Asteraceae

Last updated

Asteraceae
Temporal range: 76–0  Ma
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Campanian [1] – recent
Asteracea poster 3.jpg
Twelve species of Asteraceae from the subfamilies Asteroideae, Carduoideae and Cichorioideae
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Bercht. & J.Presl [2]
Type genus
Aster
L.
Subfamilies
Diversity
1,911 genera
Synonyms [3]
  • Compositae Giseke
  • Acarnaceae Link
  • Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
  • Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
  • Aposeridaceae Raf.
  • Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
  • Artemisiaceae Martinov
  • Athanasiaceae Martinov
  • Calendulaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
  • Carduaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
  • Cassiniaceae Sch. Bip.
  • Cichoriaceae Juss.
  • Coreopsidaceae Link
  • Cynaraceae Spenn.
  • Echinopaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
  • Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
  • Helichrysaceae Link
  • Inulaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
  • Lactucaceae Drude
  • Mutisiaceae Burnett
  • Partheniaceae Link
  • Perdiciaceae Link
  • Senecionaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
  • Vernoniaceae Burmeist.

Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite, [4] or sunflower family), is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae). [5] [6]

Contents

The family includes over 32,000 currently accepted species, in over 1,900 genera (list) in 13 subfamilies. [7] In terms of numbers of species, the Asteraceae are rivaled only by the Orchidaceae. [5] [8] Which is the larger family is unclear, because of the uncertainty about how many extant species each family includes.

Nearly all Asteraceae bear their flowers in dense heads (capitula or pseudanthia) surrounded by involucral bracts. When viewed from a distance, each capitulum may appear to be a single flower. Enlarged outer (peripheral) flowers in the capitula may resemble petals, and the involucral bracts may look like a calyx. The name Asteraceae comes from the type genus Aster , from the Ancient Greek ἀστήρ , meaning star, and refers to the star-like form of the inflorescence. The alternative name Compositae is still valid under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. [9] ) It refers to the "composite" nature of the capitula, which consist of a few or many individual flowers.

Most members of Asteraceae are annual or perennial herbs, but a significant number are also shrubs, vines, or trees. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, with species ranging from subpolar to tropical regions, colonizing a wide variety of habitats. The largest proportion of the species occur in the arid and semiarid regions of subtropical and lower temperate latitudes. [10] The Asteraceae may represent as much as 10% of autochthonous flora in many regions of the world.

Asteraceae is an economically important family, providing products such as cooking oils, leaf vegetables like lettuce, sunflower seeds, artichokes, sweetening agents, coffee substitutes and herbal teas. Several genera are of horticultural importance, including pot marigold ( Calendula officinalis ), Echinacea (coneflowers), various daisies, fleabane, chrysanthemums, dahlias, zinnias, and heleniums. Asteraceae are important in herbal medicine, including Grindelia , yarrow, and many others. [11]

On the other hand, many Asteraceae are considered weeds in various circumstances. Of these, many are invasive species in particular regions, often having been introduced by human agency. Examples include various tumbleweeds, Bidens , ragweeds, thistles, and dandelion. Dandelion was introduced into North America by European settlers who used the young leaves as a salad green. [12]

The study of this family is known as synantherology.

Etymology and pronunciation

The name Asteraceae (English: /ˌæstəˈrsi,-siˌ,-siˌ,-siˌ/ ) comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Aster , the type genus, + -aceae , [13] a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy. The genus name comes from the Classical Latin word aster , "star", which came from Ancient Greek ἀστήρ (astḗr), "star". [13]

The earlier name, Compositae (now recognized as an alternative name [9] ) means "composite" and refers to the characteristic inflorescence, a special type of pseudanthium found in only a few other angiosperm families.

The vernacular name daisy, widely applied to members of this family, is derived from the Old English name of the daisy ( Bellis perennis ): dæġes ēaġe , meaning "day's eye". This is because the petals open at dawn and close at dusk.

