Assembly of the Republic
Assembleia da República
|14th Assembly of the Republic|
Emblem of the Assembly of the Republic
Flag of the Assembly of the Republic
| Government (108)|
| Party-list proportional representation |
|6 October 2019|
|October 2023 or earlier|
|São Bento Palace, Lisbon, Portugal|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Assembly of the Republic (Portuguese: Assembleia da República, pronounced [ɐsẽˈblɐjɐ dɐ ʁɛˈpublikɐ] ) is the parliament of Portugal. According to the Constitution of Portugal, the unicameral parliament "is the representative assembly of all Portuguese citizens." The constitution names the assembly as one of the country's organs of supreme authority.
It is located in a historical building in Lisbon, referred to as Palácio de São Bento (Palace of Saint Benedict), the site of an old Benedictine monastery. The Palácio de São Bento has been the seat of the Portuguese parliaments since 1834 (Cortes until 1910, Congress from 1911 to 1926 and National Assembly from 1933 to 1974).
The Assembly of the Republic's powers derives from its power to dismiss a government through a vote of no confidence, to change the country's laws, and to amend the constitution (this one requires a majority of two-thirds). In addition to these key powers, the constitution grants to the Assembly extensive legislative powers and substantial control over the budget, the right to authorize the government to raise taxes and grant loans, the power to ratify treaties and other kinds of international agreements, and the duty to approve or reject decisions by the President of the Republic to declare war and make peace. The assembly also appoints many members of important state institutions, such as ten of the thirteen members of the Constitutional Court and seven of the sixteen members of the Council of State.
The constitution requires the assembly to quickly review and approve an incoming government's program. Parliamentary rules allow the assembly to call for committees of inquiry to examine the government's actions. Political opposition represented in the assembly has the power to review the cabinet's actions, even though it is unlikely that the actions can be reversed. Party groups can also call for interpellations that require debates about specific government policies.
The assembly consisted at first of 250 members, but the constitutional reforms of 1989 reduced its number to between 180 and 230. Members are elected by popular vote for legislative terms of four years from the country's twenty-two constituencies (eighteen in mainland Portugal corresponding to each district, one for each autonomous region, Azores (Portuguese: Açores) and Madeira, one for Portuguese living in Europe and a last one for those living in the rest of the world. Except for the constituencies for Portuguese living abroad, which are fixed at two members each, the number of voters registered in a constituency determines the number of its members in the assembly, using the D'Hondt method of proportional representation. Constituencies vary greatly in size; from as large as the district of Lisbon, which returns 48 representatives, to as small as the district of Portalegre, which elects just two.
For the 2019 legislative elections, the MPs distributed by districts were as follows:
|District||Number of MPs||Map|
|Coimbra, Faro and Santarém||9 each|
|Madeira and Viana do Castelo||6 each|
|Azores and Vila Real||5 each|
|Guarda and Castelo Branco||4 each|
|Beja, Bragança, Évora e Guarda||3 each|
|Portalegre, Europe and Outside Europe||2 each|
According to the constitution, members of the assembly represent the entire country, not the constituency from which they are elected. This directive has been reinforced in practice by the strong role of political parties in regard to members of the assembly. Party leadership, for example, determines in which areas candidates are to run for office, thus often weakening members' ties to their constituencies. Moreover, members of the assembly are expected to vote with their party and to work within parliamentary groups based on party membership. Party discipline is strong, and insubordinate members can be coerced through a variety of means. A further obstacle to members' independence is that their bills first have to be submitted to the parliamentary groups, and it is these groups' leaders who set the assembly's agenda.
The President of the Assembly of the Republic is the second hierarchical figure in the Portuguese state, after the President of the Portuguese Republic, and is elected by secret vote of the members of parliament. The President of the Assembly is aided by four vice-presidents, nominated by the other parties represented in the parliament, and is usually the speaker.[ original research? ] When he is not present, one of the vice-presidents takes the role of speaker. When the President of the Republic is, for any reason, unable to perform to job, the President of the Assembly of the Republic becomes his substitute.
