Arthur Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Baron Stanmore

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The Lord Stanmore

Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon.jpg
Arthur Gordon circa 1870–1880.
9th Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick
In office
26 October 1861 30 September 1866
Monarch Victoria
Premier Samuel Leonard Tilley
Albert J. Smith
Peter Mitchell
Preceded by John Manners Sutton
Succeeded by Charles Hastings Doyle
19th Governor of Trinidad
In office
7 November 1866 1870
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by E. E. Bushworth
Succeeded by James Robert Longden
11th Governor of British Mauritius
In office
21 February 1871 18 August 1874
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by Sir Henry Barkly
Succeeded by Sir Arthur Phayre
1st High Commissioner for the Western Pacific
In office
June 1875 January 1880
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by Sir Hercules Robinson
Succeeded by Sir William Des Vœux
2nd Governor of Fiji
In office
June 1875 January 1880
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by Sir Hercules Robinson
Succeeded by Sir William Des Vœux
9th Governor of New Zealand
In office
29 November 1880 24 June 1882
Monarch Victoria
Premier John Hall
Frederick Whitaker
Preceded by Sir Hercules Robinson
Succeeded by Sir William Jervois
16th Governor of British Ceylon
In office
3 December 1883 28 May 1890
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by John Douglas
Succeeded by Arthur Havelock
acting governor
Personal details
Born(1829-11-26)26 November 1829
Died30 January 1912(1912-01-30) (aged 82)
Relations George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen (father)
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge

Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Baron Stanmore GCMG KStJ (26 November 1829 – 30 January 1912) [1] was a British Liberal Party politician and colonial administrator. He had extensive contact with Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone.

Liberal Party (UK) political party of the United Kingdom, 1859–1988

The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and then won a landslide victory in the following year's general election.

William Ewart Gladstone British Liberal politician and prime minister of the United Kingdom

William Ewart Gladstone was a British statesman and Liberal Party politician. In a career lasting over 60 years, he served for 12 years as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, spread over four terms beginning in 1868 and ending in 1894. He also served as Chancellor of the Exchequer four times.

Contents

Career

Gordon was born in London in 1829. [2] He was the youngest son of George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen and his second wife, Harriet Douglas. His mother was the widow of Viscount Hamilton. [2] Gordon was educated privately and then at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was President of the Cambridge Union Society in 1849. [3] After graduating in 1851, he worked as Assistant Private Secretary to the British Prime Minister (his father) between 1852 and 1855, and was a Member of Parliament (MP) for Beverley from 1854 to 1857, [1] before holding a number of colonial governorships:

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom, as well as the largest city within the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen British politician

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen,, styled Lord Haddo from 1791 to 1801, was a British statesman, diplomat and Scottish landowner, successively a Tory, Conservative and Peelite politician and specialist in foreign affairs. He served as Prime Minister from 1852 until 1855 in a coalition between the Whigs and Peelites, with Radical and Irish support. The Aberdeen ministry was filled with powerful and talented politicians, whom Aberdeen was largely unable to control and direct. Despite his trying to avoid this happening, it took Britain into the Crimean War, and fell when its conduct became unpopular, after which Aberdeen retired from politics.

James Hamilton, Viscount Hamilton was a British nobleman and politician.

New Brunswick province in Canada

New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves anglophones and a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas, mostly in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton.

Canadian Confederation process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867

Asian bootyhole Canadian Confederation was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867. Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec; along with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the new federation thus comprised four provinces. Over the years since Confederation, Canada has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current union of ten provinces and three territories.

Trinidad and Tobago Island country in the Caribbean Sea

Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres off the coast of northeastern Venezuela. It shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, and Venezuela to the south and west.

He was created Baron Stanmore, of Great Stanmore, in the County of Middlesex on 21 August 1893. [7]

In 1897 Lord Stanmore became the chairman of the Pacific Islands Company Ltd ('PIC'), which was a company formed by John T. Arundel that was based in London with its trading activities in the Pacific that involved mining phosphate rock on Banaba (then known as Ocean Island) and Nauru. [8] John T. Arundel and Lord Stanmore were responsible for financing the new opportunities and negotiating with the German company that controlled the licences to mine in Nauru. In 1902 the interests of PIC were merged with Jaluit Gesellschaft of Hamburg, to form the Pacific Phosphate Company, ('PPC') to engage in phosphate mining in Nauru and Banaba. [9]

John T. Arundel guano and copra entrepreneur


John T. Arundel was an English entrepreneur who was instrumental in the development of the mining of phosphate rock on the Pacific islands of Nauru and Banaba. Williams & Macdonald (1985) described J.T. Arundel as "a remarkable example of that mid-Victorian phenomenon, the upright, pious and adventurous Christian English businessman."