Distribution

Asteraceae species have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are found everywhere except Antarctica and the extreme Arctic. They are especially numerous in tropical and subtropical regions (notably Central America, eastern Brazil, the Mediterranean, the Levant, southern Africa, central Asia, and southwestern China). [8]

Taxonomy

Compositae, the original name for Asteraceae, were first described in 1792 by the German botanist Paul Dietrich Giseke. [14] Traditionally, two subfamilies were recognised: Asteroideae (or Tubuliflorae) and Cichorioideae (or Liguliflorae). The latter has been shown to be extensively paraphyletic, and has now been divided into 12 subfamilies, but the former still stands. The phylogenetic tree presented below is based on Panero & Funk (2002) [15] updated in 2014, [16] and now also includes the monotypic Famatinanthoideae. [16] [17] [18] The diamond denotes a very poorly supported node (<50% bootstrap support), the dot a poorly supported node (<80%). [5]

Barnadesioideae : 9 genera, 93 species. South America, mainly the Andes.

Famatinanthoideae : South America, 1 genus, 1 species.

Mutisioideae : 58 genera, 750 species. Absent from Europe, mostly in South America.

Stifftioideae : 10 genera. South America.

Wunderlichioideae : 8 genera, 24 species. Mostly in Venezuela and Guyana

Gochnatioideae : 4 or 5 genera, 90 species. Latin America and southern United States.

Hecastocleidoideae : Only Hecastocleis shockleyi . Southwestern United States.

Carduoideae : 83 genera, 2,500 species. Worldwide.

Pertyoideae : 5 or 6 genera, 70 species. Asia

Gymnarrhenoideae : Two genera/species, Gymnarrhena micrantha (Northern Africa, Middle East) and Cavea tanguensis (Eastern Himalayas)

Cichorioideae : 224 genera, 3,200 species. Worldwide.

Corymbioideae : Only the genus Corymbium , with 9 species. Cape provinces, South Africa.

Asteroideae : 1,130 genera and 16,200 species. Worldwide.

The four subfamilies Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, Carduoideae and Mutisioideae contain 99% of the species diversity of the whole family (approximately 70%, 14%, 11% and 3% respectively).

Because of the morphological complexity exhibited by this family, agreeing on generic circumscriptions has often been difficult for taxonomists. As a result, several of these genera have required multiple revisions. [19]

Characteristics

Members of the Asteraceae are mostly herbaceous plants, but some shrubs, climbers and trees (such as Lachanodes arborea ) do exist. They are generally easy to distinguish from other plants, mainly because of their characteristic inflorescence and other shared characteristics. [19] However, determining genera and species of some groups such as Hieracium is notoriously difficult (see "damned yellow composite" for example).

Roots and stems

Members of the Asteraceae generally produce taproots, but sometimes they possess fibrous root systems. Stems are herbaceous aerial branched cylindrical with glandular hairs generally erect but can be prostrate to ascending. Some species have underground stems in the form of caudices or rhizomes. These can be fleshy or woody depending on the species. [10]

Leaves

The leaves and the stems very often contain secretory canals with resin or latex (particularly common among the Cichorioideae). The leaves can be alternate, opposite, or whorled. They may be simple, but are often deeply lobed or otherwise incised, often conduplicate or revolute. The margins can be entire or lobed or toothed.

Flowers

Floral heads

Bidens flwr.jpg
A typical Asteraceae flower head showing the individual flowers ( Bidens torta )
Chrysanthemum February 2008-1.jpg
A flower head showing the individual flowers opening from the outside (Chrysanthemum cultivar 'Bridesmaid')

In plants of the family Asteraceae, what appears to be a single flower is actually a cluster of much smaller flowers. [20] The overall appearance of the cluster, as a single flower, functions in attracting pollinators in the same way as the structure of an individual flower in some other plant families. [20] The older family name, Compositae, comes from the fact that what appears to be a single flower is actually a composite of smaller flowers. [20] The "petals" or "sunrays" in a sunflower head are actually individual strap-shaped [21] flowers called ray flowers, and the "sun disk" is made of smaller circular shaped individual flowers called disc flowers. [20] The word "aster" means "star" in Greek, referring to the appearance of some family members, as a "star" surrounded by "rays". [20] The cluster of flowers that may appear to be a single flower, is called a head. [20] The entire head may move tracking the sun, like a "smart" solar panel, which maximizes reflectivity of the whole unit and can thereby attract more pollinators. [20] At the base of the head, and surrounding the flowers before opening, is a bundle of sepal-like bracts or scales called phyllaries, which together form the involucre that protects the individual flowers in the head before opening. [20] The individual heads have the smaller individual flowers arranged on a round or dome-like structure called the receptacle. [20] The flowers mature first at the outside, moving toward the center, with the youngest in the middle. [20]

