Assassination of Julius Caesar

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The Assassination of Julius Caesar
Vincenzo Camuccini - La morte di Cesare.jpg
Death of Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini
LocationThe Theatre of Pompey, Rome, Roman Republic
Date15 March 44 BC (44 BC-03-15)
Target Gaius Julius Caesar
Attack type
Assassination, Stabbing
Perpetrators Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus and over thirty other Senators of the Roman Republic.

The assassination of Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus. [1] [2] They stabbed Caesar (23 times) to death in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of March 15 March 44 BC. Caesar was the Dictator of the Roman Republic, having recently been declared dictator perpetuo by the Senate of the Roman Republic. This declaration made many senators fear that Caesar wanted to overthrow the Senate in favor of totalitarianism, as well as the fear that Caesar’s pro plebeian manifesto would endanger them financially. The conspirators were unable to restore the Roman Republic, and the ramifications of the assassination led to the Liberators' civil war and ultimately to the Principate period of the Roman Empire.

Senate of the Roman Republic

The Senate of the Roman Republic was a political institution in the ancient Roman Republic. It was not an elected body, but one whose members were appointed by the consuls, and later by the censors. After a Roman magistrate served his term in office, it usually was followed with automatic appointment to the Senate. According to the Greek historian Polybius, our principal source on the Constitution of the Roman Republic, the Roman Senate was the predominant branch of government. Polybius noted that it was the consuls who led the armies and the civil government in Rome, and it was the Roman assemblies which had the ultimate authority over elections, legislation, and criminal trials. However, since the Senate controlled money, administration, and the details of foreign policy, it had the most control over day-to-day life. The power and authority of the Senate derived from precedent, the high caliber and prestige of the senators, and the Senate's unbroken lineage, which dated back to the founding of the Republic in 509 BC. It developed from the Senate of the Roman Kingdom, and became the Senate of the Roman Empire.

Gaius Cassius Longinus Roman politician, assassin of Caesar

Gaius Cassius Longinus, often referred to as Cassius, was a Roman senator and general best known as a leading instigator of the plot to assassinate Julius Caesar. He was also the brother-in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus, also a leader of the conspiracy. He commanded troops with Brutus during the Battle of Philippi against the combined forces of Mark Antony and Octavian, Caesar's former supporters, and committed suicide after being defeated by Mark Antony.

Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of the leading instigators of Julius Caesar's assassination. Decimus Brutus is not to be confused with the more famous Brutus among the conspirators, Marcus Brutus, though he often is.

Contents

Background

Biographers describe tension between Caesar and the Senate,[ citation needed ] and his possible claims to the title of king. These events were the principal catalysts for Caesar's assassination.

Bust of Julius Caesar, posthumous portrait in marble, 44-30 BC, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums. Gaius Iulius Caesar (Vatican Museum).jpg
Bust of Julius Caesar, posthumous portrait in marble, 44-30 BC, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums.

The Senate named Caesar dictator perpetuo ("dictator in perpetuity"). Roman mints produced a denarius coin with this title and his likeness on one side, and with an image of the goddess Ceres and Caesar's title of Augur Pontifex Maximus on the reverse. According to Cassius Dio, writing over 200 years later, a senatorial delegation went to inform Caesar of new honors they had bestowed upon him in 44 BC. Caesar received them while sitting in the Temple of Venus Genetrix, rather than rising to meet them. [3]

Dictator perpetuo, also called dictator in perpetuum, was the office held by Julius Caesar from 26 January or 15 February of the year 44 BCE until his death on 15 March. By abandoning the time restrictions usually applied in the case of the Roman dictatura, it elevated Caesar's dictatorship into the monarchical sphere.

Denarius Ancient coin of the Roman Republic and Empire

The denarius was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III, when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus. It continued to be minted in very small quantities, likely for ceremonial purposes, until and through the tetrarchy (293–313).

Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of history on ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas in Italy. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome, the formation of the Republic, and the creation of the Empire, up until 229 AD. Written in Ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers approximately 1,000 years of history. Many of his 80 books have survived intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history.

Suetonius wrote (almost 150 years later) that Caesar failed to rise in the temple, either because he was restrained by Cornelius Balbus or that he balked at the suggestion he should rise. [4] Suetonius also gave the account of a crowd assembled to greet Caesar upon his return to Rome. A member of the crowd placed a laurel wreath on the statue of Caesar on the Rostra. The tribunes Gaius Epidius Marullus and Lucius Caesetius Flavus ordered that the wreath be removed as it was a symbol of Jupiter and royalty. Caesar had the tribunes removed from office through his official powers. [5] According to Suetonius, Caesar was unable to dissociate himself from the royal title from this point forward. [6] Suetonius also gives the story that a crowd shouted to him rex ("king"), to which Caesar replied, "I am Caesar, not Rex" [6] ("Ego caesar, non rex."). Also, at the festival of the Lupercalia, while he gave a speech from the Rostra, Mark Antony, who had been elected co-consul with Caesar, attempted to place a crown on his head several times. Caesar put it aside to use as a sacrifice to Jupiter Optimus Maximus. [5]

Suetonius Roman historian

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius, was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.

