Artibonite (department)

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Artibonite

Latibonit
Artibonite in Haiti.svg
Artibonite in Haiti
Country Flag of Haiti.svg Haiti
Capital Gonaïves
Government
  TypeDepartmental Council
Area
   department 4,986.94 km2 (1,925.47 sq mi)
Population
 (2015) [1]
   department 1,727,524
  Density350/km2 (900/sq mi)
   Urban
739,787
   Rural
987,737
Time zone UTC-5 (Eastern)
ISO 3166 code HT-AR
HDI (2017)0.469 [2]
low · 7th

Artibonite (Haitian Creole : Latibonit) is one of the ten departments of Haiti. With an area of 4,887 km2 it is Haiti's largest department. As of 2015, its estimated population was 1,727,524. [3] The region is the country's main rice-growing area. The main cities are Gonaïves (the capital) and Saint-Marc. In February 2004 an insurgency tried unsuccessfully to declare Artibonite's independence.

Departments of Haiti first-level administrative territorial entity of Haiti

In the administrative divisions of Haiti, the department is the first of four levels of government. Haiti is divided administratively into ten departments, which are further subdivided into 42 arrondissements, 145 communes, and 571 communal sections.

Haiti Unitary republic in the Caribbean

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and Jamaica and south of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands. To the south-west lies the small island of Navassa Island, which is administered by the United States but claimed by Haiti as part of its territory. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometers (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated population of 10.8 million, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean after Cuba.

Gonaïves Commune in Artibonite, Haiti

Gonaïves is a commune in northern Haiti, and the capital of the Artibonite department of Haiti. It has a population of about 300,000 people. The city of Gonaïves was founded in 1422 by Indians who named it Gonaibo. It is also known as Haiti's "independence city". The Bay of Gonaïves is named after the town.

Contents

The department has been in a state of an economic decline since insurgencies and coups have reduced the nation's stability. Since the election of President René Garcia Préval, the production of rice and other crops has been on an increase.

Geography

A core geographic feature of this department is the Artibonite River, which runs through the southern half of the department, allowing for rice cultivation in the Artibonite Valley.

Artibonite River river

The Artibonite River is a 320 km long river in Haiti. It is the longest as well as the most important river in Haiti and the longest on the island of Hispaniola. Forming part of the international border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, the river's sources are in the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic, however most of its length lies in Haiti. The river empties into the Gulf of Gonâve.

Artibonite Valley is a valley predominantly in Haiti, on the island of Hispaniola. The Artibonite River flows through the valley, with headwaters in the Dominican Republic as well.

Etymology

The name L'Artibonite is derived from the Artibonite River.

Historic Places and Landmarks

Several noteworthy events of the Haitian Revolution took place in the Artibonite Department.

Haitian Revolution Slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue

The Haitian Revolution was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti. It began on 22 August 1791, and ended in 1804 with the former colony's independence. It involved blacks, mulattoes, French, Spanish, and British participants—with the ex-slave Toussaint L'Ouverture emerging as Haiti's most charismatic hero. It was the only slave uprising that led to the founding of a state which was both free from slavery, and ruled by non-whites and former captives. It is now widely seen as a defining moment in the history of the Atlantic World.

Battle of Ravine-à-Couleuvres

The Battle of Ravine-à-Couleuvres, also known as the Battle of Snake Gully, was a major battle of the Haitian Revolution on 23 February 1802.

Toussaint Louverture Leader of the Haitian Revolution

François-Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture, also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was a French general and best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution. He was a leader of the growing resistance. His military and political acumen saved the gains of the first black insurrection in November 1791. He first fought for the Spanish against the French; then for France against Spain and Great Britain; and finally, he fought on behalf of Saint-Domingue in the era of Napoleonic France. He helped transform the slave insurgency into a revolutionary movement. By 1800 Saint-Domingue, the most prosperous French slave colony of the time, had become the first free colonial society to have explicitly rejected race as the basis of social ranking.

Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau French soldier

Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau was a French soldier, the son of Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau.

Demographics

The 2015 population of Artibonite was estimated at 1,727,524 (2015), [3] with 739,787 (43%) residing in urban areas and (57%) residing in rural areas.

YearTotal Pop.UrbanRuralRatio
2003 [4] 1,299,398———422,476876,92232:68
2009 [5] 1,571,02020.9%607,757963,26339:61
2015 [3] 1,727,52410.0%739,787987,73743:57

Administrative divisions

The Department of Artibonite is subdivided into five arrondissements, which are further subdivided into sixteen communes.

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References

  1. "Estimated Pop Total 2015" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-06. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
  2. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. 1 2 3 "POPULATION TOTALE, POPULATION DE 18 ANS ET PLUS MÉNAGES ET DENSITÉS ESTIMÉS EN 2015" (PDF). IHSI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-06. Retrieved 22 Mar 2017.
  4. "Tableau 200: Répartition de la population par année d'âge selon le sexe et le milieu de résidence" (PDF). IHSI. Retrieved 22 Mar 2017.
  5. "POPULATION TOTALE, POPULATION DE 18 ANS ET PLUS MENAGES ET DENSITES ESTIMES EN 2009" (PDF). IHSI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-11-24. Retrieved 25 Mar 2017.

Coordinates: 19°27′00″N72°41′00″W / 19.45°N 72.6833°W / 19.45; -72.6833