| Athletics at the|
1990 Commonwealth Games
|100 m hurdles||women|
|110 m hurdles||men|
|400 m hurdles||men||women|
| 3000 m|
|4×100 m relay||men||women|
|4×400 m relay||men||women|
|10 km walk||women|
|30 km walk||men|
The men's 4 × 100 metres relay event at the 1990 Commonwealth Games was held on 2 and 3 February at the Mount Smart Stadium in Auckland.
The 4 × 100 metres relay or sprint relay is an athletics track event run in lanes over one lap of the track with four runners completing 100 metres each. The first runners must begin in the same stagger as for the individual 400 m race. A relay baton is carried by each runner. Prior to 2018, the baton had to be passed within a 20 m changeover box, preceded by a 10-metre acceleration zone. With a rule change effective November 1, 2017 that zone was modified to include the acceleration zone as part of the passing zone, making the entire zone 30 metres in length. The outgoing runner cannot touch the baton until it has entered the zone, the incoming runner cannot touch the baton after it has left the zone. The zone is usually marked in yellow, frequently using lines, triangles or chevrons. While the rule book specifies the exact positioning of the marks, the colors and style are only "recommended". While most legacy tracks will still have the older markings, the rule change still uses existing marks. Not all governing body jurisdictions have adopted the rule change.
At the 1990 Commonwealth Games, the athletics events were held at the Mount Smart Stadium in Auckland, New Zealand from 27 January to 3 February 1990. A total of 42 events were contested, 23 by male and 19 by female athletes.
Mt Smart Stadium is a stadium in Auckland, New Zealand. It is the home ground of National Rugby League team, the New Zealand Warriors. Built within the quarried remnants of the Rarotonga / Mount Smart volcanic cone, it is located 10 kilometres south of the city centre, in the suburb of Penrose.
* Athletes who competed in heats only and received medals.
Qualification: First 4 teams of each heat (Q) plus the next 1 fastest (q) qualified for the final.
|1||1||Victor Nwankwo, Davidson Ezinwa, Osmond Ezinwa, Abdullahi Tetengi||39.21||Q|
|2||2||Clarence Callender, Tony Jarrett, John Regis, Linford Christie||39.35||Q|
|3||1||John Mair, Ray Stewart, Clive Wright, Wayne Watson||39.35||Q|
|4||2||Shane Naylor, Paul Greene, Steve McBain, Fred Martin||39.81||Q|
|5||1||Everton Anderson, Mike Dwyer, Cyprian Enweani, Peter Ogilvie||39.96||Q|
|6||2||Elliot Bunney, Dave Clark, Jamie Henderson, Mark Davidson||40.21||Q|
|7||1||Murray Gutry, Gary Henley-Smith, Dale McClunie, Scott Bowden||40.53||Q|
|8||1||Esekiel Wartovo, John Hou, Emmanuel Mack, Takale Tuna||41.16||q|
|9||2||Abodourahman Jallow, Lamin Marikong, Pa Hali Jammeh, Clifford Adams||41.87||Q|
|10||1||Mohamed Shah Alam, Shahanuddin Choudhury, Mohamed Hossain Milzer, Mohamed Shah Jalal||42.47|
|11||2||Gus Nketia, Laud Codjoe, Gabriel Osei, Nelson Boateng||DQ|
|3||Clarence Callender, John Regis, Marcus Adam, Linford Christie||38.67|
|4||Victor Nwankwo, Davidson Ezinwa, Osmond Ezinwa, Abdullahi Tetengi||38.85|
|5||Wayne Watson, John Mair, Clive Wright, Ray Stewart||38.85|
|4||6||Shane Naylor, Paul Greene, Steve McBain, Fred Martin||39.25|
|5||9||Everton Anderson, Mike Dwyer, Cyprian Enweani, Peter Ogilvie||39.43|
|6||7||Elliot Bunney, Dave Clark, Jamie Henderson, Mark Davidson||39.61|
|7||1||Esekiel Wartovo, John Hou, Emmanuel Mack, Takale Tuna||40.94|
|8||8||Abodourahman Jallow, Lamin Marikong, Pa Hali Jammeh, Clifford Adams||41.65|
|9||2||Murray Gutry, Gary Henley-Smith, Grant Gilbert, Dale McClunie||44.34|
A Carnot heat engine is a theoretical engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle. The basic model for this engine was developed by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in 1824. The Carnot engine model was graphically expanded upon by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 and mathematically explored by Rudolf Clausius in 1857 from which the concept of entropy emerged.