Lucius Cornelius Balbus was born in Gades early in the first century BC.

Laurel wreath wreath made of branches and leaves of the bay laurel

A laurel wreath is a round wreath made of connected branches and leaves of the bay laurel, an aromatic broadleaf evergreen, or later from spineless butcher's broom or cherry laurel. It is a symbol of triumph and is worn as a chaplet around the head, or as a garland around the neck. The symbol of the laurel wreath traces back to Greek mythology. Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head, and wreaths were awarded to victors, both in athletic competitions. This includes the ancient Olympics — for which they were made of wild olive tree known as "kotinos" (κότινος), — and in poetic meets; in Rome they were symbols of martial victory, crowning a successful commander during his triumph. Whereas ancient laurel wreaths are most often depicted as a horseshoe shape, modern versions are usually complete rings.

Plutarch and Suetonius are similar in their depiction of these events, but Dio combines the stories, writing that the tribunes arrested the citizens who placed diadems or wreaths on statues of Caesar. He then places the crowd shouting "rex" on the Alban Hill with the tribunes arresting a member of this crowd as well. The plebeian protested that he was unable to speak his mind freely. Caesar then brought the tribunes before the senate and put the matter to a vote, thereafter removing them from office and erasing their names from the records.

<i>Damnatio memoriae</i> ancient Roman punishment on traitors or those who brought discredit to the Roman State, consisting of removal of their names from inscriptions and documents, destruction of their depictions, and sometimes even large-scale rewritings of history

Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts. There are and have been many routes to damnatio, including the destruction of depictions, the removal of names from inscriptions and documents, and even large-scale rewritings of history.

Suetonius adds that Lucius Cotta proposed to the Senate that Caesar should be granted the title of "king", for it was prophesied that only a king would conquer Parthia. [7] Caesar intended to invade Parthia, a task that later gave considerable trouble to Mark Antony during the second triumvirate.

Parthian Empire Iranian empire ruled by Arsacids

The Parthian Empire, also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran. Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia (r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran. The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han dynasty of China, became a center of trade and commerce.

Caesars planned invasion of the Parthian Empire Military campaign that Gaius Julius Caesar never executed

Caesar's planned invasion of the Parthian Empire was to begin in 44 BC, however, due to his assassination that same year, the invasion never took place. The campaign was to start with the pacification of Dacia, followed by an invasion of Parthia. Plutarch also recorded that once Parthia was subdued the army would continue to Scythia, then Germania and finally back to Italy. These grander plans are found only in Plutarch's Parallel Lives and are questioned by most scholars.

His many titles and honors from the Senate were ultimately merely honorary. Caesar continually strove for more power to govern, with as little dependence as possible on honorary titles or the Senate. The placating and ennobling of Caesar did not allay ultimate confrontation, as the Senate was still the authority granting Caesar his titles. Formal power resided in them, resulting in tension with Caesar.

Brutus began to conspire against Caesar with his friend and brother-in-law Gaius Cassius Longinus and other men, calling themselves the Liberatores ("Liberators"). Many plans were discussed by the group, as documented by Nicolaus of Damascus:

The conspirators never met exactly openly, but they assembled a few at a time in each other's homes. There were many discussions and proposals, as might be expected, while they investigated how and where to execute their design. Some suggested that they should make the attempt along the Sacred Way, which was one of his favorite walks. Another idea was to do it at the elections, during which he had to cross a bridge to appoint the magistrates in the Campus Martius. Someone proposed that they draw lots for some to push him from the bridge and others to run up and kill him. A third plan was to wait for a coming gladiatorial show. The advantage of that was, because of the show, no suspicion would be aroused if arms were seen. The majority opinion, however, favored killing him while he sat in the Senate. He would be there by himself, since only Senators were admitted, and the conspirators could hide their daggers beneath their togas. This plan won the day.

