Arthur Foljambe, 2nd Earl of Liverpool

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The Earl of Liverpool

Lord of Liverpool.jpg
1st Governor-General of New Zealand
In office
28 June 1917 8 July 1920
MonarchGeorge V
Preceded byHimself
as Governor
Succeeded by The Viscount Jellicoe
16th Governor of New Zealand
In office
19 December 1912 28 June 1917
Monarch George V
Preceded by The Lord Islington
Succeeded byHimself
as Governor-General
Personal details
Born(1870-05-27)27 May 1870
Compton Place, Eastbourne, Sussex, UK
Died15 May 1941(1941-05-15) (aged 70)
Cranwick Hall, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, UK
NationalityBritish
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s)Annette Monck (1875–1948)
Alma mater Royal Military College, Sandhurst

Arthur William de Brito Savile Foljambe, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, GCB , GCMG , GBE , MVO , PC , JP , DL (27 May 1870 – 15 May 1941), styled Viscount Hawkesbury between 1905 and 1907, was a British Liberal politician, the 16th and last Governor of New Zealand, and the first Governor-General of New Zealand.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Liberal Party (UK) political party of the United Kingdom, 1859–1988

The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and then won a landslide victory in the following year's general election.

Governor-General of New Zealand representative of the monarch of New Zealand

The Governor-General of New Zealand is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is concurrently the monarch of 15 other Commonwealth realms, and lives in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her Prime Minister of New Zealand, appoints a governor-general to carry out her constitutional and ceremonial duties within the Realm of New Zealand.

Contents

Background and education

Born at Compton Place, Eastbourne, Sussex, [1] he was the eldest son and only surviving child of Cecil Foljambe, 1st Earl of Liverpool, by his first wife Louisa Howard, daughter of Frederick John Howard. [1] [2] On his mother's side he descended from Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, the architect. [2] He was educated at Eton and the Sandhurst before joining the Rifle Brigade.

Eastbourne Town and Borough in England

Eastbourne is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, 19 miles (31 km) east of Brighton. Eastbourne is immediately to the east of Beachy Head, the highest chalk sea cliff in Great Britain and part of the larger Eastbourne Downland Estate.

Cecil Foljambe, 1st Earl of Liverpool British Liberal politician

Cecil George Savile Foljambe, 1st Earl of Liverpool, known as The Lord Hawkesbury between 1893 and 1905, was a British Liberal politician. A great-nephew of Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, he was Lord Steward of the Household under Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman between 1905 and his death in 1907. He was the grandson of Sir Cecil Bishopp, 6th Baronet of Parham, his namesake.

Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington English noble

Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork, was an Anglo-Irish architect and noble often called the "Apollo of the Arts" and the "Architect Earl". The son of the 2nd Earl of Burlington and 3rd Earl of Cork, Burlington never took more than a passing interest in politics despite his position as a Privy Counsellor and a member of both the British House of Lords and the Irish House of Lords.

Military career

Foljambe was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Rifle Brigade on 2 May 1891, and was promoted to lieutenant on 14 February 1893 and to captain on 1 December 1897. [3] He saw active service in the Second Boer War in South Africa. In July 1901 he was appointed an extra aide-de-camp to the Earl Cadogan, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. [4] He returned to his regiment in December 1901, [5] joining the 4th battalion stationed in Bloemfontein. He retired from the army in 1906. [1]

Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1a rank.

Lieutenant is a junior officer rank in the British Army and Royal Marines. It ranks above second lieutenant and below captain and has a NATO ranking code of OF-1 and it is the senior subaltern rank. Unlike some armed forces which use first lieutenant, the British rank is simply lieutenant, with no ordinal attached. The rank is equivalent to that of a flying officer in the Royal Air Force (RAF). Although formerly considered senior to a Royal Navy (RN) sub-lieutenant, the British Army and Royal Navy ranks of lieutenant and sub-lieutenant are now considered to be of equivalent status. The Army rank of lieutenant has always been junior to the Navy's rank of lieutenant.

Second Boer War war between two Boer Republics (South African Republic and Orange Free State) and the United Kingdom

The Second Boer War was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa. It is also known variously as the Boer War, Anglo-Boer War, or South African War. Initial Boer attacks were successful, and although British reinforcements later reversed these, the war continued for years with Boer guerrilla warfare, until harsh British counter-measures brought the Boers to terms.

Political career

Liverpool succeeded his father in the earldom in 1907 and took his seat in the House of Lords on the Liberal benches. [2] In July 1909 he was appointed Comptroller of the Household in the Liberal administration of H. H. Asquith, [6] a post he held until 1912, [7] when he was appointed Governor of New Zealand. [8] In 1917 the office was raised in rank to that of Governor-General of New Zealand. [9] The same year Liverpool was also admitted to the Privy Council. [10] His term was extended to cover the visit of the Prince of Wales. [1] [11] He retired as Governor-General in 1920 and was appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) on 7 October 1920. [1]

House of Lords upper house in the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.