The individual flowers in a head have 5 fused petals (rarely 4), but instead of sepals, have threadlike, hairy, or bristly structures called pappus , which surround the fruit and can stick to animal fur or be lifted by wind, aiding in seed dispersal. [20] The whitish fluffy head of a dandelion, commonly blown on by children, is made of the pappus, with tiny seeds attached at the ends, whereby the pappus provides a parachute like structure to help the seed be carried away in the wind. [20]

Ligulate floret: A = ovary, B = pappus, C = anthers, D = ligule, E = style with stigmas Ray-floret.svg
Ligulate floret: A = ovary, B = pappus, C = anthers, D = ligule, E = style with stigmas
Disc floret: A = ovary, B = pappus, C = anthers, D = style with stigmas Disc floret01.jpg
Disc floret: A = ovary, B = pappus, C = anthers, D = style with stigmas

A ray flower is a 3-tipped (3-lobed), strap-shaped, individual flower in the head of some members of the family Asteraceae. [20] [21] Sometimes a ray flower is 2-tipped (2-lobed). [20] The corolla of the ray flower may have 2 tiny teeth opposite the 3-lobed strap, or tongue, indicating evolution by fusion from an originally 5-part corolla. [20] Sometimes, the 3:2 arrangement is reversed, with 2 tips on the tongue, and 0 or 3 tiny teeth opposite the tongue. [20] A ligulate flower is a 5-tipped, strap-shaped, individual flower in the heads of other members. [20] A ligule is the strap-shaped tongue of the corolla of either a ray flower or of a ligulate flower. [21] A disk flower (or disc flower) is a radially symmetric (i.e., with identical shaped petals arranged in circle around the center) individual flower in the head, which is ringed by ray flowers when both are present. [20] [21] Sometimes ray flowers may be slightly off from radial symmetry, or weakly bilaterally symmetric, as in the case of desert pincushions Chaenactis fremontii . [20]

A radiate head has disc flowers surrounded by ray flowers. [20] A ligulate head has all ligulate flowers. [20] When a sunflower family flower head has only disc flowers that are sterile, male, or have both male and female parts, it is a discoid head. [20] Disciform heads have only disc flowers, but may have two kinds (male flowers and female flowers) in one head, or may have different heads of two kinds (all male, or all female). [20] Pistillate heads have all female flowers. Staminate heads have all male flowers. [20]

Sometimes, but rarely, the head contains only a single flower, or has a single flowered pistillate (female) head, and a multi-flowered male staminate (male) head. [20]

Floral structures

Flower diagram of Carduus (Carduoideae) shows (outermost to innermost): subtending bract and stem axis; fused calyx; fused corolla; stamens fused to corolla; gynoecium with two carpels and one locule Carduus flowerdiagram.png
Flower diagram of Carduus (Carduoideae) shows (outermost to innermost): subtending bract and stem axis; fused calyx; fused corolla; stamens fused to corolla; gynoecium with two carpels and one locule

The distinguishing characteristic of Asteraceae is their inflorescence, a type of specialised, composite flower head or pseudanthium , technically called a calathium or capitulum , [22] [23] that may look superficially like a single flower. The capitulum is a contracted raceme composed of numerous individual sessile flowers, called florets, all sharing the same receptacle.

A set of bracts forms an involucre surrounding the base of the capitulum. These are called "phyllaries", or "involucral bracts". They may simulate the sepals of the pseudanthium. These are mostly herbaceous but can also be brightly coloured (e.g. Helichrysum ) or have a scarious (dry and membranous) texture. The phyllaries can be free or fused, and arranged in one to many rows, overlapping like the tiles of a roof (imbricate) or not (this variation is important in identification of tribes and genera).

Each floret may be subtended by a bract, called a "palea" or "receptacular bract". These bracts are often called "chaff". The presence or absence of these bracts, their distribution on the receptacle, and their size and shape are all important diagnostic characteristics for genera and tribes.

