Asadollah Alam

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Asadollah Alam
Asadollah Alam (cropped).jpg
40th Prime Minister of Iran
In office
19 July 1962 7 March 1964
Monarch Mohammad-Reza Shah
Preceded by Ali Amini
Succeeded by Hassan-Ali Mansur
Minister of Royal Court
In office
1 February 1967 7 August 1977
Prime Minister Amir-Abbas Hoveida
Preceded by Hossein Ghods-Nakhai
Succeeded by Amir-Abbas Hoveida
President of Pahlavi University
In office
1 July 1950 9 February 1962
Preceded byAli Shirazi
Succeeded byHabib Maraghee
Personal details
Born24 July 1919
Birjand, Persia
Died14 April 1978(1978-04-14) (aged 58)
New York City, U.S.
Political party People's Party (1957–1975)
Resurgence Party (1975–1978)
Spouse(s)Malektaj Qavam
Children2

Amir Asadollah Alam (24 July 1919 – 14 April 1978) was an Iranian politician who was Prime Minister during the Shah's regime from 1962 to 1964. He was also Minister of Royal Court, President of Pahlavi University and Governor of Sistan and Baluchestan Provinces.

Iranian peoples diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group

The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group.

Prime Minister of Iran former a political post in Iran

The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Last shah of Iran

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last King (Shah) of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilisation" in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms.

Contents

Early life

Alam was born on 24 July 1919 [1] in Birjand and was educated at a British school in Iran. By a royal order from Reza Shah, Alam married Malektaj, the daughter of Qavam Al-Molk Shirazi. The son of Qavam ol-molk was then married to a sister of the Shah, Ashraf Pahlavi. Shortly after deposing the Qajar dynasty, Reza Shah intended to unite Iran's non-Qajar nobility through inter-marriage.

Birjand City in South Khorasan, Iran

Birjand is the capital of the Iranian province of South Khorasan. The city is known for its saffron, barberry, jujube, and handmade carpet exports. Birjand had a population of 187,020 in 2013.

British Raj British rule on the Indian subcontinent, 1858–1947

The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, and called the princely states. The whole was also more formally called the Indian Empire. As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.

Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly by family members such as the parents. In some cultures a professional matchmaker may be used to find a spouse for a young person.

At the age of 26, he was appointed governor of Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. At the age of 29, he became Minister of Agriculture in the cabinet of Mohammad Sa'ed. He early displayed what an American acquaintance describes as a combination of native toughness and Y.M.C.A. dedication. [2]

Mohammad Saed Prime Minister of Iran

Muhammad Sa'ed Maraghei was a Prime Minister of Iran.

Assadollah Alam became the main landowner of Birjand after his father's death. He was one of Iran's first big landowners to distribute his holdings to the peasants, insisting that his servants eat the same food as his family. Once, when a would-be assassin was nabbed outside his door, Alam gave the man $40, then had him thrashed and sent into the street without his pants. [2] Amir Asadollah Alam was the longest serving minister of the Pahlavi era. The title "Amir" (also transliterated "emir") is Arabic for ruler or governor. The name Alam means a banner or a flag in Arabic. Alam's father Amir Ebrahim Alam (AKA Shokat ol-molk) was the governor of the region of Qa'enaat. In the era of Reza Shah Pahlavi he was the minister of telecommunications.

Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters in predictable ways.

Prime ministership

Alam speaking in his campaign during legislative election of 1961 Alam 1961.jpg
Alam speaking in his campaign during legislative election of 1961

In 1953, Alam helped organize the coup (also known as the CIA and MI6 backed Operation Ajax) that overthrew Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh. [3] [4] [5] [6] Alam was subsequently made the director of the Pahlavi Foundation, a charitable trust worth at least $133 million, set up by the Shah to finance social-welfare plans out of the profits from royal holdings in banks, industries, hotels. In 1962, he became Prime Minister at the age of 43.

As prime minister, Assadollah Alam pledged to undertake "an anticorruption campaign with great diligence and all severity." Though the cynical snickered, Alam got free rein from the Shah, and carefully began building airtight cases against suspected grafters among Iran's leading bureaucrats and government leaders. His first major target was General Mohammed Ali Khazai, the Iranian army's chief of ordnance, who had parlayed his $6,000 salary into three houses in the suburbs of Tehran, four apartment houses in France, five automobiles, $100,000 in European banks and $200,000 in cash. A military court convicted Khazai of taking a cut out of government contracts and sentenced him to five years of solitary confinement. [7]

In May 1963, Alam's anticorruption drive was in full swing. In Tehran, a military tribunal sentenced General Abdullah Hedayat, Iran's first four-star general and once a close adviser of the Shah, to two years in prison for embezzling money on military housing contracts, brushed aside his plea for appeal with the brusque explanation that "more charges are pending." The former boss of the Tehran Electricity Board was in solitary confinement for five years; cases were in preparation against an ex-War Minister and twelve other generals for graft. [7]

Alam (second from left) with Queen Soraya Esfandiari Alam and Queen Soraya.jpg
Alam (second from left) with Queen Soraya Esfandiari

Riots of 1963

The most important event in Alam's premiership were the riots that took place in June 1963 in response to some of the reforms enforced by the Shah and Alam. It was the clerics who triggered the riots during the Muharram holy days. As the faithful jammed the mosques, the clerics assailed "illegal" Cabinet decisions and urged their followers to "protect your religion." Small-scale riots quickly broke out in the clerical capital of Qum, led by the Rouhollah Khomeini, and in several other cities. Police struck back, arrested Khomeini and some 15 other ringleaders. With that, both sides declared open war and the battle was on. [8]