Banaba Island island in the Pacific Ocean

Banaba Island, an island in the Pacific Ocean, is a solitary raised coral island west of the Gilbert Island chain and 185 miles (298 km) east of Nauru. It is part of the Republic of Kiribati. It has an area of 6.0 km2, and the highest point on the island is also the highest point in Kiribati, at 81 metres (266 ft) high. Along with Nauru and Makatea, it is one of the important elevated phosphate-rich islands of the Pacific.

Nauru Republic in Oceania

Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 kilometres (190 mi) to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With only a 21-square-kilometre (8.1 sq mi) area, Nauru is the third-smallest country in the world behind Vatican City and Monaco, making it the smallest state in the South Pacific Ocean, the smallest state outside of Europe, the smallest island state, and the smallest republic. Additionally, its population of 11,347 is the world’s third smallest, after the Vatican and Tuvalu.

Gordon's ethnographic collection from Fiji, which was assembled during his Governorship, was donated to the British Museum in 1878. [10]

British Museum National museum in the Bloomsbury area of London

The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been widely sourced during the era of the British Empire. It documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. It was the first public national museum in the world.

He was appointed a member of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts in March 1900. [11]

Works

Arms

Related Research Articles

History of Kiribati aspect of history

The islands which now form the Republic of Kiribati have been inhabited for at least seven hundred years, and possibly much longer. The initial Micronesian population, which remains the overwhelming majority today, was visited by Polynesian and Melanesian invaders before the first European sailors visited the islands in the 17th century. For much of the subsequent period, the main island chain, the Gilbert Islands, was ruled as part of the British Empire. The country gained its independence in 1979 and has since been known as Kiribati.

Gilbert and Ellice Islands

The Gilbert and Ellice Islands were a British protectorate from 1892 and colony from 1916 until 1 January 1976, when the islands were divided into two colonies which became independent nations shortly after. A referendum was held in December 1974 to determine whether the Gilbert Islands and Ellice Islands should each have their own administration. As a consequence of the referendum, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony ceased to exist on 1 January 1976 and the separate countries of Kiribati and Tuvalu came into existence.

Salar people ethnic group in China

The Salar people are a Turkic ethnic minority of China who largely speak the Salar language, an Oghuz language.

Baron Stanmore

Baron Stanmore, of Great Stanmore in the County of Middlesex, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1893 for the colonial administrator the Hon. Sir Arthur Hamilton-Gordon. He was the youngest son of the former Prime Minister George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen. His only son, the second Baron, served as a Government Whip from 1914 to 1922 and as Chief Liberal Whip in the House of Lords from 1923 to 1944. However, Lord Stanmore never married and the title became extinct on his death in 1957.

Rabi Island island

Rabi is a volcanic island in northern Fiji. It is an outlier to Taveuni, in the Vanua Levu Group. It covers an area of 66.3 square kilometers, reaching a maximum altitude of 463 meters and has a shoreline of 46.2 kilometers. With a population of around 5,000, Rabi is home to the Banabans who are the indigenous landowners of Banaba Island; the indigenous Fijian community that formerly lived on Rabi was moved to Taveuni after the island was purchased by the Banabans. The original inhabitants still maintain their links to the island, and still use the Rabi name in national competitions.

Serua is one of Fiji's fourteen Provinces. Its 830 square kilometers occupy the southernmost areas of Viti Levu, being one of 8 provinces based on Fiji's largest island. It had a population of 15,461 at the 2007 census.

British Western Pacific Territories

The British Western Pacific Territories was the name of a colonial entity, created in 1877, for the administration, under a single representative of the British Crown, styled High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, of a series of Pacific islands in and around Oceania. Except for Fiji and the Solomon Islands, most of these colonial possessions were relatively minor.

Arthur Havelock British colonial administrator

Sir Arthur Elibank Havelock was a career British colonial governor, serving as Governor of Sierra Leone from 1880, of Natal, of Madras, of Ceylon from 1890 to 1895, and of Tasmania from 1901 to 1904.

George John Shaw-Lefevre, 1st Baron Eversley PC, DL was a British Liberal Party politician. In a ministerial career that spanned thirty years, he was twice First Commissioner of Works and also served as Postmaster General and President of the Local Government Board.