The florets have five petals fused at the base to form a corolla tube and they may be either actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Disc florets are usually actinomorphic, with five petal lips on the rim of the corolla tube. The petal lips may be either very short, or long, in which case they form deeply lobed petals. The latter is the only kind of floret in the Carduoideae, while the first kind is more widespread. Ray florets are always highly zygomorphic and are characterised by the presence of a ligule, a strap-shaped structure on the edge of the corolla tube consisting of fused petals. In the Asteroideae and other minor subfamilies these are usually borne only on florets at the circumference of the capitulum and have a 3+2 scheme – above the fused corolla tube, three very long fused petals form the ligule, with the other two petals being inconspicuously small. The Cichorioideae has only ray florets, with a 5+0 scheme – all five petals form the ligule. A 4+1 scheme is found in the Barnadesioideae. The tip of the ligule is often divided into teeth, each one representing a petal. Some marginal florets may have no petals at all (filiform floret).

The calyx of the florets may be absent, but when present is always modified into a pappus of two or more teeth, scales or bristles and this is often involved in the dispersion of the seeds. As with the bracts, the nature of the pappus is an important diagnostic feature.

There are usually five stamens. The filaments are fused to the corolla, while the anthers are generally connate (syngenesious anthers), thus forming a sort of tube around the style (theca). They commonly have basal and/or apical appendages. Pollen is released inside the tube and is collected around the growing style, and then, as the style elongates, is pushed out of the tube (nüdelspritze).

The pistil consists of two connate carpels. The style has two lobes. Stigmatic tissue may be located in the interior surface or form two lateral lines. The ovary is inferior and has only one ovule, with basal placentation.

Fruits and seeds

In members of the Asteraceae the fruit is achene-like, and is called a cypsela (plural cypselae). Although there are two fused carpels, there is only one locule, and only one seed per fruit is formed. It may sometimes be winged or spiny because the pappus, which is derived from calyx tissue often remains on the fruit (for example in dandelion). In some species, however, the pappus falls off (for example in Helianthus ). Cypsela morphology is often used to help determine plant relationships at the genus and species level. [24] The mature seeds usually have little endosperm or none. [19]

Pollen

The pollen of composites is typically echinolophate, a morphological term meaning "with elaborate systems of ridges and spines dispersed around and between the apertures." [25]

Metabolites

In Asteraceae, the energy store is generally in the form of inulin rather than starch. They produce iso/chlorogenic acid, sesquiterpene lactones, pentacyclic triterpene alcohols, various alkaloids, acetylenes (cyclic, aromatic, with vinyl end groups), tannins. They have terpenoid essential oils which never contain iridoids. [5]

Asteraceae produce secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and terpenoids. Some of these molecules can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium , Trypanosoma , Leishmania and parasitic intestinal worms, and thus have potential in medicine. [26]

Evolution

The oldest known fossils of members of Asteraceae are pollen grains from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica, dated to ∼76–66 Mya (Campanian to Maastrichtian) and assigned to the extant genus Dasyphyllum . [1] Barreda, et al. (2015) estimated that the crown group of Asteraceae evolved at least 85.9 Mya (Late Cretaceous, Santonian) with a stem node age of 88–89 Mya (Late Cretaceous, Coniacian). [1]

It is still unknown whether the precise cause of their great success was the development of the highly specialised capitulum, their ability to store energy as fructans (mainly inulin), which is an advantage in relatively dry zones, or some combination of these and possibly other factors. [5]

Ecology

Kih-silberdistel.jpg
Anemochory in Carlina
Epizoochoria NRM.jpg
Epizoochory in Bidens tripartita

Asteraceans are especially common in open and dry environments. [19]

Many members of Asteraceae are pollinated by insects, which explains their value in attracting beneficial insects, but anemophily is also present (e.g. Ambrosia , Artemisia ). There are many apomictic species in the family.

Seeds are ordinarily dispersed intact with the fruiting body, the cypsela. Anemochory (wind dispersal) is common, assisted by a hairy pappus. Epizoochory is another common method, in which the dispersal unit, a single cypsela (e.g. Bidens ) or entire capitulum (e.g. Arctium ) has hooks, spines or some structure to attach to the fur or plumage (or even clothes, as in the photo) of an animal just to fall off later far from its mother plant.

Uses

The twining succulent, Senecio angulatus, is used for its cut flowers, despite being an invasive weed in some places, such as Victoria, Australia and New Zealand. Senecio angulatus flowers.jpg
The twining succulent, Senecio angulatus , is used for its cut flowers, despite being an invasive weed in some places, such as Victoria, Australia and New Zealand.