Screaming "Down with the Shah," 10,000 people, swept through the capital, carrying pictures of Khomeini. Though the whereabouts of the Shah was kept secret, rows of white-helmeted troops, backed by tanks, immediately sealed off access to royal palaces in the city and suburbs. In the heart of town green, they fired for 40 minutes. When the mobs entered government buildings, the troops opened up at point-blank range. The crowd fell back in confusion, regrouped, and raced down main avenues. [8]

Nearly 7,000 troops were called out by Alam's government to restore peace, albeit an uneasy one, in Tehran; by then damage was estimated in the millions, at least 1,000 were injured, and the officially reported death toll was 86. It was undoubtedly higher, but since the public cemetery was closed and under heavy guard to prevent further clashes at the gravesides, the real number remained unknown. [8] In his memoirs, Alam notes the number of the dead to be about 200, saying that he immediately arranged for their families to receive a pension from the government. [9] For the first time in a decade, martial law was imposed on the city, along with a dusk-to-dawn curfew. Hoping to preserve quiet for a while, Alam also announced that troops would remain on emergency duty. Their orders: shoot to kill.

Minister of the royal court

Alam speaking with Mohammad-Reza Shah Shah Alam.jpg
Alam speaking with Mohammad-Reza Shah

In 1964, he was appointed as Chancellor of Shiraz University and served host to the King of Belgium in his visit to Fars Province a few years later. Afterwards he was the minister of court for many years, beginning in December 1966. Furthermore, he was the head of the Pahlavi Foundation and bursar. He was also a supporter of the campaign of Richard Nixon, during the United States presidential elections.

As the minister of the royal court he was the closest man to the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who now ran the country autocratically. Therefore, Alam became the channel through which most of the daily affairs of the country passed. Alam's memoirs, published posthoumously, are exceptionally detailed documents on the life and the deeds of the Shah as perceived by an insider.

List of positions held

As written by Alam himself in his memoirs [10] in 1972.

  1. Manager of Imam Reza's shrine in Mashad, AKA "Aastaan-e Qods-e Razavi"
  2. The Shah's inspector of all universities
  3. Chairman of the board of trustees of the Pahlavi University
  4. Chairman of the board of trustees of the Aryamehr University
  5. Chairman of the board of trustees of the Pars school for higher education (Madreseye Aalyi-e Pars)
  6. The shah's special liaison with foreign ambassadors (for issues too confidential to pass through the foreign ministry)
  7. Head of the board of trustees of the Mashad University
  8. Indispensable member of the board of trustees of the University of Tehran
  9. Indispensable member of the board of trustees of the University of Tabriz
  10. Chairman of the Royal horse institute (The crown prince Reza Pahlavi was the honorary head)
  11. Chairman of the royal institute of the rural culture houses (The crown prince Reza Pahlavi was the honorary head)
  12. Chairman of the National Scouts committee
  13. Head of "Kaanun-e Kaar" (Labor institute)
  14. Deputy chairman of the Imperial Organization of Social Services (Princess Ashraf Pahlavi was the head)
  15. Deputy chairman of the Red Lion and Sun Society (Princess Shams Pahlavi was the head)
  16. Chairman of the Council for support of mothers and infants
  17. Deputy chairman of the Kaanun-e Parvaresh-e Fekri-e Kudakaan va nojavaanaan (Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults). Empress Farah Pahlavi was the head)
  18. Direct chief of the Legion of service to humanity
  19. Person in charge of the construction in the island of Kish
  20. Head of the board of trustees of the Pahlavi Foundation
  21. Deputy chairman of the Iranian Culture Foundation (for research and publication of classic Persian texts)
  22. In charge of the shah's personal and monetary affairs.
  23. The minister of court.
  24. cooperation in establishing university of birjand

Illness and Death

Asadollah Alam was diagnosed with cancer in late 1960s. Alam died at New York University Hospital in New York City on 1978, less than a year before the Revolution in Iran.

See also

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References

  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. 1 2 The Reformer's Lot , Time (magazine), Friday, 27 July 1962
  3. "CIA Confirms Role in 1953 Iran Coup". nsarchive2.gwu.edu. The National Security Archive. 19 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  4. CIA finally admits it masterminded Iran's 1953 coup RT News
  5. Saeed Kamali Dehghan; Richard Norton-Taylor (19 August 2013). "CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  6. "In declassified document, CIA acknowledges role in '53 Iran coup". Cnn.com. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  7. 1 2 No Longer for the Corrupt , Time (magazine), 24 May 1963
  8. 1 2 3 Progress at a Price , Time (magazine), Friday, 14 June 1963
  9. [ Yaddasht-haye Amir Assadollah-e Alam], Bethesda, 2003
  10. [ Yaddasht-haye Amir Assadollah-e Alam],, edited by Alinaqi Alikhani, Vol. 2, P. 398 ISBN   978-0-936347-58-5.,Bethesda, 2003

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Ali Amini
Prime Minister of Iran
19621964
Succeeded by
Hassan Ali Mansour
Preceded by
Hossein Ghods-Nakhai
Minister of Royal Court
19671977
Succeeded by
Amir-Abbas Hoveida
Party political offices
Preceded by
None
Secretary-General of People's Party
19571960
Succeeded by
Yahya Adl
Academic offices
Preceded by
Ali Shirazi
President of Pahlavi University
19501962
Succeeded by
Habib Maraghee