Nicolaus writes that in the days leading up to the assassination, Caesar was told by doctors, friends, and even his wife, Calpurnia, not to attend the Senate on the Ides for various reasons, including medical concerns and troubling dreams Calpurnia had:

...his friends were alarmed at certain rumors and tried to stop him going to the senate-house, as did his doctors, for he was suffering from one of his occasional dizzy spells. His wife, Calpurnia, especially, who was frightened by some visions in her dreams, clung to him and said that she would not let him go out that day. But [Decimus] Brutus, one of the conspirators who was then thought of as a firm friend, came up and said, 'What is this, Caesar? Are you a man to pay attention to a woman's dreams and the idle gossip of stupid men, and to insult the Senate by not going out, although it has honored you and has been specially summoned by you? But listen to me, cast aside the forebodings of all these people, and come. The Senate has been in session waiting for you since early this morning.' This swayed Caesar and he left.

Caesar had been preparing to invade the Parthian Empire (a campaign later taken up by his successor, Mark Antony) and planned to leave for the East in the latter half of March. This forced a timetable onto the conspirators. Two days before the actual assassination, Cassius met with the conspirators and told them that, should anyone discover the plan, they were to turn their knives on themselves. [8] His successors did attempt the conquests of Parthia and Germania, but without lasting results.

Ides of March

Woodcut manuscript illustration by Johannes Zainer, c. 1474 Woodcut illustration of Porcia Catonis counseling Marcus Junius Brutus, Julius Caesar's death at the hands of Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, and Porcia's suicide - Penn Provenance Project.jpg
Woodcut manuscript illustration by Johannes Zainer, c. 1474

On the Ides of March of 44 BC, a day used by the Romans as a deadline for settling debts, [9] the conspirators staged a game of gladiatorial sport at the Theatre of Pompey. The gladiators were provided by Decimus Brutus in case their services were needed. They waited in the great hall of the theatre's quadriportico. [10] Caesar, however, was late, having received several warnings in the previous days. Therefore, Decimus Brutus was sent to fetch him, and managed to persuade Caesar to attend so as not to disappoint the Senate. Mark Antony, having vaguely learned of the plot the night before from a terrified Liberator named Servilius Casca, [11] and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off. The plotters, however, had anticipated this and, fearing that Antony would come to Caesar's aid, had arranged for Trebonius to intercept him just as he approached the portico of the Theatre of Pompey, where the session was to be held, and detain him outside (Plutarch, however, assigns this action to delay Antony to Decimus Brutus). When he heard the commotion from the Senate chamber, Antony fled.

Denarius of Brutus and Lucius Plaetorius Cestianus, minted in 43-42 BC. Brutus is depicted on the obverse. The reverse shows a pileus between two daggers, with the legend EID MAR, commemorating the assassination. Brutus & L. Plaetorius Cestianus, denarius, 42 BC, RRC 508-3.jpg
Denarius of Brutus and Lucius Plaetorius Cestianus, minted in 43–42 BC. Brutus is depicted on the obverse. The reverse shows a pileus between two daggers, with the legend EID MAR, commemorating the assassination.

According to Plutarch, as Caesar arrived at the Senate, Lucius Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. [13] The other conspirators crowded round to offer their support. Both Plutarch and Suetonius say that Caesar waved him away, but Cimber grabbed Caesar's shoulders and pulled down Caesar's toga. Caesar then cried to Metellus Cimber, "Why, this is violence!" ("Ista quidem vis est!"). [14] At the same time, Casca produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck. Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm. According to Plutarch, he said in Latin, "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?" [15] Casca, frightened, shouted "Help, brother!" in Greek ("ἄδελφε, βοηθεῖ", "adelphe, boethei"). Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, were stabbing the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood in his eyes, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenseless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Eutropius, sixty or more men participated in the assassination. Caesar was stabbed 23 times. [16] [17] Suetonius relates that a physician who performed an autopsy on Caesar established that only one wound (the second one to his chest that pierced his aorta) had been fatal. This autopsy report (the earliest known post-mortem report in history) describes that Caesar's death was mostly attributable to blood loss from his stab wounds. [18]

Caesar was killed at the base of the Curia in the Theatre of Pompey. [19]

The dictator's last words are a contested subject among scholars and historians. Suetonius himself says he said nothing, [14] nevertheless, he mentions that others have written that Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase "καὶ σύ, τέκνον;" [20] (transliterated as "Kai su, teknon?": "You too, child?" in English). [21] Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. [22] The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase " Et tu, Brute? " ("You too, Brutus?"); [23] [24] this derives from William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar (1599), where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." This has no basis in historical fact. Shakespeare was making use of a phrase already in common use at the time.[ original research? ] [25] According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators not involved in the plot; they, however, fled the building. [26] Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!" They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread. According to Suetonius, all the conspirators made off, and he (Caesar) lay there lifeless for some time, and finally three common slaves put him on a litter and carried him home, with one arm hanging down. [27]

A wax statue of Caesar was erected in the Forum displaying the 23 stab wounds. [28] A crowd who had amassed there started a fire, which badly damaged neighboring buildings.[ citation needed ] In the ensuing years, the Liberators' civil war resulted in the end of the Republic and the rise of Imperial Rome.