Commercially important plants in Asteraceae include the food crops Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Cichorium (chicory), Cynara scolymus (globe artichoke), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) and Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke).

Plants are used as herbs and in herbal teas and other beverages. Chamomile, for example, comes from two different species: the annual Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile) and the perennial Chamaemelum nobile (Roman chamomile). Calendula (known as pot marigold) is grown commercially for herbal teas and potpourri. Echinacea is used as a medicinal tea. The wormwood genus Artemisia includes absinthe (A. absinthium) and tarragon (A. dracunculus). Winter tarragon ( Tagetes lucida ), is commonly grown and used as a tarragon substitute in climates where tarragon will not survive.

Many members of the family are grown as ornamental plants for their flowers, and some are important ornamental crops for the cut flower industry. Some examples are Chrysanthemum , Gerbera , Calendula , Dendranthema , Argyranthemum , Dahlia , Tagetes , Zinnia , and many others. [29]

Senecio madagascariensis (Fireweed) is an environmental weed in Australia, growing in wastelands, grasslands and suburban bushland. Senecio madagascariensis plant13 (16143326805).jpg
Senecio madagascariensis (Fireweed) is an environmental weed in Australia, growing in wastelands, grasslands and suburban bushland.

Many species of this family possess medicinal properties and are used as traditional antiparasitic medicine. [26]

Members of the family are also commonly featured in medical and phytochemical journals because the sesquiterpene lactone compounds contained within them are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Allergy to these compounds is the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis in florists in the US. [31] Pollen from ragweed Ambrosia is among the main causes of so-called hay fever in the United States. [32]

Asteraceae are also used for some industrial purposes. French Marigold ( Tagetes patula ) is common in commercial poultry feeds and its oil is extracted for uses in cola and the cigarette industry. [29]

Several members of the family are copious nectar producers [29] and are useful for evaluating pollinator populations during their bloom.[ citation needed ] Centaurea (knapweed), Helianthus annuus (domestic sunflower), and some species of Solidago (goldenrod) are major "honey plants" for beekeepers. Solidago produces relatively high protein pollen, which helps honey bees over winter. [33]

Some members of Asteraceae are economically important as weeds. Notable in the United States are Senecio jacobaea (ragwort), Senecio vulgaris (groundsel), and Taraxacum (dandelion).[ citation needed ]

The genera Chrysanthemum , Pulicaria , Tagetes , and Tanacetum contain species with useful insecticidal properties. [29]

Parthenium argentatum (guayule) is a source of hypoallergenic latex. [29]

Related Research Articles

Petal Part of most types of flower

Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves like structures called sepals, that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth. When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe and Tulipa. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals. Since they include Liliales, an alternative name is lilioid monocots.

<i>Gundelia</i> genus of plant

Gundelia is a low to high (20–100 cm) thistle-like perennial herbaceous plant with latex, spiny compound inflorescences, reminiscent of teasles and eryngos, that contain cream, yellow, greenish, pink, purple or redish-purple disk florets. It is assigned to the daisy family. Flowers can be found from February to May. The stems of this plant dry-out when the seeds are ripe and break free from the underground root, and are then blown away like a tumbleweed, thus spreading the seeds effectively over large areas with little standing vegetation. This plant is native to the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle-East. Opinions differ about the number of species in Gundelia. Sometimes the genus is regarded monotypic, Gundelia tournefortii being a species with a large variability, but other authors distinguish up to nine species, differing in floret color and pubescence. Young stems are cooked and eaten in the Middle-East and are said to taste like a combination of artichoke and asparagus. The plant also contains compounds that have been demonstrated to be effective against a range of ailments. A large quantity of pollen assigned to Gundelia has been found on the Shroud of Turin, which may suggest that the crown of thorns was made from Gundelia, but this finding has been contested.

<i>Scolymus maculatus</i> species of plant

Scolymus maculatus is a spiny annual plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, southwest Asia, and northern Africa, and also the Canary Islands. It has pinnately incised prickly leaves and prickly wings along the stems, both with a white marginal vein. The yellow flowerheads stand solitary or with a few together at the tip to the stems, and subtended by more than five leaflike bracts. The plant is known as scolyme taché in French, cardogna macchiata in Italian, cardo borriquero in Spanish, and escólimo-malhado in Portuguese, חוח עקוד in Hebrew and سنارية حولية in Arabic. In English it is called spotted golden thistle or spotted oyster thistle.