Albert Fuller Ellis Australian prospector

Sir Albert Fuller Ellis was a prospector in the Pacific. He discovered phosphate deposits on the Pacific islands of Nauru and Banaba Island in 1900. He was the British Phosphate Commissioner for New Zealand from 1921 to 1951.

The British Phosphate Commissioners (BPC) was a board of Australian, British, and New Zealand representatives who managed extraction of phosphate from Christmas Island, Nauru, and Banaba Island from 1920 until 1981.

William Patrick Adam British colonial administrator

William Patrick Adam, CIE, DL was a British colonial administrator and Liberal politician. He was twice First Commissioner of Works under William Ewart Gladstone and also served briefly as Governor of Madras between 1880 and 1881.

George Hamilton-Gordon, 2nd Baron Stanmore British Baron

George Arthur Maurice Hamilton-Gordon, 2nd Baron Stanmore, was a British Liberal politician.

Phosphate mining in Nauru

The economy of Nauru has been almost wholly dependent on phosphate, which has led to environmental catastrophe on the island, with 80% of the nation’s surface having been strip-mined. The island's phosphate deposits were virtually exhausted by 2000 although some small-scale mining is still in progress.

John Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair Politician, Governor General of Canada

John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair, known as The Earl of Aberdeen from 1870 to 1916, was a Scottish politician. Born in Edinburgh, Hamilton-Gordon held office in several countries, serving twice as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and serving from 1893 to 1898 as the seventh Governor General of Canada.

Fred Whibley trader

Fred Whibley abandoned a career as clerk in a London bank to escape from the constraints and social expectations of respectability in the Victorian era. He ended up as a copra trader on Niutao in Tuvalu in the central Pacific Ocean.

Hugh Hastings Romilly (1856–1892) was a British explorer in the Pacific, the third son of Colonel Frederick Romilly Frederick Romilly and Elizabeth, daughter of Gilbert Elliot, second earl of Minto. He was born in London on 15 March 1856, and, at first, educated at the Rev. C. A. Johns's school at Winchester, and then at Repton. He entered Christ Church, Oxford, on 10 October 1874, but took no degree, leaving to enter the business of Messrs. Melly & Co., merchants, of Liverpool.

Richard Shannon is an historian best known for his two-volume biography of William Ewart Gladstone. He was appointed Professor of Modern History at the University College Swansea, University of Wales in 1979.

References

  1. 1 2 Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages – Peerages beginning with "S" (part 5) [ self-published source ][ better source needed ]
  2. 1 2 Tyler, W. P. N. "Gordon, Arthur Hamilton". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  3. "Gordon, the Hon. Arthur Charles Hamilton (GRDN846AC)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  4. Newbury, Colin (Spring 2011). "Biography and Patronage in Crown Colony Governorships: Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon and "Personal Administration"" (PDF). Journal of Historical Biography. 9: 1–36.
  5. "Mauritius". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  6. In 1875, the Fiji Islands were created a separate Colony, and Sir Arthur Gordon was appointed the first Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Fiji, until 1880. In connection with this he also received the appointment of Consul-General, and High Commissioner of the Western Pacific.
  7. "No. 26437". The London Gazette . 1 September 1893. p. 4994.
  8. Albert F. Ellis, (1935) Ocean Island and Nauru: Their Story, Chapter IV
  9. Maslyn Williams & Barrie Macdonald (1985) The Phosphateers
  10. "Collection search: You searched for". British Museum. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  11. "No. 27174". The London Gazette . 16 March 1900. p. 1791.
  12. http://www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk/online/content/stanmore1893.htm
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
William Wells
Francis Charles Lawley
Member of Parliament for Beverley
18541857
With: William Wells
Succeeded by
Edward Glover
William Denison
Government offices
Preceded by
Sir John Henry Thomas Manners-Sutton
Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick
1861–1866
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Hastings Doyle
Preceded by
E. E. Bushworth (acting)
Governor of Trinidad
1866–1870
Succeeded by
James Robert Longden
Preceded by
Sir Henry Barkly
Governor of Mauritius
1871–1874
Succeeded by
Sir Arthur Purves Phayre
Preceded by
Sir Hercules Robinson
Governor of Fiji
1875–1880
Succeeded by
Sir William Des Vœux
New creation High Commissioner for the Western Pacific
1877–1880
Preceded by
Sir Hercules Robinson
Governor of New Zealand
1880–1882
Succeeded by
Sir William Jervois
Preceded by
John Douglas
acting governor
Governor of Ceylon
1883–1890
Succeeded by
Arthur Havelock
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Stanmore
1893–1912
Succeeded by
George Hamilton-Gordon