Arung Palakka, or La Tenritatta to Unru' (1634 or 1635 – 1696) was a 17th-century Bugis prince and warrior. He supported the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the Makassar War (1666–1669) against the Gowa Sultanate in his native South Sulawesi (today part of Indonesia). After the defeat of Gowa, he became the King of Bone and South Sulawesi's most powerful man.
Arung Palakka was born in 1634 Pottobune Arung Tana Tenga, a minor lord in Soppeng, and his mother was Datu Mario-ri Wawo We Tenrisui, granddaughter of the first Muslim ruler of Bone. Soppeng and Bone were autonomous principalities in South Sulawesi under the hegemony of the Gowa Sultanate. As a child he was known as La Tenritatta, "He who cannot be struck". In the 1646 Battle of Passempe, Bone was defeated by the Gowa Sultanate and his family became hostages living in Gowa. The family served under the Chief Minister (Tuma'bicarra butta) of Gowa, Karaeng Pattingalloang, who liked Arung Palakka and gave him a proper upbringing as a prince.or 1635 in the village of Lamatta, Mario-ri Wawo, Soppeng. His father was La
In 1660 Bone rose in rebellion against Gowa, and Palakka became one of its leaders, together with the Gowa-appointed regent of Bone, Tobala'.By August 1660 the army under Palakka's command grew to 10,000 men. The rebellion was ultimately crushed, and Palakka fled South Sulawesi. In 1663 he settled in Batavia, which was under control of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). Subsequently, he allied himself with the VOC in the Makassar War against Sultan Hasanuddin of Gowa. Palakka's participation was an essential part of the VOC's plan. His arrival prompted the Bugis of Bone and Soppeng to rise in rebellion against Gowa. While the VOC fleet, under Cornelis Speelman, fought the Gowa fleet, Palakka led a "difficult" land campaign in South Sulawesi. The war ended in the victory of the VOC and Palakka's Bugis forces.
Following the victory against Gowa, Palakka became the most powerful man in South Sulawesi until his death in 1696.In 1672 he was formally given the title of arung (king) of Bone, and Bone replaced Gowa as the supreme principality in South Sulawesi. He and the VOC arranged a division of power, with Palakka dominating internal affairs and the VOC dominating external affairs. During his reign, he ignored the pre-existing consultative system of government and instead governed with authoritarian rule supported by warriors loyal to him. He led a series of campaigns to ensure his domination in South Sulawesi. His value as a military ally and his personal ties with Speelman (later VOC Governor-General) ensured continued support from the VOC.
The defeat of Gowa and the subsequent Palakka–VOC rule prompted an outflow of people from South Sulawesi.Notably, some of these refugees settled in Java and joined forces with the Madurese prince Trunajaya in the Trunajaya rebellion against the Mataram Sultanate. The rebellion almost caused Mataram's collapse until the VOC intervened on behalf of Mataram. Arung Palakka aided his VOC allies and led a Bugis army in suppressing the rebellion.
Indonesians today, especially those from Makassar, view the Makassar War and Arung Palakka's role in it with bitterness.Palakka is seen as a traitor who allied himself with the colonialist VOC to conquer the Gowa Sultanate, his fellow Indonesians, and a truly Indonesian polity.
South Sulawesi is a province in the southern peninsula of Sulawesi. The Selayar Islands archipelago to the south of Sulawesi is also part of the province. The capital is Makassar. The province is bordered by Central Sulawesi and West Sulawesi to the north, the Gulf of Bone and Southeast Sulawesi to the east, Makassar Strait to the west, and Flores Sea to the south.
Bone was a sultanate in the south-west peninsula of Sulawesi, now part of modern-day Indonesia. Covering an area of 2,600 square kilometres (1,000 sq mi), Bone's chief town Boni, lay 130 kilometres (81 mi) northeast of the city of Makassar, home to the Bugis people.
Amangkurat II was the Susuhunan of Mataram from 1677 to 1703. Prior to taking the throne, he was the crown prince and had the title Pangeran Adipati Anom.
Wajoq, also spelled Wajo, Wajo', or Wajok, was a Bugis elective principality in the eastern part of the South Sulawesi peninsula. It was founded in the 15th century, and reached its peak in the 18th century, when it briefly became the hegemon of South Sulawesi replacing Boné. Wajoq retained its independence until it was subdued in the early 20th century by the Dutch colonial government. It continued to exist in some form up to the mid-20th century, when the self-governing entity was transformed into Wajo Regency in the newly independent Republic of Indonesia.
Sultan Hasanuddin (Sultan Hasanuddin Tumenanga Ri Balla Pangkana; was the 16th Ruler of The Sultanate of Gowa as Sombaya Ri Gowa XVI from 1653 to 1669. He was proclaimed as Indonesian National Hero on 6 November 1973. The Dutch called Sultan Hasanuddin "the Rooster of the East" as he was described as aggressive in battle.
Fort Rotterdam is a 17th-century fort in Makassar on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. It is a Dutch fort built on top of an existing fort of the Gowa Kingdom. The first fort on the site was constructed by the a local sultan in around 1634, to counter Dutch encroachments. The site was ceded to the Dutch under the Treaty of Bongaya, and they completely rebuilt it between 1673 and 1679. It had six bastions and was surrounded by a seven meter high rampart and a two meter deep moat.
