|Major figures||Maurice Denis, Georges Desvallières|
The Ateliers d'Art Sacré (Studios of Sacred Art) was an artistic movement based in Paris in the first half of the 20th century that aimed to create church art that avoided the artificiality of traditional academic or realist work.
The Ateliers d'Art Sacré were founded on 5 November 1919 after World War I (1914-18) by Maurice Denis (1870–1943) and Georges Desvallières (1861–1950) as part of a broad movement in Europe to reconcile the church with modern civilization.Their aim was to train artists and crafts people in the practice of Christian art and to provide tasteful religious works of traditional and modern style to churches, particularly those that had been devastated by the war. Denis said that he was against academic art because it sacrificed emotion to convention and artifice, and was against realism because it was prose and he wanted music. Above all he wanted beauty, which was an attribute of divinity.
The artists were largely involved in decoration of the Église Saint-Esprit in Paris, where the iconography shows the milestones in church history. In this church, built in 1928-35 by the architect Paul Tournon, murals were painted by forty artists including Maurice Denis, Georges Desvallières, Henri Marret, Jean Dupa, Pauline Peugniez and Robert Poughéon. In the Way of the Cross of Saint-Michel de Picpus, decorated in 1934 under the direction of Henri de Maistre, the personality of the artists was effaced for the sake of the collaborative work.The number of church commissions for the Ateliers was not enough for them to survive.
The Dominican Marie-Alain Couturier (1897–1954) was a member of the Ateliers. He argued that a masterpiece, even if made by a non-believer, would always be more effective than a religious work of lesser value.He gradually moved away from the influence of Maurice Denis, his master, and developed an admiration for Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. The Canadian painter Jean Dallaire (1916–1965) was another artist who joined the Ateliers, but then became interested in Picasso and the surrealists.
The master glazier Marguerite Huré (1896-1967) applied the principles of the Ateliers to the stained glass in the modernist St. Joseph's Church, Le Havre
Montmartre is a large hill in Paris's 18th arrondissement. It is 130 m (430 ft) high and gives its name to the surrounding district, part of the Right Bank in the northern section of the city. The historic district established by the City of Paris in 1995 is bordered by rue Caulaincourt and rue Custine on the north, rue de Clignancourt on the east, and boulevard de Clichy and boulevard de Rochechouart to the south, containing 60 ha. Montmartre is primarily known for its artistic history, the white-domed Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur on its summit, and as a nightclub district. The other church on the hill, Saint Pierre de Montmartre, built in 1147, was the church of the prestigious Montmartre Abbey. On August 15, 1534, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, Saint Francis Xavier and five other companions bound themselves by vows in the Martyrium of Saint Denis, 11 rue Yvonne Le Tac, the first step in the creation of the Jesuits.
Sylvia Daoust, CM, CQ, RCA, born in Montreal, was one of the first female sculptors in Quebec. She studied at the Council of Arts & Manufactures and the École des Beaux-Arts, with Charles Maillard and Maurice Feliz, and later with Edwin Holgate at the Art Association of Montreal.
Maurice Denis was a French painter, decorative artist and writer, who was an important figure in the transitional period between impressionism and modern art. He was associated with Les Nabis then the Symbolist movement, and then with a return to neo-classicism. His theories contributed to the foundations of cubism, fauvism, and abstract art. Following the First World War, he founded the Ateliers d'Art Sacré, decorated the interiors of churches, and worked for a revival of religious art.
Minotaure was a Surrealist-oriented magazine founded by Albert Skira and E. Tériade in Paris and published between 1933 and 1939. Minotaure published on the plastic arts, poetry, and literature, avant garde, as well as articles on esoteric and unusual aspects of literary and art history. Also included were psychoanalytical studies and artistic aspects of anthropology and ethnography. It was a lavish and extravagant magazine by the standards of the 1930s, profusely illustrated with high quality reproductions of art, often in color.
Eugène Anatole Carrière was a French Symbolist artist of the Fin de siècle period. His paintings are best known for their brown monochrome palette. He was a close friend of the sculptor Rodin and his work influenced Picasso. Some see traces of Carrière's monochrome style in Picasso's Blue Period.
André Salmon was a French poet, art critic and writer. He was one of the early defenders of Cubism, with Guillaume Apollinaire and Maurice Raynal.
Jean-Guenolé-Marie Daniélou was a French Jesuit and cardinal, an internationally well known patrologist, theologian and historian and a member of the Académie française.
Marie-Alain Couturier, O.P., was a French Dominican friar and Catholic priest, who gained fame as a designer of stained glass windows. He was noted for his modern inspiration in the field of Sacred art.
Marguerite Huré (1895–1967) was a French stained glass artist who introduced abstraction into French religious glassmaking.
George Desvallières (1861–1950) was a French painter.
Raymond Delamarre (1890–1986) was a French sculptor and medalist. He played a major role in the Art Déco movement. While his ecclesiastical work showed the influence of Catholicism, he was personally agnostic. His art, especially his war memorials, was also influenced by his firsthand experiences of the horrors of the First World War.
Émile Sacré (1844–1882) was a Belgian painter, after whom the Prix Émile Sacré was named.
Académie de La Palette, also called Académie La Palette and La Palette,, was a private art school in Paris, France, active between 1888 and 1925, aimed at promoting 'conciliation entre la liberté et le respect de la tradition'.
The Société Normande de Peinture Moderne, also known as Société de Peinture Moderne, or alternatively, Normand Society of Modern Painting, was a collective of eminent painters, sculptors, poets, musicians and critics associated with Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism and Orphism. The Société Normande de la Peinture Moderne was a diverse collection of avant-garde artists; in part a subgrouping of the Cubist movement, evolving alongside the so-called Salon Cubist group, first independently then in tandem with the core group of Cubists that emerged at the Salon d'Automne and Salon des Indépendants between 1909 and 1911. Historically, the two groups merged in 1912, at the Section d'Or exhibition, but documents from the period prior to 1912 indicate the merging occurred earlier and in a more convoluted manner.
Jean-Philippe Dallaire was a French Canadian painter with an eclectic and highly original style. He is known for his festive scenes peopled by macabre characters.
Saint-Esprit is a Roman Catholic church in the 12th arrondissement of Paris, France, in the southeast of the city.
Jeanne-Henriette Tirman was a French woman painter and printmaker.
Les Peintres Cubistes, Méditations Esthétiques, is a book written by Guillaume Apollinaire between 1905 and 1912, published in 1913. This was the third major text on Cubism; following Du "Cubisme" by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger (1912); and André Salmon, Histoire anecdotique du cubisme (1912).
Artists in Isabey's Studio is a painting of 1798 by the French artist Louis Léopold Boilly, showing many artists who were influential under the French Directory. It was displayed with 529 other works at the 1798 Paris Salon, which was mainly noted for Gérard's Psyche and Cupid. It is now in the Louvre, whose collections it entered in 1911.