Aşgabat/Ашгабат (in Turkmen)
|• Type||Presidential [ citation needed ]|
|• Mayor||Shamuhammet Durdylyýew|
|• Total||440 km2 (170 sq mi)|
|Elevation||219 m (719 ft)|
|• Density||2,300/km2 (6,100/sq mi)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+05:00 (not observed)|
|Area code(s)||(+993) 12|
Ashgabat (Turkmen : Aşgabat, pronounced [ɑʃʁɑˈbɑt] ) — formerly named Poltoratsk (Russian :Полтора́цк,IPA: [pəltɐˈratsk] ) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan. It is situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range in Central Asia.
The city was founded in 1881, and made the capital of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924. Much of the city was destroyed by the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake but has since seen extensively rebuilt under the rule of Saparmurat Niyazov’s “White City” urban renewal project,resulting in monumental projects sheathed in costly white marble. The Soviet-era Karakum Canal runs through the city, carrying waters from the Amu Darya from east to west.
Ashgabat is called Aşgabat in Turkmen, (Russian : Ашхабад, romanized: Ashkhabad) in Russian from 1925 to 1991, and Ešq-ābād (عشقآباد) in Persian. Before 1991, the city was usually spelled Ashkhabad in English, a transliteration of the Russian form. It has also been variously spelled Ashkhabat and Ashgabad. From 1919 until 1927, the city was renamed Poltoratsk after a local revolutionary, Pavel Gerasimovich Poltoratskiy.
Although the name literally means "city of love" or "city of devotion" in modern Persian, the name might be modified through folk etymology. Turkmen historian Ovez Gundogdiyev believes that the name goes back to the Parthian era, 3rd century BC, deriving from the name of the founder of the Parthian Empire, Arsaces I of Parthia, in Persian Ashk-Abad (the city of Ashk/Arsaces).
Ashgabat is a relatively young city, having been founded in 1881 as a fortification and named after the nearby settlement of Askhabad (see above for the etymology).Located not far from the site of Nisa, the ancient capital of the Parthian Empire, it grew on the ruins of the Silk Road city of Konjikala, first mentioned as a wine-producing village in the 2nd century BC and leveled by an earthquake in the 1st century BC (a precursor of the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake). Konjikala was rebuilt because of its advantageous location on the Silk Road and it flourished until its destruction by Mongols in the 13th century. After that it survived as a small village until Russians took over in the 19th century.
A part of Persia until the Battle of Geok Tepe, Askhabad was ceded to the Russian Empire under the terms of the Akhal Treaty. Russia developed the area as it was close to the border of British-influenced Persia, and the population grew from 2,500 in 1881 to 19,428 (of whom one third were Persian) in 1897.It was regarded as a pleasant town with European style buildings, shops, and hotels. In 1908, the first Bahá'í House of Worship was built in Askhabat. It was badly damaged in the 1948 earthquake and finally demolished in 1963. The community of the Bahá'í Faith in Turkmenistan was largely based in Ashgabat.
Soviet rule was established in Ashgabat in December 1917. However, in July 1918, a coalition of Mensheviks, Social Revolutionaries, and Tsarist former officers of the Imperial Russian Army revolted against the Bolshevik rule emanating from Tashkent and established the Ashkhabad Executive Committee. After receiving some support (but even more promises) from General Malleson, the British withdrew in April 1919 and the Tashkent Soviet resumed control of the city.
In 1919, the city was renamed Poltoratsk (Полторацк), after Pavel Poltoratskiy, the Chairman of the Soviet of National Economy of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. When the Turkmen SSR was established in 1924, Poltoratsk became its capital. The original name (in the form of "Ashkhabad") was restored in 1927. From this period onward, the city experienced rapid growth and industrialisation, although severely disrupted by a major earthquake on October 6, 1948. An estimated 7.3 on the Richter scale, the earthquake killed 110–176,000 (⅔ of the population of the city), although the official number announced by Soviet news was only 40,000.
In July 2003, street names in Ashgabat were replaced by serial numbers except for nine major highways, some named after Saparmurat Niyazov, his father, and his mother. The Presidential Palace Square was designated 2000 to symbolize the beginning of the 21st century. The rest of the streets were assigned larger or smaller four-digit numerical names. Following Niyazov's death in 2006, Soviet-era street names were restored, though in the years since, many of them have been replaced with names honoring Turkmen scholars, poets, military heroes, and figures from art and culture.