Calyceraceae family of plants

Calyceraceae is a plant family in the order Asterales. The natural distribution of the about sixty species belonging to this family is restricted to the southern half of South-America. The species of the family resemble both the family Asteraceae and the Dipsacaceae.

Pseudanthium Type of inflorescence, clusters of flowers

A pseudanthium, also called a flower head, composite flower, or capitulum, is a special type of inflorescence, in which anything from a small cluster to hundreds or sometimes thousands of flowers are grouped together to form a single flower-like structure. Pseudanthia take various forms. The individual flowers of a pseudanthium commonly are called florets. The real flowers are generally small and often greatly reduced, but the pseudanthium itself can sometimes be quite large.

<i>Felicia</i> (genus) A genus of shrublets, perennials and annuals in the daisy family

Felicia is a genus of small shrubs, perennial or annual herbaceous plants, with 85 known species, that is assigned to the daisy family. Like in almost all Asteraceae, the individual flowers are 5-merous, small and clustered in typical heads, and which are surrounded by an involucre of, in this case between two and four whorls of, bracts. In Felicia, the centre of the head is taken by yellow, seldomly whitish or blackish blue disc florets, and is almost always surrounded by one single whorl of mostly purple, sometimes blue, pink, white or yellow ligulate florets and rarely ligulate florets are absent. These florets sit on a common base and are not individually subtended by a bract. Most species occur in the Cape Floristic Region, which is most probably the area where the genus originates and had most of its development. Some species can be found in the eastern half of Africa up to Sudan and the south-western Arabian peninsula, while on the west coast species can be found from the Cape to Angola and one species having outposts on the Cameroon-Nigeria border and central Nigeria. Some species of Felicia are cultivated as ornamentals and several hybrids have been developed for that purpose.

<i>Gymnarrhena</i> species of plant

Gymnarrhena is a deviant genus of plants in the daisy family, with only one known species, Gymnarrhena micrantha. It is native to North Africa and the Middle East, as far east as Balochistan. Together with the very different Cavea tanguensis it constitutes the tribe Gymnarrheneae, and in the subfamily Gymnarrhenoideae.

Warionia is a genus in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family. The only known species is Warionia saharae, an endemic of Algeria and Morocco, and it is locally known in the Berber language as afessas, abessas or tazart n-îfiss. It is an aromatic, thistle-like shrub of ½–2 m high, that contains a white latex, and has fleshy, pinnately divided, wavy leaves. It is not thorny or prickly. The aggregate flower heads contain yellow disk florets. It flowers from April till June. Because Warionia is deviant in many respects from any other Asteraceae, different scholars have placed it hesitantly in the Cardueae, Gundelieae, Mutisieae, but now genetic analysis positions it as the sister group to all other Cichorieae.

Syntrichopappus is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy or sunflower family (Asteraceae), found in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico, including Baja California. It is a member of the Heliantheae alliance of the Asteraceae. There are two species. Common names include xerasid and Frémont's-gold.

<i>Catamixis</i> genus of plants

Catamixis is a genus assigned to the daisy family, with only one known species, Catamixis baccharoides, a low to medium height, ¾—1¾ m, shrub. It is native to a very small area of western Nepal and northern India in the Himalayas. It has approximately spoon-shaped, leathery leaves with distanced rounded teeth alternately set along straight, shyly branching stems, and carries many flower heads of about 1 cm, with a few creamy white florets, sometimes with a hint of violet, in corymbs at the end of the branches. Flowers and fruits can be found between March and May. Its vernacular name in Hindi is विषपत्री (vishpatri) or विश्पत्र (vishpatra).

Cavea is a low perennial herbaceous plant that is assigned to the daisy family. Cavea tanguensis is currently the only species assigned to this genus. It has a basal rosette of entire, slightly leathery leaves, and stems of 5–25 cm high, topped by bowl-shaped flower heads with many slender florets with long pappus and purplish corollas. The vernacular name in Chinese is 葶菊. It grows high in the mountains of China (Sichuan), Tibet, India (Sikkim), and Bhutan, and flowers in July and August.

