Ashikaga Yoshimi

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Ashikaga Yoshimi(足利 義視) (March 3, 1439 February 15, 1491) was the brother of Shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa, and a rival for the succession in a dispute that would lead to the Ōnin War.

The Ashikaga shogunate, also known as the Muromachi shogunate, was a dynasty originating from one of the plethora of Japanese daimyō which governed Japan from 1338 to 1573, the year in which Oda Nobunaga deposed Ashikaga Yoshiaki. The heads of government were the shōgun. Each was a member of the Ashikaga clan.

Ashikaga Yoshimasa 8th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate

Ashikaga Yoshimasa was the 8th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1449 to 1473 during the Muromachi period of Japan.

Ōnin War war

The Ōnin War was a civil war that lasted from 1467 to 1477, during the Muromachi period in Japan. Ōnin refers to the Japanese era during which the war was fought. A dispute between Hosokawa Katsumoto and Yamana Sōzen escalated into a nationwide war involving the Ashikaga shogunate and a number of daimyō in many regions of Japan.

Life

Yoshimi was the abbot of a Jōdo monastery when he was first approached in 1464 by Hosokawa Katsumoto, who wished to support a bid for Yoshimi to become shōgun. He originally sought to stick to his religious life, and had no desires to become shōgun. However, by 1464, he was convinced to join his brother, the shōgun, and assist him, putting himself into a position to be the next in the line of succession. The birth of the Shōgun's son placed Yoshimi in an awkward situation, making his succession no longer definite, but he remained as Yoshimasa's Deputy. [1]

Abbot Religious title

Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may also be given as an honorary title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The female equivalent is abbess.

Pure Land Buddhism A school of Mahāyāna Buddhism

Pure Land Buddhism, also referred to as Amidism in English, is a broad branch of Mahayana Buddhism and one of the most widely practiced traditions of Buddhism in East Asia. Pure Land is a tradition of Buddhist teachings that are focused on the Buddha Amitābha. The three primary texts of the tradition, known as the "Three Pure Land Sutras", are the Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra, Amitayurdhyana Sutra and the Shorter Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra.

Hosokawa Katsumoto daimyo

Hosokawa Katsumoto was one of the Kanrei, the Deputies to the Shōgun, during Japan's Muromachi period. He is famous for his involvement in the creation of Ryōan-ji, a temple famous for its rock garden, and for his involvement in the Ōnin War, which sparked the 130-year Sengoku period. His childhood name was Sumiakamaru (聡明丸).

Despite Yoshimi's support by Hosokawa, it was Hosokawa's opponent, Yamana Sōzen, who stayed in Yoshimi's mansion for a time, and who attended a ceremony in March 1467 honoring the shōgun and his brother. Hosokawa did not attend, as he was preparing for the imminent war between himself and Yamana, who supported the succession of the shōgun's infant son Ashikaga Yoshihisa. [1]

Yamana Sōzen was originally Yamana Mochitoyo before becoming a monk. Due to his red complexion, he was sometimes known as Aka-nyūdō, "the Red Monk". He was one of the daimyōs who fought against Hosokawa Katsumoto during the Ōnin War in Heian-kyō.

Ashikaga Yoshihisa 9th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate

Ashikaga Yoshihisa was the 9th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1473 to 1489 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshihisa was the son of the eighth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa with his wife Hino Tomiko.

Following the initial battles between Hosokawa and Yamana within the capital (Kyoto), the Ōnin War turned into a war between Yoshimi and his brother the Shōgun. Through a set of complicated events, Yoshimi became one of Yamana's chief generals, and was declared a "rebel" by the Emperor, and stripped of his court rank. That same year, 1469, the shōgun officially named his son heir. [1]

Kyoto Designated city in Kansai, Japan

Kyoto, officially Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area.

Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado was the 103rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1464 through 1500.

Yamana and Hosokawa both died soon afterwards, in 1473, and the Ōnin War came to an end in 1477, along with Yoshimi's political aspirations. [1]

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Muromachi period division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573

The Muromachi period is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. The period marks the governance of the Muromachi or Ashikaga shogunate, which was officially established in 1338 by the first Muromachi shōgun, Ashikaga Takauji, two years after the brief Kenmu Restoration (1333–36) of imperial rule was brought to a close. The period ended in 1573 when the 15th and last shogun of this line, Ashikaga Yoshiaki, was driven out of the capital in Kyoto by Oda Nobunaga.