In 2013, the city was included in the Guinness Book of Records as the world's highest concentration of white marble buildings.
See also Map of the Boroughs of Ashgabat
As of January 5, 2018, Ashgabat includes four boroughs (uly etraplar):
This is a reduction from the previous number of boroughs. Arçabil and Çandybil boroughs were merged on February 4, 2015, and the new etrap, named Arçabil, was in turn renamed Büzmeýin in January 2018. At that time the Abadan borough of Ashgabat, created in 2013 by annexing the town of Abadan and surrounding villages to Abadan's south, was abolished and its territory was merged into the newly renamed Büzmeýin borough. The former Ruhabat borough was abolished at the same time and its territory absorbed by Bagtyýarlyk borough.
According to estimates of the 2012 Turkmen census the Turkmen form 85% of the city's population. Russians form 7.7% of the population, followed by Armenians (1.5%), Turks (1.1%), Uzbeks (1.1%), and Azeris (1%).
When Ashgabat was under Russian rule, the number of Bahá'ís in the city rose to over 1,000, and a Bahá'í community was established, with its own schools, medical facilities and cemetery. The community elected one of the first Bahá'í local administrative institutions. In 1908 the Bahá'í community completed the construction of the first Bahá'í House of Worship, sometimes referred to by its Arabic name of mašriqu-l-'aḏkār (Arabic : مشرق اﻻذكار), where people of all religions may worship God without denominational restrictions. The building was designed under the guidance of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Ustad' Ali-Akbar Banna Yazdi who also wrote a history of the Baha'is in Ashgabat.
The House of Worship itself was surrounded by gardens, with four buildings at the four corners of the gardens: a school, a hostel where travelling Bahá'ís were entertained, a small hospital, and a building for groundskeepers.
Under the Soviet policy towards religion, the Bahá'ís, strictly adhering to their principle of obedience to legal government, abandoned these properties in 1928.For the decade from 1938 to 1948, when it was seriously damaged by the earthquake, it was an art gallery. It was demolished in 1963.
After exiting the Soviet Union, the city gained many high-rise residential buildings. Modern construction techniques allow high-rise development (mainly 12 storeys) with relatively good protection against earthquakes. Primarily consisting of residential towers, the first floor is typically given a shopping area and a service department. Many of the buildings are made of white marble. The Arch of Neutrality was dismantled and re-erected in its original form in the south of the capital. Turkmenistan Tower, at a height of 211 meters, is the tallest building in the country.
Ashgabat is primarily a government and administrative centre. The business centre of Ashgabat is on the Archabil highway. Construction of several ministries and departments, teaching and research and cultural centres is complete. Development of office buildings and public spaces along the avenue continues.
The principal industries are cotton textiles and metal working. It is a major stop on the Trans-Caspian railway. A large percentage of the employment in Ashgabat is provided by the state institutions; such as the ministries, undersecretariats, and other administrative bodies of the Turkmenistan government. There are also many foreign citizens working as diplomats or clerks in the embassies of their respective countries. Ashgabat lends its name to the Ashgabat agreement, signed by India, Oman, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, for creating an international transport and transit corridor facilitating transportation of goods between Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.
More than 43 large and 128 medium-sized industrial enterprises along with over 1,700 small industrial facilities are located in Ashgabat and its suburbs.The most important are “Ashneftemash”, “Turkmenkabel”, “Turkmenbashi Textile Complex” etc.
Altyn Asyr Bazaar in Choganly has for sale many items, including traditional fabrics and hand-woven carpets. Modern shopping areas are mostly in central streets, including the modern Berkarar mall and Paýtagt and Aşgabat shopping centres.The local residents like traditional bazaars: Russian bazaar, Teke bazaar, Daşoguz bazaar, Mir bazaar, Jennet bazaar, etc. The Turkish-owned Yimpas department store closed as of December 2016.
The city is served by the Ashgabat International Airport. Turkmenistan Airlines has its headquarters in the city.Ashgabat offers air service to and from all the major cities of the Turkmenistan, as well as some destinations in Asia and Europe. Ashgabat is served by the following foreign airlines: Belavia, Lufthansa, Turkish Airlines, S7 Airlines, flydubai, China Southern Airlines and Uzbekistan Airways.
The Trans-Caspian Railway (Turkmenbashi–Balkanabat–Bereket–Ashgabat–Mary–Türkmenabat) runs through Ashgabat from east to west. Since 2006 there is also a train line from Ashgabat to the north, the Trans-Karakum Railway. In May 2009 the restoration of the Ashgabat railway station was completed.
