilation of its kind.
John Milne was a British geologist and mining engineer who worked on a horizontal seismograph.
Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. Its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes. An earthquake engineer aims to construct structures that will not be damaged in minor shaking and will avoid serious damage or collapse in a major earthquake. Earthquake engineering is the scientific field concerned with protecting society, the natural environment, and the man-made environment from earthquakes by limiting the seismic risk to socio-economically acceptable levels. Traditionally, it has been narrowly defined as the study of the behavior of structures and geo-structures subject to seismic loading; it is considered as a subset of structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, applied physics, etc. However, the tremendous costs experienced in recent earthquakes have led to an expansion of its scope to encompass disciplines from the wider field of civil engineering, mechanical engineering, nuclear engineering, and from the social sciences, especially sociology, political science, economics, and finance.
Thomas Lomar Gray was a Scottish engineer noted for his pioneering work in seismology.
Keiiti Aki was a Japanese-American professor of Geophysics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and then at the University of Southern California (USC), seismologist, author and mentor. He and Paul G. Richards coauthored "Quantitative Seismology: theory and methods".
Edward E. Simmons Jr. was an electrical engineer and the inventor of the bonded wire resistance strain gauge.
Egor Pavlovich Popov was a structural and seismic engineer who helped transform the design of buildings, structures, and civil engineering around earthquake-prone regions.
Clarence Roderic Allen was a geologist who studied seismology.
C. (Carl) Allin Cornell was a civil engineer, a researcher, and a professor who made important contributions to reliability theory and earthquake engineering and, along with Dr. Luis Esteva, developed the field of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in 1968.
Sarada Kanta Sarma is a geotechnical engineer, emeritus reader of engineering seismology and senior research investigator at Imperial College London. He has developed a method of seismic slope stability analysis which is named after him, the Sarma method.
William Henry Robinson was a New Zealand scientist and seismic engineer who invented the lead rubber bearing seismic isolation device. He grew up in West Auckland, New Zealand. He earned a master's degree at the Ardmore School of Engineering, then a PhD in physical metallurgy at the University of Illinois. Robinson was director of the DSIR's Physics and Engineering Laboratory between 1985 and 1991. He continued to invent and develop seismic isolation devices, travel and lecture until his early 70s.
Nicholas Neocles Ambraseys FICE FREng was a Greek engineering seismologist. He was emeritus professor of Engineering Seismology and Senior Research Fellow at Imperial College London. For many years Ambraseys was considered as the leading figure and an authority in earthquake engineering and seismology in Europe.
Arthur C. Ruge, who invented a fingernail-sized gauge that helped the United States win World War II and revolutionized the way things are weighed and tested for stress, died Monday at his home in Lexington, Mass., according to his daughter, Claire Bertucci. He was 94.