Portentous events

Virgil wrote in the Georgics that several unusual events took place following Caesar's assassination. [29]

Who dare say the Sun is false? He and no other warns us when dark uprising threaten, when treachery and hidden wars are gathering strength. He and no other was moved to pity Rome on the day that Caesar died, when he veiled his radiance in gloom and darkness, and a godless age feared everlasting night. Yet in this hour Earth also and the plains of Ocean, ill-boding dogs and birds that spell mischief, sent signs which heralded disaster. How oft before our eyes did Etna deluge the fields of the Cyclopes with a torrent from her burst furnaces, hurling thereon balls of fire and molten rocks. Germany heard the noise of battle sweep across the sky and, even without precedent, the Alps rocked with earthquakes. A voice boomed through the silent groves for all to hear, a deafening voice, and phantoms of unearthly pallor were seen in the falling darkness. Horror beyond words, beasts uttered human speech; rivers stood still, the earth gaped upon; in the temples ivory images wept for grief, and beads of sweat covered bronze statues. King of waterways, the Po swept forests along in the swirl of his frenzied current, carrying with him over the plain cattle and stalls alike. Nor in that same hour did sinister filaments cease to appear in ominous entrails or blood to flow from wells or our hillside towns to echo all night with the howl of wolves. Never fell more lightning from a cloudless sky; never was comet's alarming glare so often seen.

Aftermath

Deification of Julius Caesar, a 16th-century engraving by Virgil Solis illustrating Ovid's passage on the apotheosis of Caesar (Metamorphoses 15.745-850) Virgil Solis - Deification Caesar.jpg
Deification of Julius Caesar , a 16th-century engraving by Virgil Solis illustrating Ovid's passage on the apotheosis of Caesar ( Metamorphoses 15.745–850)

Two days after the assassination, Mark Antony summoned the senate and managed to work out a compromise in which the assassins would not be punished for their acts, but all of Caesar's appointments would remain valid. By doing this, Antony most likely hoped to avoid large cracks in government forming as a result of Caesar's death. Simultaneously, Antony diminished the goals of the conspirators. [30] The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. [31] The Roman lower classes, with whom Caesar was popular, became enraged that a small group of aristocrats had sacrificed Caesar. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar,[ citation needed ] capitalized on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. But, to his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew Gaius Octavius his sole heir, bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name as well as making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic. [32] Upon hearing of his adoptive father's death, Octavius abandoned his studies in Apollonia and sailed across the Adriatic Sea to Brundisium. [30] Octavius became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus or Octavian, the son of the great Caesar, and consequently also inherited the loyalty of much of the Roman populace. Octavian, aged only 18 at the time of Caesar's death, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position. Antony did not initially consider Octavius a true political threat due to his young age and inexperience, but Octavius quickly gained the support and admiration of Caesar's friends and supporters. [30]

To combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the money from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them. With passage of the Lex Titia on 27 November 43 BC, [33] the Second Triumvirate was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's Master of the Horse Lepidus. [34] It formally deified Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of the Divine"). [35] Seeing that Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate brought back proscription, abandoned since Sulla. [36] It engaged in the legally sanctioned murder of a large number of its opponents in order to fund its forty-five legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius. [37] Antony and Octavian defeated them at Philippi. [38]

Afterward, Mark Antony married Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at Actium, resulted in the final ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name that raised him to the status of a deity. [39]

List of conspirators

Brutus and the Ghost of Caesar (1802), copperplate engraving by Edward Scriven from a painting by Richard Westall, illustrating Act IV, Scene III, from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar Brutus and the Ghost of Caesar 1802.jpg
Brutus and the Ghost of Caesar (1802), copperplate engraving by Edward Scriven from a painting by Richard Westall, illustrating Act IV, Scene III, from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar

Some forty people joined in the plot, but about half of their names are lost to history and almost nothing is known about some of those whose names have survived. [40] The known members are:

Marcus Tullius Cicero was not a member of the conspiracy and was surprised by it, but later wrote to the conspirator Trebonius that he wished he had been "invited to that superb banquet". He believed that the Liberators should also have killed Mark Antony. [47] The conspirators had decided, however, that the death of a single tyrant would be more symbolically effective, claiming that the intent was not a coup d'état, but tyrannicide.