In Ashgabat, there are two intercity bus stations, one located near the Teke Bazaar, the second at the old airport. There are daily buses to Archman, Dashoguz and Turkmenabat. The new International Passenger Bus Terminal of Ashgabat was inaugurated on September 5, 2014.
Public transport in the city consists mainly of buses. More than 60 bus lines cover a total range of more than 2,230 kilometres (1,386 miles) with 700 buses running on urban routes. Currently the city primarily uses Mercedes-Benz and Hyundai buses. Bus timetables and detailed schematic map of the route are at every stop. Distances between stops are about 300–500 meters. From 19 October 1964 to 31 December 2011 the city also had the Ashgabat trolleybus system. At the beginning of the twentieth century narrow-gauge railway operated by steam-power, connecting the city with the suburbs Firyuza.
On 18 October 2006, the Ashgabat Cable Car opened, connecting the city with the foothills of the Kopetdag.
Ashgabat Monorail commenced service in 2016, becoming the first monorail in the Central Asia region.It circulates exclusively on the territory of the Olympic Village (Turkmen: Olimpiýa şäherçesi).
In January 2018, it was reported that black cars had been impounded for weeks in Ashgabat, a result of President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov's conviction that black cars bring bad luck.
Ashgabat is the most important educational center of Turkmenistan with a large number of institutions of higher education. Turkmen State University was founded in 1950. The main university building is located on Beýik Saparmyrat Türkmenbaşy şaýoly. Turkmen State Medical University is situated in Ashgabat as well. It is subordinate to the Ministry of Health and Pharmaceutical Industry of Turkmenistan. Other prominent institutions are the Turkmen State Institute of Economics and Management, a main business school founded in 1980, as well as the Turkmen State Institute of Architecture and Construction and The National Institute of Sports and Tourism of Turkmenistan. In 2016, the English- and Japanese-medium Oguzhan Engineering Technology University was opened with support of the Japanese government. The International University of Humanities and Development is another English-medium institution of higher education.
The Turkmen Academy of Sciences is based in Ashgabat.
Ashgabat is very near the border with Iran.
The Kopet-Dag mountain range is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the south, and Ashgabat's northern boundary touches the Kara-Kum desert. Because of this Ashgabat has a cold desert climate (Köppen climate classification: BWk, bordering from BWh) with hot, dry summers and cool, short winters. The average high temperature in July is 38.3 °C (100.9 °F). Nighttimes in the summer are warm, with an average minimum temperature in July of 23.8 °C (75 °F). The average January high temperature is 8.6 °C (47.5 °F), and the average low temperature is −0.4 °C (31.3 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded in Ashgabat is 47.2 °C (117 °F), recorded in June 2015. A low temperature of −24.1 °C (−11 °F) was recorded in January 1969. Snow is infrequent in the area. Annual precipitation is only 201 millimetres (7.91 in); March and April are the wettest months, and summer drought, from late June to September, is virtually absolute.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate data for Ashgabat|
|Record high °C (°F)||28.7|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.6|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.4|
|Record low °C (°F)||−24.1|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||20|
|Average rainy days||9||9||13||12||10||5||3||2||3||6||8||10||90|
|Average snowy days||5||5||1||0.03||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||1||3||15|
|Average relative humidity (%)||78||72||66||58||47||35||34||34||40||54||68||77||55|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||112.7||119.4||146.2||194.4||275.1||335.5||353.8||348.1||289.2||216.8||157.2||104.4||2,652.8|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)|
Museums include the Turkmen Fine Arts Museum and Turkmen Carpet Museum, noted for their impressive collection of woven carpets as well as a Turkmen history museum and the Ashgabat National Museum of History, which displays artifacts dating back to the Parthian and Persian civilizations. The Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan is an important institute of higher learning. Ashgabat was also home to the Arch of Neutrality, a 75 m (250 ft) tall tripod crowned by a golden statue of late president Saparmurat Niyazov (also known as Turkmenbashi, or leader of all Turkmen). The 15 m (50 ft) high statue, which rotated in order to always face the sun during daylight hours, was removed on August 26, 2010 after Niyazov's successor, current President Berdimuhamedov, made it clear earlier in the year that the statue was going to be taken out of Ashgabat's parliament square. In 2011 a Monument to the Constitution was built, its total height of 185 m (607 ft) makes it the second tallest building in Turkmenistan.