In thermodynamics and engineering, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work. It does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A heat source generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the high temperature state. The working substance generates work in the working body of the engine while transferring heat to the colder sink until it reaches a low temperature state. During this process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero heat capacity, but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, a lot of heat is lost to the surroundings and so cannot be converted to work.
The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of its ability to conduct heat. It is commonly denoted by , , or .
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within an organ. The microscopically colliding particles, that include molecules, atoms and electrons, transfer disorganized microscopic kinetic and potential energy, jointly known as internal energy. Conduction takes place in all phases of matter including solids, liquids, gases and waves. The rate at which energy is conducted as heat between two bodies is a function of the temperature difference between the two bodies and the properties of the conductive medium through which the heat is transferred.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time. The total entropy of a system and its surroundings can remain constant in ideal cases where the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, or is undergoing a (fictive) reversible process. In all processes that occur, including spontaneous processes, the total entropy of the system and its surroundings increases and the process is irreversible in the thermodynamic sense. The increase in entropy accounts for the irreversibility of natural processes, and the asymmetry between future and past.
A vacuum flask is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings. Invented by Sir James Dewar in 1892, the vacuum flask consists of two flasks, placed one within the other and joined at the neck. The gap between the two flasks is partially evacuated of air, creating a near-vacuum which significantly reduces heat transfer by conduction or convection.
The heat equation is a parabolic partial differential equation that describes the distribution of heat in a given region over time.
The Rankine cycle is a model used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems. It was also used to study the performance of reciprocating steam engines. The Rankine cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work while undergoing phase change. It is an idealized cycle in which friction losses in each of the four components are neglected. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as the working fluid. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath and Glasgow University professor.
A thermodynamic cycle consists of a linked sequence of thermodynamic processes that involve transfer of heat and work into and out of the system, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables within the system, and that eventually returns the system to its initial state. In the process of passing through a cycle, the working fluid (system) may convert heat from a warm source into useful work, and dispose of the remaining heat to a cold sink, thereby acting as a heat engine. Conversely, the cycle may be reversed and use work to move heat from a cold source and transfer it to a warm sink thereby acting as a heat pump. At every point in the cycle, the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, so the cycle is reversible.
In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example. For a heat engine, thermal efficiency is the fraction of the energy added by heat that is converted to net work output. In the case of a refrigeration or heat pump cycle, thermal efficiency is the ratio of net heat output for heating, or removal for cooling, to energy input.
The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle proposed by French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded upon by others in the 1830s and 1840s. It provides an upper limit on the efficiency that any classical thermodynamic engine can achieve during the conversion of heat into work, or conversely, the efficiency of a refrigeration system in creating a temperature difference by the application of work to the system. It is not an actual thermodynamic cycle but is a theoretical construct.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The mechanisms include conduction, through direct contact of immobile bodies, or through a wall or barrier that is impermeable to matter; or radiation between separated bodies; or isochoric mechanical work done by the surroundings on the system of interest; or Joule heating by an electric current driven through the system of interest by an external system; or a combination of these. When there is a suitable path between two systems with different temperatures, heat transfer occurs necessarily, immediately, and spontaneously from the hotter to the colder system. Thermal conduction occurs by the stochastic (random) motion of microscopic particles. In contrast, thermodynamic work is defined by mechanisms that act macroscopically and directly on the system's whole-body state variables; for example, change of the system's volume through a piston's motion with externally measurable force; or change of the system's internal electric polarization through an externally measurable change in electric field. The definition of heat transfer does not require that the process be in any sense smooth. For example, a bolt of lightning may transfer heat to a body.
The Women's 100 metres at the 2011 World Championships in Athletics was held at the Daegu Stadium on August 27, 28 and 29.
The men's 100 metres event at the 2009 Summer Universiade was held on 7–8 July.
The men's 100 metres at the 2012 European Athletics Championships was held at the Helsinki Olympic Stadium on 27 and 28 June.
The men's 200 metres at the 2012 European Athletics Championships was held at the Helsinki Olympic Stadium on 29 and 30 June.
The men's 110 metres hurdles at the 2012 European Athletics Championships was held at the Helsinki Olympic Stadium on 30 June and 1 July.
The women's 100 metres hurdles at the 2012 European Athletics Championships was held at the Helsinki Olympic Stadium on 29 and 30 June.
The men's 100 metres event at the 1990 Commonwealth Games was held on 27 and 28 January at the Mount Smart Stadium in Auckland.
The men's 100 metres event at the 2017 Summer Universiade was held on 23 and 24 August at the Taipei Municipal Stadium.