See also

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References

  1. Suetonius (121). "De vita Caesarum" [The Twelve Caesars]. University of Chicago. p. 107. More than sixty joined the conspiracy against [Caesar], led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus and Decimus Brutus.
  2. Plutarch. "Life of Caesar". University of Chicago. p. 595. ...at this juncture Decimus Brutus, surnamed Albinus, who was so trusted by Caesar that he was entered in his will as his second heir, but was partner in the conspiracy of the other Brutus and Cassius, fearing that if Caesar should elude that day, their undertaking would become known, ridiculed the seers and chided Caesar for laying himself open to malicious charges on the part of the senators...
  3. Cassius Dio, 44.8.1–2
  4. Suetonius, Julius 78
  5. 1 2 Plutarch, Caesar 61
  6. 1 2 Suetonius, Julius 79.2
  7. Suetonius, Julius 79.3
  8. Plutarch, Caesar 58.6
  9. "Ides of March: What Is It? Why Do We Still Observe It?". 2011-03-15. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  10. Fuller, J. F. C. (March 22, 1991). Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier, And Tyrant. Da Capo Press; Reprint edition. pp.  304. ISBN   978-0-306-80422-9.
  11. Butler, M. Cary, ed., C. Suetoni Tranquilli, Divus Iulius [The Life of Julius Caesar], Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927, Reissued with new introduction, bibliography, and additional notes by G. B. Townsend, Bristol: Bristol Classical Press, 1982.
  12. Michael Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, Cambridge University Press, 1974, p. 518.
  13. Plutarch – Life of Brutus. The brother was Publius Cimber.
  14. 1 2 Suetonius, Life of the Caesars, Julius trans. J C Rolfe
  15. Plutarch, Life of Caesar, chapter 66: "ὁ μεν πληγείς, Ῥωμαιστί· 'Μιαρώτατε Κάσκα, τί ποιεῖς;'"
  16. Cohen, J. (October 11, 2012). Julius Caesar’s Stabbing Site Identified. Retrieved from History.com
  17. Woolf Greg (2006), Et Tu Brute? – The Murder of Caesar and Political Assassination, 199 pages – ISBN   1-86197-741-7
  18. Suetonius, Julius, c. 82.
  19. "Spot Where Julius Caesar Was Stabbed Discovered". Live Science. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  20. Suetonius, Julius 82.2
  21. Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, translated by Robert Graves, Penguin Classics, p.39, 1957.
  22. Plutarch, Caesar 66.9
  23. Stone, Jon R. (2005). The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations. London: Routledge. p. 250. ISBN   0-415-96909-3.
  24. Morwood, James (1994). The Pocket Oxford Latin Dictionary (Latin-English). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-860283-9.
  25. It appears, for example, in Richard Eedes's Latin play Caesar Interfectus of 1582 and The True Tragedie of Richarde Duke of Yorke &tc of 1595, Shakespeare's source work for other plays. Dyce, Alexander (1866). The Works of William Shakespeare. Quoting Malone. London: Chapman and Hall. p. 648.
  26. Plutarch, Caesar, 67
  27. "The Lives of the Twelve Caesars", by C. Suetonius Tranquillus
  28. Appian Bellum Civile 2.147, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Appian/Civil_Wars/2*.html recovered 12-23-14
  29. Virgil, Georgics, Book 1
  30. 1 2 3 Boatwright, Susan (2012). The Romans: From Village to Empire. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 260. ISBN   978-0-19-973057-5.
  31. Florus, Epitome 2.7.1
  32. Suetonius, Julius 83.2
  33. Osgood, Josiah (2006). Caesar's Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 60.
  34. Suetonius, Augustus 13.1; Florus, Epitome 2.6
  35. Warrior, Valerie M. (2006). Roman Religion. Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN   0-521-82511-3.
  36. Florus, Epitome 2.6.3
  37. Zoch, Paul A. (200). Ancient Rome: An Introductory History. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 217–218. ISBN   0-8061-3287-6.
  38. Florus, Epitome 2.7.11-14; Appian, The Civil Wars 5.3
  39. Florus, Epitome 2.34.66
  40. "Caesar's Personal Enemies on the Ides of March". JSTOR   41540686.
  41. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Appian, Civil Wars II.16.113
  42. Appian, Civil Wars II.16.117
  43. Appian, Civil Wars V.1.7
  44. Velleius Paterculus, II.86.3
  45. Appian, Civil Wars II.16.113, 117
  46. Dio, LI.8.2
  47. Ad Att. XIV 12

Coordinates: 41°53′43″N12°28′37″E / 41.89528°N 12.47694°E / 41.89528; 12.47694