Aryandes

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Aryandes
Satrap of Egypt
Western part of the Achaemenid Empire.jpg
Aryandes was the first satrap of the Achaemenid Province of Egypt.
Predecessornew office
Successor Pherendates
Dynasty 27th Dynasty
Pharaoh Cambyses II to Darius I

Aryandes (or Aryavanda [1] :266) was the first Achaemenid satrap of ancient Egypt between the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, during the early 27th Dynasty of Egypt.

Contents

Career

When king Cambyses II defeated pharaoh Psamtik III at the battle of Pelusium (525 BCE), Egypt became a satrapy of the Achaemenid empire, and Aryandes was appointed satrap shortly after. In 522 BCE, Aryandes was overthrown due to a revolt against the Achaemenid rule led by a native Egyptian pharaoh, Petubastis III. The rebellion was personally quelled by the new king Darius I during his expedition to Egypt in 518 BCE, and Aryandes reinstated. The satrap then attempted to subjugate Libya with poor results. [1] :262

Around 496 BCE, Aryandes fell out of favour with Darius I and was deposed and replaced by Pherendates. [1] :266 The reason for this decision is unknown, with Herodotus and later Polyaenus claiming that the satrap started minting his own silver coinage, calling it aryandic in opposition of the golden, already existing daric, thus irritating the great king. This story is now considered unlikely, also because no aryandic has ever been found to date. [2] It appears more likely that Darius had real concerns of a declaration of independence by Aryandes for his satrapy. [1] :264

Aryandes had been made governor of Egypt by Cambyses, later he was executed by Darius for making himself equal to the king. When he learned that Darius intended to leave a memorial surpassing anything other kings had left, Aryandes did likewise and was punished for it. The coins struck by Darius were of extremely pure gold and Aryandes, who was ruling Egypt, made silver coins, and no silver money was as pure as that of Aryandes. When Darius heard of this, he had Aryandes executed for rebellion, but not for striking coins.

Herodotus, Histories IV, 166

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After Cambyses had died and the Magians won the kingship, Oroetes stayed in Sardis, where he in no way helped the Persians to regain the power taken from them by the Medes, but contrariwise; for in this confusion he slew two notable Persians, Mitrobates, the governor from Dascyleium, who had taunted him concerning Polycrates, and Mitrobates' son Cranaspes; and besides many other violent deeds, when a messenger from Darius came with a message which displeased him, he set an ambush by the way and killed that messenger on his journey homewards, and made away with the man's body and horse. So when Darius became king he was minded to punish Oroetes for all his wrongdoing, and chiefly for the killing of Mitrobates and his son.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Ray, John D. (2006). "Egypt, 525–404 B.C.". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.D.L.; Lewis, D.M.; Ostwald, M. (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed.), vol. IV – Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean c. 525 to 479 B.C. Cambridge University Press. pp. 254–286. ISBN   0 521 22804 2.
  2. ARYANDES at the Encyclopædia Iranica

Further reading

New title Satrap of Egypt
c.525 – 522 BCE
518 – c.496 BCE
Succeeded by
Pherendates