Cephalorrhynchus is a genus of flowering plants in the dandelion family.

<i>Agoseris heterophylla</i> Species of sunflower

Agoseris heterophylla is a liguliferous species in the Asteraceae or sunflower family known by the common name annual agoseris or mountain dandelion. It is widespread in mostly drier regions of western North America from British Columbia to Baja California.

Stifftioideae Subfamily of plants

The Stifftioideae are a subfamily of the Asteraceae, or sunflower family, of flowering plants. It comprises a single tribe, Stifftieae, of ten genera.

<i>Scolymus grandiflorus</i> species of plant

Scolymus grandiflorus is a spiny annual or biennial plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region. With up to 75 cm high stems, it is the smallest of the species of Scolymus. Its stems are lined with uninterrupted spiny wings. It also has the largest flowerheads in the genus, of approximately 5 cm wide. It has yellow, sometimes yolk-yellow ligulate florets. Its vernacular name in Maltese is xewk isfar kbir, meaning "large yellow fin", cardogna maggiore in Italian, scoddi on Sicily, and scolyme à grandes fleurs in French.

Catananche lutea, is a woolly annual plant, assigned to the daisy family, with most leaves in a basal rosette, and some smaller leaves on the stems at the base of the branches. Seated horizontal flowerheads develop early on under the rosette leaves. Later, not or sparingly branching erect stems grow to 8–40 cm high, carrying solitary flowerheads at their tips with a papery involucre whitish to beige, reaching beyond the yellow ligulate florets. Flowers are present between April and June. This plant is unique for the five different types of seed it develops, few larger seeds from the basal flowerheads, which remain in the soil, and smaller seeds from the flowerheads above ground that may be spread by the wind or remain in the flowerhead when it breaks from the dead plant. This phenomenon is known as amphicarpy. The seeds germinate immediately, but in one type, germination is postponed. It naturally occurs around the Mediterranean. Sources in English sometimes refer to this species as yellow succory.

Helianthus nuttallii subsp. parishii is a subspecies of the species Helianthus nuttallii in the genus Helianthus, family Asteraceae. It is also known by the common names Los Angeles sunflower and Parish's sunflower. This subspecies has not been seen, in the wild or in cultivation, since 1937.

<i>Felicia echinata</i> a shrublet in the daisy family from South Africa

Felicia echinata, commonly known as the dune daisy or prickly felicia, is a species of shrub native to South Africa belonging to the daisy family. It grows to 1 m (3.3 ft) high and bears blue-purple flower heads with yellow central discs. In the wild, it flowers April to October.

<i>Oedera capensis</i> A shrublet in the daisy family from South Africa

Oedera capensis is a prickly shrublet belonging to the daisy family. It has stems that branch only at the foot and are densely set over their entire length with narrowly triangular leathery leaves with a sharp tip at approximately right angles to the stem. At their tip are what at first sight appears to be a single flowerhead with yellow ray florets and yellow disc florets. In fact, these are mostly nine densely cropped heads, as is suggested by the nine domes of the "disc" of the composite head, the untidy arrangement of the ray florets, and becomes very clear when cutting through the composite head. It is an endemic of the south of the Western Cape province in South Africa.

<i>Felicia brevifolia</i> A shrublet in the daisy family from South Africa and Namibia