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Ashikaga Yoshitane 10th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate

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Hosokawa clan samurai clan

The Hosokawa clan was a Japanese samurai kin group or clan.

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Ōuchi Masahiro was a member of the Ōuchi clan and general in the Ōnin War, serving Yamana Sōzen.

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The Yamana clan was a Japanese samurai clan which was one of the most powerful of the Muromachi period (1336-1467); at its peak, members of the family held the position of Constable (shugo) over eleven provinces. Originally from Kōzuke Province, and later centered in Inaba Province, the clan claimed descendance from the Seiwa Genji line, and from Minamoto no Yoshishige in particular. The clan took its name from the village of Yamana in present-day Gunma Prefecture. They were valued retainers under Minamoto no Yoritomo, and counted among his gokenin.

Hosokawa Masamoto daimyo

Hosakawa Masamoto was a deputy-shōgun of the Hosokawa clan of Japan, and son of Hosokawa Katsumoto. Masamoto was appointed to this rank during 1486. For a brief period this title was lost by Hatakeyama Masanaga but was regained in time. When Ashikaga Yoshihisa died childless during the year of 1489, Masamoto supported the nomination of Ashikaga Yoshizumi as successor. Masamoto thought that the post of deputy-shogun would return to Hosokawa Masanaga due to Yoshitane's closeness with Hatakeyama Masanaga and his own objections to Yoshitane's rise. During Masanaga's struggle with a rival branch of the Hatakeyama clan, Yoshitane led troops to the assistance of Masanaga. Masamoto then assisted his force to the Hatakeyama, ultimately defeating those of Masanaga and Yoshitane. Masanaga killed himself during the battle and Yoshitane became a prisoner at Kyoto. His childhood name was Sumiakamaru (聡明丸).

Ōuchi Yoshioki Japanese samurai

Ōuchi Yoshioki became a sengoku daimyō of Suō Province and served as the 15th head of the Ōuchi clan. Yoshioki was born early in the Sengoku period, the son of Ōuchi Masahiro, shugo of Suō Province and the 14th head of the Ōuchi clan. The first character in Yoshioki's name originated from Ashikaga Yoshihisa, the ninth shōgun in the Muromachi bakufu. In 1492, Masahiro ordered Yoshioki to join the battle against Rokkaku Takayori, a sengoku daimyō from southern Ōmi Province. In the midst of this engagement in 1493, an incident known as the Meiō no seihen occurred, by which Hosokawa Masamoto, a kanrei, or deputy, held the shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshiki, in confinement. Yoshioki withdrew his men from the battle to Hyōgo in Settsu Province to wait for the outcome of the event, which resulted in Yoshiki being deposed and replaced by Ashikaga Yoshizumi. Yoshioki's younger sister was abducted while staying in Kyōto in an area under the control of Takeda Motonobu, an ally of Hosokawa Masamoto. Masamoto took her hostage as leverage against Masahiro in his support for Yoshiki. Masahiro then ordered close associates of Yoshioki to commit seppuku. This may have been as retribution for what he viewed as Yoshioki's tepid response to the pressure exerted upon him by Masamoto and his retainers. Nevertheless, Yoshioki's decision to withdraw his forces was well-received by the hikan, or administrators, in his birthplace of Kyōto, building relationships that benefit him later at the time of his succession to Masahiro.

Hana no Ran (花の乱) was the 33rd Taiga drama to be broadcast on the NHK network in Japan. It premiered on 3 April 1994 and its finale aired on 25 December of the same year.

Hino Tomiko was daughter of Hino Shigemasa and the official wife of Ashikaga Yoshimasa, the 8th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate, and the mother of Ashikaga Yoshihisa, the 9th shōgun. She sought the help of Yamana Sōzen in support of her son's claim to the shogunate, and in opposition to the claim of Yoshimasa's younger brother, Ashikaga Yoshimi. Her efforts in this succession dispute are seen as one of the causes of the Ōnin War.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. p. 217–229. ISBN   0804705259.