The Makassar or Makassarese people are an ethnic group that inhabits the southern part of the South Peninsula, Sulawesi in Indonesia. They live around Makassar, the capital city of the province of South Sulawesi, as well as the Konjo highlands, the coastal areas, and the Selayar and Spermonde islands. They speak Makassarese, which is closely related to Buginese and also a Malay creole called Makassar Malay.
The Sultanate of Gowa was one of the great kingdoms and the most successful kingdom in the South Sulawesi region. People of this kingdom come from the Makassar tribe who lived in the south end and the west coast of southern Sulawesi.
Fort Somba Opu was a fortified commercial center of the Gowa Sultanate. Its ruins are located in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The fort was the center of the Gowa Sultanate in the 16th-century until its destruction by the Dutch East India Company in 1669. The conquest of Somba Opu citadel was one of the most difficult campaigns the Company had ever undertaken in the East.
The Makassar kingdom of Gowa emerged around 1300 CE as one of many agrarian chiefdoms in the Indonesian peninsula of South Sulawesi. From the sixteenth century onward, Gowa and its coastal ally Talloq became the first powers to dominate most of the peninsula, following wide-ranging administrative and military reforms, including the creation of the first bureaucracy in South Sulawesi. The early history of the kingdom has been analyzed as an example of state formation.
Trunajaya rebellion or Trunajaya War was the ultimately unsuccessful rebellion waged by the Madurese prince Trunajaya and fighters from Makassar against the Mataram Sultanate and its Dutch East India Company (VOC) supporters in Java during the 1670s.
The Battle of Surabaya was fought in May 1677 during the Trunajaya rebellion, in which the Dutch East India Company defeated the forces of Trunajaya and took Surabaya on behalf of its ally, the Mataram Sultanate.
The Fall of Plered was the capture of the capital of the Mataram Sultanate by the rebel forces loyal to Trunajaya in late June 1677. The attack on Plered followed a series of rebel victory, notably in the Battle of Gegodog and the fall of most of Mataram's northern coast. The aged and sick King Amangkurat I and his sons offered an ineffective defense, and the rebel overran the capital on or around 28 June. The capital was plundered and its wealth taken to the rebel capital in Kediri. The loss of the capital led to the collapse of the Mataram government and the flight of the royal family. The king fled with his son the crown prince and a small retinue to Tegal and died there, passing the kingship to the crown prince, now titled Amangkurat II, without any army or treasury.
The Battle of Gegodog took place in 13 October 1676 during the Trunajaya rebellion, and resulted in the victory of the rebel forces over the Mataram army led by the Crown Prince Pangeran Adipati Anom. Gegodog is located in the northeastern coast of Java, east of Tuban.
After his victory at the Battle of Gegodog in northeast Java, the Madurese rebel leader Trunajaya proceeded westwards to conquer Mataram Sultanate's remaining towns on the north coast of Java. By January 1677, nearly all coastal towns from Surabaya to Cirebon were taken.
I Maninrori Kare Tojeng, also known as Karaeng Galesong, was a Makassarese nobleman and warrior, and a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion in Java against the Mataram Sultanate. He participated in the successful invasion of East Java and the subsequent rebel victory at Battle of Gegodog (1676). He later broke out with Trunajaya, and built a stronghold in Kakaper, East Java. Dutch East India Company (VOC) and Bugis forces took Kakaper in October 1679, but Galesong escaped and rejoined Trunajaya. He died on 21 November 1679, either by illness or murdered by Trunajaya, before the rebellion ended.
The 1678 Kediri campaign took place from August to December 1678 in Kediri during the Trunajaya rebellion. The forces of the Mataram Sultanate, led by Amangkurat II, and the Dutch East India Company (VOC), led by Anthonio Hurdt, marched inland into eastern Java against Trunajaya's forces. After a series of marches beset by logistical difficulties and harassment by Trunajaya's forces, the Mataram–VOC army crossed the Brantas River on the night of 16–17 November. They then marched on Trunajaya's capital and stronghold at Kediri and took it by direct assault on 25 November. Kediri was plundered by the Dutch and Javanese victors, and the Mataram treasury—captured by Trunajaya after his victory at Plered—was completely lost in the looting. Trunajaya himself fled Kediri and continued his greatly weakened rebellion until his capture at the end of 1679.
Anthonio Hurdt was a Dutch East India Company (VOC) officer active in what is now Indonesia in the seventeenth century. He was initially assigned in civilian positions in Eastern Indonesia, the latest of which was the VOC Governor of Ambon. He was then posted to Java—in Western Indonesia—to lead the Kediri campaign against Trunajaya. After a protracted march slowed by logistical challenges, VOC and its ally Mataram overran Trunajaya and took his stronghold and court at Kediri, 25 November 1678. After the campaign he served in Batavia, becoming Director-General of the VOC in the Indies from 1684 to 1687, when he was expelled due to a dispute with Governor-General Joannes Camphuys.
The Kingdom of Tallo was one of the two kingdoms of Makassar in South Sulawesi from the 15th century to 1856. The state stood in a close political relation to the Sultanate of Gowa. After the Islamization of the Gowa and Tallo kingdoms in the early 17th century, they were usually collectively known as the Makassar Kingdom.
The Makasar script, also known as Ukiri' Jangang-jangang or Old Makasar script, is a historical Indonesian Writing system that was used in South Sulawesi to write the Makassarese language between the 17th and 19th centuries until it was supplanted by the Lontara Bugis script.