Asiatic-Pacific Theater

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The Asiatic-Pacific Theater was the theater of operations of U.S. forces during World War II in the Pacific War during 1941–45. From mid-1942 until the end of the war in 1945, there were two U.S. operational commands in the Pacific. The Pacific Ocean Areas (POA), divided into the Central Pacific Area, the North Pacific Area and the South Pacific Area, [1] :652–653 were commanded by Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander-in-Chief Pacific Ocean Areas. The South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was commanded by General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific Area. [2] During 1945, the United States added the United States Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific, commanded by General Carl A. Spaatz.

Contents

Because of the complementary roles of the United States Army and the United States Navy in conducting war in the Pacific Theater, there was no single Allied or U.S. commander (comparable to General Dwight D. Eisenhower in the European Theater of Operations). There was no actual command; rather, the Asiatic-Pacific Theater was divided into SWPA, POA, and other forces and theaters, such as the China Burma India Theater.

Major campaigns and battles

Pacific Ocean Area

Japanese naval aircraft prepare to attack Pearl Harbor Carrier shokaku.jpg
Japanese naval aircraft prepare to attack Pearl Harbor
Okinawa, 1945. A U.S. Marine aims a Thompson submachine gun at a Japanese sniper, as his companion takes cover Ww2 158.jpg
Okinawa, 1945. A U.S. Marine aims a Thompson submachine gun at a Japanese sniper, as his companion takes cover

North Pacific Area

Central Pacific Area

South Pacific Area

South West Pacific Area

China-Burma-India Theater [14]

Notes

1944 Strategy Conference in Honolulu. Left to right: MacArthur, Roosevelt, Leahy, Nimitz. The discussion weighs the options of Formosa or the Philippine Islands as the next operational target in the Pacific theater. FDR conference 1944 HD-SN-99-02408.JPEG
1944 Strategy Conference in Honolulu. Left to right: MacArthur, Roosevelt, Leahy, Nimitz. The discussion weighs the options of Formosa or the Philippine Islands as the next operational target in the Pacific theater.
  1. Note that the Battle of Leyte Gulf is listed in both the Central Pacific Area (under Nimitz) and in the South West Pacific Area (under MacArthur). Leyte Gulf is where Nimitz's western thrust across the central Pacific Ocean intersected MacArthur's northern thrust across the western Pacific Ocean. While the Pacific Ocean command structure was convoluted, operations were "designed to sequence the SWPA's operations with POA's forces across the central Pacific. [6] :IX-136The main purpose of sequencing is to arrange objectives/tasks in such a progression that collectively they lead to the accomplishment of the assigned ultimate objective in the shortest time possible and with the least loss of personnel and materiel." [6] :IX-135 Nimitz provided, but maintained control over, Admiral Halsey's Third Fleet to cover and support Admiral Kinkaid's Seventh Fleet operating under General MacArthur. The result of this imprecise arrangement was the crisis precipitating the Battle off Samar. Halsey was operating under Commander in Chief, Pacific Operating Area's (Nimitz') Operations Plan 8–44. [7]
  2. By US Navy's Third Fleet under Admirals Halsey and Nimitz.
  3. By US Navy's Task Force 38 under Admirals Mitscher and Nimitz.

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Potter & Nimitz (1960).
  2. Douglas MacArthur as Supreme Commander SWPA
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Silverstone (1968) pp.9–11.
  4. Kafka & Pepperburg (1946) p.185.
  5. Ofstie (1946) p.194.
  6. 1 2 Vego 2007
  7. Vego 2006, pp. 126–130
  8. Dull 1978, p. 61.
  9. Silverstone 1968, pp. 9–11.
  10. Dull 1978, p. 75.
  11. Dull 1978, p. 91.
  12. 1 2 3 Sulzberger 1966, pp. 332–333.
  13. Potter & Nimitz 1960 , p. 759.
  14. U.S. Army Center of Military History. "World War II – Asiatic-Pacific Theater Campaigns – U.S. Army Center of Military History". U.S. Army Center of Military History. U.S. Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 21 October 2015.

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