The Comptroller of the Household is an ancient position in the British royal household, nominally the second-ranking member of the Lord Steward's department after the Treasurer of the Household. The Comptroller was an ex officio member of the Board of Green Cloth, until that body was abolished in the reform of the local government licensing in 2004. In recent times, a senior government whip has invariably occupied the office. On state occasions the Comptroller carries a white staff of office, as often seen in portraits.

H. H. Asquith former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith,, generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. He was the last prime minister to lead a majority Liberal government, and he played a central role in the design and passage of major liberal legislation and a reduction of the power of the House of Lords. In August 1914, Asquith took Great Britain and the British Empire into the First World War. In 1915, his government was vigorously attacked for a shortage of munitions and the failure of the Gallipoli Campaign. He formed a coalition government with other parties, but failed to satisfy critics. As a result, he was forced to resign in December 1916, and he never regained power.

During the First World War, Liverpool conferred his name upon a New Zealand infantry regiment. The New Zealand Rifle Brigade (Earl of Liverpool's Own) was formed in 1915, served with the New Zealand Division during the war and was disbanded in 1919.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

The New Zealand Rifle Brigade , affectionately known as The Dinks, was formed on 1 May 1915 as the third brigade of the New Zealand Division, part of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. During the First World War it fought in Egypt, against the Senussi, and then on the Western Front. It was disbanded on 4 February 1919.

New Zealand Division

The New Zealand Division was an infantry division of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force raised for service in the First World War. It was formed in Egypt in early 1916 when the New Zealand and Australian Division was renamed after the detachment of its Australian personnel left the New Zealand Infantry Brigade, together with reinforcements from New Zealand, as the basis of the division. It was commanded by Major General Andrew Hamilton Russell for the duration of the war.

Family

Lord Liverpool married the Hon. Annette Louise Monck, daughter of Henry Monck, 5th Viscount Monck, in 1897. They had no children. [2] In the 1918 New Year Honours, Annette, Countess of Liverpool, was appointed Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE). Lord Liverpool owned Hartsholme Hall from 1909 to 1939.

Viscount Monck

Viscount Monck, of Ballytrammon in the County of Wexford, is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1801 for Charles Monck, 1st Baron Monck. He had already been created Baron Monck, of Ballytrammon in the County of Wexford, in 1797, also in the Peerage of Ireland. His eldest son, the second Viscount, was in 1822 created Earl of Rathdowne in the Peerage of Ireland. However, this title became extinct on his death, while he was succeeded in the other titles by his younger brother, the third Viscount. The latter's son, the fourth Viscount, served as the 1st Governor General of Canada. In 1866, he was given the title Baron Monck, of Ballytrammon in the County of Wexford, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. This title gave the viscounts a seat in the Westminster House of Lords until the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999. As of 2012 the titles are held by his great-great-grandson, the seventh Viscount, who succeeded his father in 1982. He does not use his titles.

The 1918 New Year Honours were appointments by King George V to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were published in The London Gazette and The Times in January, February and March 1918.

Order of the British Empire British order of chivalry

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order.

He died at his home Canwick Hall in May 1941, aged 70, [1] and was succeeded in his titles by his half-brother, Gerald Foljambe. The Countess of Liverpool died in May 1948, aged 73. [2]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 LIVERPOOL, Sir Arthur William de Brito Savile Foljambe, Earl of at teara.govt.nz
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Arthur William de Brito Savile Foljambe, 2nd Earl of Liverpool
  3. Hart′s Army list, 1903
  4. "No. 27385". The London Gazette . 10 December 1901. p. 8718.
  5. "No. 27465". The London Gazette . 15 August 1902. p. 5333.
  6. "No. 28270". The London Gazette . 13 July 1909. p. 5381.
  7. "No. 28659". The London Gazette . 1 November 1912. p. 8021.
  8. "No. 28646". The London Gazette . 20 September 1912. p. 6935.
  9. "No. 30180". The London Gazette . 13 July 1917. p. 6990.
  10. "No. 30161". The London Gazette . 3 July 1917. p. 6541.
  11. Biography
Political offices
Preceded by
The Master of Elibank
Comptroller of the Household
1909–1912
Succeeded by
The Lord Saye and Sele
Government offices
Preceded by
The Lord Islington
Governor of New Zealand
1912–1917
Office renamed
Office renamed Governor-General of New Zealand
1917–1920
Succeeded by
The Viscount Jellicoe
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Cecil Foljambe
Earl of Liverpool
1907–1941
Succeeded by
Gerald Foljambe