Felicia brevifolia is an evergreen, richly branched shrub of up to 1​12 m (5 ft) high, that is assigned to the daisy family. It has elliptic to wedge-shaped leaves, of between ​12 and 1​12 cm long, green to gray-green, many with several teeth. The flower heads have about fifteen blue-violet ray florets, encircling many yellow disc florets. This species grows in southern Namibia and the west of South Africa.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Viviana D. Barreda; Luis Palazzesi; Maria C. Tellería; Eduardo B. Olivero; J. Ian Raine; Félix Forest (2015). "Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (35): 10989–10994. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11210989B. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1423653112 . PMC   4568267 . PMID   26261324.
  2. "Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl". Tropicos . Missouri Botanical Garden . Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  3. "Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl, nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 12 June 2008.
  4. Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 P.F. Stevens (2001). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.
  6. Jeffrey, C. 2007. Compositae: Introduction with key to tribes. Pages 61–87 in Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. VIII, Flowering Plants, Eudicots, Asterales (J. W. Kadereit and C. Jeffrey, eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin
  7. "The Plant List: Compositae". Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  8. 1 2 Panero, J.L., Crozier, B.S. Tree of Life – Asteraceae
  9. 1 2 "International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants – Article 18.5". iapt-taxon.org.
  10. 1 2 Barkley, Theodore M.; Brouillet, Luc; Strother, John L. "Asteraceae". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 19, 20 and 21. New York and Oxford via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  11. "Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases". ars-grin.gov.
  12. "dandelion Taraxacum officinale". Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  13. 1 2 Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Merriam-Webster.
  14. Solbrig, O.T. (1963) Subfamilial Nomenclature of Compositae. Taxon12: 229–235 JSTOR   1216917
  15. Panero, J.L.; Funk, V.A. (2002). "Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae)". Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 115: 909–922.
  16. 1 2 Panéro, José J.; Freire, Susana E.; Ariza Espinar, Luis; Crozier, Bonnie S.; Barboza, Gloria E.; Cantero, Juan J. (2014). "Resolution of deep nodes yields an improved backbone phylogeny and a new basal lineage to study early evolution of Asteraceae". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 80 (1): 43–53. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.07.012. PMID   25083940.
  17. Zhi-Xi Fu; Bo-Han Jiao; Bao Nie; Tiangang Gao (2016). "A comprehensive generic‐level phylogeny of the sunflower family: Implications for the systematics of Chinese Asteraceae". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (4): 416–437. doi:10.1111/jse.12216. S2CID   89115861.
  18. Funk, Vicki A.; Fragman-Sapir, Ori (2009). "22. Gymnarrheneae (Gymnarrhenoideae)". In V.A. Funk; A. Susanna; T. Stuessy; R. Bayer (eds.). Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae (PDF). Vienna: International Association for Plant Taxonomy. pp. 327–332. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  19. 1 2 3 4 Judd, W.S., Campbell, C.S., Kellogg, E.A., Stevens, P.F. (2007) Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Sia Morhardt, Emil Morhardt, California Desert Flowers, University of California Press, pp. 29–32
  21. 1 2 3 4 Pam MacKay, Mojave Desert Wildflowers, illustration p. 35
  22. Beentje, Henk (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary, an illustrated dictionary of plant terms. Richmond, U.K.: Kew Publishing. ISBN   9781842464229.
  23. Usher, G. (1966) A dictionary of botany, including terms used in bio-chemistry, soil science, and statistics. LCCN   66-602544
  24. McKenzie, R.J.; Samuel, J.; Muller, E.M.; Skinner, A.K.W.; Barker, N.P. (2005). "Morphology of Cypselae in Subtribe Arctotidinae (Compositae–Arctotideae) And Its Taxonomic Implications". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 92 (4): 569–594. JSTOR   40035740. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  25. Tomb, A. Spencer (May–June 1974). "Pollen Morphology and Detailed Structure of Family Compositae, Tribe Cichorieae. I. Subtribe Stephanomeriinae". American Journal of Botany. 61 (5): 486–498. doi:10.1002/j.1537-2197.1974.tb10788.x. JSTOR   2442020.
  26. 1 2 Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter (2018). "Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India". Parasite. 25: 10. doi: 10.1051/parasite/2018008 . ISSN   1776-1042. PMC   5847338 . PMID   29528842.
  27. https://landscapeplants.aub.edu.lb/Plants/GetPDF/dcc77b26-1656-4f5f-bbc3-a32e75aaa030 Senecio angulatus (Cape ivy, Climbing groundsel, Creeping groundsel)
  28. Senecio angulatus
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 Rajendra Singh; et al. (2015), "Diversity of Host Plants of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) Infesting Asteraceae in India", International Journal of Zoological Investigations, 1 (2): 137–167
  30. Auld BA, Meld RW (1992) 'Weeds an illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia.' (Inkata Press: Melbourne)
  31. Odom, R.B.; James, W.D.; Berger, T.G. (2000). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. W.B. Saunders Company. pp. 1135 pages. ISBN   0-7216-5832-6.
  32. "Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. Ragweed Allergy". Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2007.
  33. "Five Plants to Help Pollinators". The Xerces Society. 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2020. Goldenrods are among the most important late-season pollinator plants.