Alem Cultural and Entertainment Center was recognised by Guinness World Records as the world's tallest Ferris wheel in an enclosed space. 436 ft (133 m) tall. The Ashgabat Fountain has the world's greatest number of fountain pools in a public place. Ashgabat also features Turkmenistan Tower which is the tallest tower in Turkmenistan, the decorative octagonal Star of Oguzkhan is recognized as the world's largest architectural image of the star and entered in the Guinness World Records.The Ashgabat Flagpole is the fourth tallest free-standing flagpole in the world, standing at
Ashgabat has many parks and open spaces, mainly established in the early years of the Independence and well maintained and expanded thereafter. The most important of these parks are: the Botanical Garden, Güneş, Turkmen-Turkish friendship, Independence. The oldest city park, Ashgabat, was founded in 1887 and is colloquially known as First Park.In the center of Ashgabat is the Inspiration Alley, an art-park complex which is a favorite place for many locals. The amusement park World of Turkmenbashi Tales is a local equivalent to Disneyland. Squares: 10 Years of Turkmenistan Independence, Magtymguly, Eternal Flame, Zelili, Chyrchyk, Garashsyzlyk, March 8, Gerogly, Dolphin, 15 years of Independence, Ruhyýet, 10 ýyl Abadançylyk.
Halk Hakydasy Memorial Complex was opened in 2014 in remembrance of those killed in the Battle of Geok Tepe in 1881, during World War II, and to commemorate of the victims of the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake. It is located in the southwestern part of the city on Bekrewe köçesi.
Ashgabat has four cinemas. In 2011, Aşgabat Cinema, the first 3-D cinema in Turkmenistan, opened in Ashgabat.The Watan and Turkmenistan theaters were reconstructed. Another cinema is located in the Berkarar Mall.
The main sporting venues in Ashgabat are the Olympic Stadium, Ashgabat Stadium, the National Olympic ice rink, Sports complex for winter sports and the Olympic water sports complex.
Ashgabat was chosen as the host city of the V Asian Indoor Games and Martial Arts,and was also the first city in Central Asia to host the Asian Indoor Games. Between 2010 and 2017 an Olympic Village was built south of the city center, at a cost of $5 billion.
Ashgabat was the host of the 2018 IWF World Weightlifting Championships.
The city's professional football clubs Altyn Asyr, FC Ashgabat, HTTU Aşgabat and FC Hazyna play in the Ýokary Liga, the top league of Turkmenistan.
Ashgabat is twinned with:
The history of Turkmenistan is largely shrouded in mystery, its past since the arrival of Indo-European Iranian tribes around 2000 BC is often the starting point of the area's discernible history. Early tribes were nomadic or semi-nomadic due to the arid conditions of the region as the steppe culture in Central Asia was an extension of a larger Eurasian series of horse cultures which spanned the entire spectrum of language families including the Indo-Europeans and Turko-Mongol groups. Some of the known early Iranian tribes included the Massagatae, Scythians/Sakas, and early Soghdians. Turkmenistan was a passing point for numerous migrations and invasions by tribes which gravitated towards the settled regions of the south including ancient Mesopotamia, Elam, and the Indus Valley Civilization.
Turkmenistan is a sovereign country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west. Ashgabat is the capital and largest city of the country. The population of the country is 5.6 million, the lowest of the Central Asian republics. Turkmenistan is one of the most sparsely populated nations in Asia.
The "State Anthem of Turkmenistan", also known as the "National Anthem of Independent Neutral Turkmenistan", was adopted as the national anthem of Turkmenistan in 1996, then again with modified lyrics in 2008. The music was composed by Turkmenistani composer Veli Mukhatov, who also composed the music of the Turkmen SSR's regional anthem.
Türkmenbaşy, or Turkmenbashi in Anglicised spelling, literally "Head Turkmen" or "Head of the Turkmen," is a term coined by Saparmurat Niyazov that was used in several contexts:
Türkmenbaşy, formerly known as Krasnovodsk and Kyzyl-Su, is a city in Balkan Region in Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. It sits at an elevation of 27 metres. The population was 86,800, mostly ethnic Russians, Armenians and Azeris. As the terminus of the Trans-Caspian Railway, it was an important transportation center.
The Turkmenistan national football team represents Turkmenistan in association football and is controlled by the Football Federation of Turkmenistan, the governing body for football in Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan's home ground is Kopetdag Stadium in Ashgabat. Turkmenistan have never qualified to the final stages of the World Cup.