|Socialist Party||Ana Catarina Mendes||108||47.0|
|Social Democratic Party||Rui Rio||79||34.4|
|Left Bloc||Pedro Filipe Soares||19||8.2|
|Portuguese Communist Party||João Oliveira||10||4.4|
|People's Party||Telmo Correia||5||2.2|
|People–Animals–Nature||Inês Sousa Real||3||1.3|
|Ecologist Party "The Greens"||José Luís Ferreira||2||0.9|
|Liberal Initiative||João Cotrim de Figueiredo||1||0.4|
|Independent|| Joacine Katar Moreira |
|Parties||Votes||%||±pp swing||MPs||MPs %/|
|Unitary Democratic Coalition||332,018||6.34||17||12||5.22||0.82|
|Portuguese Workers' Communist||36,006||0.69||0||0||0.00||0.0|
|React, Include, Recycle||35,169||0.67||N/A||N/A||0||N/A||0.00||N/A||0.0|
|We, the Citizens!||12,346||0.24||0||0||0.00||0.0|
|United Party of Retirees and Pensioners||11,457||0.22||0||0||0.00||0.0|
|Together for the People||10,552||0.20||0||0||0.00||0.0|
|Socialist Alternative Movement||3,243||0.06||0||0||0.00||0.0|
|Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições|
|Viana do Castelo||34.8||3||33.8||3||8.5||-||4.0||-||6.2||-||2.4||-||0.7||-||0.6||-||0.6||-||6|
|Rest of the World||20.2||1||33.4||1||3.5||-||1.0||-||4.7||-||4.3||-||0.9||-||2.5||-||0.7||-||2|
|Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições|
The politics of São Tomé and Príncipe takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of São Tomé and Príncipe is head of state and the Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe is head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. São Tomé has functioned under a multiparty system since 1990. Following the promulgation of a new constitution in 1990, São Tomé and Príncipe held multiparty elections for the first time since independence. Shortly after the constitution took effect, the National Assembly formally legalized opposition parties. Independent candidates also were permitted to participate in the January 1991 legislative elections.
Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos, known as Nandó, is an Angolan politician who was Vice President of Angola from February 2010 to September 2012. He was the Prime Minister of Angola from 2002 to 2008 and President of the National Assembly of Angola from 2008 to 2010. He has again served as President of the National Assembly since 2012.
The president of the Portuguese Republic is the executive head of state of Portugal. The powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, and their relation with the Prime Minister and cabinets have over time differed with the various Portuguese constitutions.
The Portuguese legislative election of 2005 took place on 20 February. The election renewed all 230 members of the Assembly of the Republic.
The Portuguese legislative election of 1999 took place on 10 October. The Socialist Party was aiming a second term under the lead of António Guterres, in the end the Socialists won the election, but missed what would be an historical absolute majority for the party by just one MP.
The Portuguese legislative election of 2002 took place on 17 March. These elections were called after the resignation of the former Prime-Minister, António Guterres after a defeat of the Socialist Party in the local elections. That fact, plus the problematic state of the country's finances were the main arguments of the right-wing parties, which led them to win the election.
The Portuguese legislative election of 1995 took place on 1 October. The Socialist Party defeated the Social Democratic Party under the lead of António Guterres, elected three years before, but missed the absolute majority by 4 MPs.
The Portuguese legislative election of 1991 took place on 6 October. The Social Democratic Party, under the lead of Cavaco Silva, won a historic third term and won with an absolute majority for the second consecutive turn, achieving a higher share than in the previous election, losing, however, 13 MPs due to the reduction of the overall number from the original 250 to 230. Cavaco Silva became the first Prime Minister since Hintze Ribeiro, in 1904, to lead a party into three successive democratic election victories.
The Portuguese legislative election of 1987 took place on 19 July. In the previous election, in 1985, the Social Democratic Party had won a minority government managing to survive in coalition with the Democratic and Social Center and the Democratic Renewal Party, and after the approval of a no-confidence motion from the left-wing parties, with the aid of the Democratic Renewal Party, the government fell and Mário Soares, the President at the time, called for a new election.
The Portuguese legislative election of 1985 took place on 6 October. In June of the same year, the former Prime-Minister, Mário Soares, had resigned from the job due to the lack of parliamentary support, the government was composed by a coalition of the two major parties, the center-right Social Democratic and the center-left Socialist, in what was called the Central Bloc, however this was an unstable balance of forces and several members of each party opposed such alliance.
The unicameral Assembly of the Republic is the legislative body of the Republic of Mozambique established in 1977.
The National Assembly is the legislative branch of the government of Angola. The National Assembly is a unicameral body, with 220 members: 130 members elected by proportional representation and 90 members elected by provincial districts.
The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal are the Azores and Madeira. Together with Continental Portugal, they form the whole of the Portuguese Republic.
Legislative elections in Portugal were held on 27 September 2009 to renew all 230 members of the Assembly of the Republic. The Socialist Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister José Sócrates, won the largest number of seats, but didn't repeat the overall majority they gained in 2005.
The Corporative Chamber was one of the two parliamentary chambers established under the Portuguese Constitution of 1933, the other being the National Assembly. Unlike the directly elected National Assembly, it had a purely consultative, rather than legislative role.
The Legislative Assembly of Madeira is the legislature of the Portuguese autonomous region of Madeira. The last regional election was held on 22 September 2019 and the party with the most votes was the Social Democratic Party with 56,448 votes, which stand-alone holds an absolute majority in the assembly.
The Azores Regional Election, 2016 was on October 16 of the same year. In this election, the incumbent president of the regional government, led by the Socialist Vasco Cordeiro, was seeking a second term.
The Congress of the Republic was the legislative body of the First Portuguese Republic. The Congress was formed by two chambers, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.
Fernando Mimoso Negrão is a Portuguese jurist and politician.
The Next Portuguese legislative election will take place on or before 8 October 2023 to elect members of the Assembly of the Republic to the 15th Legislature of Portugal. All 230 seats to the Assembly of the Republic will be at stake.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Assembly of the Republic (Portugal) .|