Balkanabat (Балканабат), formerly Nebit-Dag and Neftedag, is a city in western Turkmenistan and the capital of Balkan Province, the largest province in the country. It is located at, at an altitude of 17 metres.
The Ministry for National Security or MNB is the secret police agency for the government of Turkmenistan. It is composed largely of the remnants of KGB organs left over after the collapse of the Soviet Union; its functions remain largely the same as well. The MNB and the national police force are under the direction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
Abadan is a district of Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan. Formerly a separate town in Ahal Province, in 2013 it was incorporated into Ashgabat as part of a program that expanded the capital's area by about 15%. It was founded in 1963 and bore the name Büzmeýin until October 2002, when its name was changed by Turkmenistan's president Saparmurat Niyazov. The traditional Russian name of the town is Bezmein (Безмейн). The town's current mayor, Orazmyrat Garajaýew, was one of the approved candidates for the 2007 presidential election. There are about 50,000 people living in Abadan. There is a power plant where Saparmurat Niyazov, former president of Turkmenistan, used to work.
The districts of Turkmenistan are territorial entities below the regions of Turkmenistan. They may be either counties or cities. By Turkmen law, "...such cities must have population over 30,000 and be the administrative center of a province (welaýat); headed by a presidentially appointed häkim." Though this officially limits the number of such cities to five, in reality other cities are periodically accorded the status of a district. As of 5 January 2018, 34 cities in Turkmenistan enjoyed the status of districts, including the five provincial (welaýat) centers. One city, the capital city of Ashgabat, enjoys the status of a province.
The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake occurred on 6 October with a surface wave magnitude of 7.3 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). The shock occurred in Turkmenistan near Ashgabat. Due to censorship by the Turkmen government, the event was not widely reported in the USSR's media. Historians tend to agree that the ban on reporting the extent of the casualties and damage did not allow the Soviet government to allocate enough financial resources to adequately respond.
Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov (Turkmen: Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow, Cyrillic: Сапармырат Атаевич Ныязов; 19 February 1940 – 21 December 2006; also known as Türkmenbaşy or Beýik Türkmenbaşy was a Turkmen politician who served as the leader of Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006. He was First Secretary of the Turkmen Communist Party from 1985 until 1991 and supported the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt. He continued to lead Turkmenistan for 15 years after independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
The list of Turkmenistan-related articles is below
The Ashgabat Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. It is currently used mostly for celebrations and football matches. The stadium holds 20,000 people and was built in 2011.
The Kurds in Turkmenistan form a part of the historically significant Kurdish population in the post-Soviet space, and encompass people born in or residing in Turkmenistan who are of Kurdish origin. In the 17th century, Abbas I of Persia and Nader Shah settled Kurdish tribes from Khuzestan alongside the Iranian-Turkmen border. More Kurds arrived to Turkmenistan in the 19th century to find unclaimed land and to escape starvation.
Ashgabat Park is among the oldest public parks at the center of Ashgabat in Turkmenistan. Located between the Kuliyev, Azadi streets and Mahgymguly, Saparmurat Turkmenbashi avenues. Today covers an area of 7 hectares.
Halk Hakydasy Memorial Complex is a memorial complex to the honor of those killed in battle Geok Tepe, World War II, and the commemoration of the victims of the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake. It is located in the southwestern part of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Turkmen Independence Day Parade is one of the main events celebrating the Independence of Turkmenistan from the Soviet Union in 1991. Independence Day is the main holiday of Turkmenistan. The parade is held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan every year and is the largest and most frequent military parade in Central Asia.
Pavel Gerasimovich Poltoratskiy was a Bolshevik Communist revolutionary. He served as People's Commissar for Labor in the early Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic and as editor of the daily newspaper Sovetskiy Turkmenistan.
The Armed Forces of Turkmenistan currently funds 2 high ranking educational institutions: The Military Academy of Turkmenistan and the Military Institute of the Ministry of Defense of Turkmenistan. Aside from those two schools, there are several military schools around the country, specializing in the training of personnel of a branches of service. In the early 1990s when the armed forces were rapidly being developed, many officers were trained in the Russian Federation's Ministry of Defense, while at least 300 officers were sent to schools in Turkey.On 3 October 1992, the Turkmen State University created the first Turkmen educational department. This article lists institutions of the Turkmen Armed Forces based on its respective agency and service branch.
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