Last updated

Hotel de prefecture de l'Aube.JPG
Prefecture building of the Aube department in Troyes
Drapeau fr departement Aube.svg
Blason departement fr Aube.svg
Location of Aube in France
Coordinates: 48°20′N4°10′E / 48.333°N 4.167°E / 48.333; 4.167 Coordinates: 48°20′N4°10′E / 48.333°N 4.167°E / 48.333; 4.167
Region Grand Est
Prefecture Troyes
Subprefectures Bar-sur-Aube
   President of the Departmental Council Philippe Pichery [1] (DVD)
  Total6,004 km2 (2,318 sq mi)
 (Jan. 2019) [2]
  Rank 74th
  Density52/km2 (130/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 10
Arrondissements 3
Cantons 17
Communes 431
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Aube (French pronunciation:  [ob] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. As with sixty departments in France, this department is named after a river: the Aube. With 310,242 inhabitants (2019), [3] Aube is the 74th department in terms of population. The inhabitants of the department are known as Aubois or Auboises. [4]


The department was constituted as it is today by a decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790.



Entry to the Aube department from Route N77 FR-10-Border.JPG
Entry to the Aube department from Route N77

The Aube department is located in the south-west side of the Grand Est region. It borders the departments of Marne in the north (about 130 km long), Haute-Marne to the east (about 100 km long), Côte-d'Or in the south-east (about 45 km long), Yonne in the south-west (about 175 km long), and Seine-et-Marne in the west (about 45 km long). [5]

Subregions of Aube

Map of natural and traditional regions of the department. Aube regions map-fr.svg
Map of natural and traditional regions of the department.

Within the department regions of natural or traditional countryside can be identified as follows:

Communes of Aube

Aube is divided into 431 communes totalling 310,242 inhabitants (2019). The most populous commune is the prefecture Troyes. As of 2019, there are 5 communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants: [3]

CommunePopulation (2019)
Troyes 61,957
Romilly-sur-Seine 14,480
Saint-André-les-Vergers 12,784
La Chapelle-Saint-Luc 11,741
Sainte-Savine 10,508

All of those communes, except Romilly-sur-Seine, are part of the agglomeration of Troyes.

Topography and geology

Altitude of the main towns of Aube [6]
Troyes Romilly-sur-Seine Bar-sur-Aube Nogent-sur-Seine
Lowest Altitude100 metres67 metres156 metres60 metres
Highest Altitude126 metres112 metres348 metres113 metres
Average Altitude113 metres90 metres252 metres87 metres
Town Hall Altitude107 metres77 metres165 metres71 metres


The Seine at Bar-sur-Seine La Seine a Bar-sur-Seine.JPG
The Seine at Bar-sur-Seine

There are 23 rivers throughout the department, [Note 1] the four main rivers being the Seine, the Aube (tributary of the Seine), the Armance (tributary of the Armançon), and the Vanne (a tributary of the Yonne).

Forests and lakes

Temple Lake seen from the dam Lac-Temple-Digue.jpg
Temple Lake seen from the dam

The department has 140,000 hectares of forests. [7]

Located in the Community of communes of Forests, lakes, and lands in Champagne, the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park was one of the first natural parks created in France.

In the same place, there is the Orient Lake and the Amance and Temple lakes where fishing, recreational water sports, and bathing are available. Each lake specialises in one or more of these activities.


The climate is moderate without intense cold or excessive heat which represents a climate similar to continental and oceanic.

Between 1950 and 1985 the average annual temperature recorded in the department was 10.1 °C [8] which is equivalent to the Paris basin and the cities of north-eastern France. The average sunshine hours per year is 1771.

Average annual rainfall is quite high (653.4 mm over 115 days of rain [8] ). In general there is more rain in autumn than in winter but rainfall is highest during spring. In contrast summer is the season when rainfall is lowest. There is, however, more rain in the south-east than the north-west.

Snow is relatively infrequent. Prevailing wind is from the west.

National average1,973770142240
Troyes [10] 1,817645151738
Paris 1,661637121810
Nice 2,7247671291
Strasbourg 1,693665292956
Brest 1,6051,21171275
Climate data for Troyes
Average high °C (°F)6.2
Daily mean °C (°F)3.1
Average low °C (°F)−0.1
Average precipitation mm (inches)50.5
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)10.08.410.
Mean monthly sunshine hours 698814418521522923522817912467541,817
Source: Meteorological data for Troyes – 112 m altitude, from 1981 to 2010 January 2015 (in French)

Channels of communication and transport

Road network

The department has 150 km of autoroutes, 33 km of national roads, 4,517 km of departmental roads and 2,116 km of local roads. [11]

Communal transport

In the Agglomeration of Troyes TCAT (Transport for the Communes of Troyes) provides a transport network between communes. Unlike many networks that are provided by other operators, the agglomeration community of the city is the owner of the company. [12] The network currently serves eleven communes including two outside the Troyes agglomeration. Other cities, including Romilly-sur-Seine, have no transport network. [13]

Aube also has intercity transport networks. 21 regular bus routes are operated between the major cities of the department. The use of these lines is entrusted to private coaches: Transdev – The Carriers of Aube has 15 routes, [14] Keolis Sud Lorraine has 4 routes, [15] Procars Champagne has 2 routes, [16] Autocars Bardy has one route. [17]

Rail network

Troyes Station Gare de Troyes.jpg
Troyes Station

Five railway stations are currently in operation. These are: Nogent-sur-Seine, Romilly-sur-Seine, Troyes, Vendeuvre-sur-Barse, Bar-sur-Aube.

Aube does not have a strong rail coverage. Only one main non-electrified line passes through Aube – the line that connects Paris-Est to Mulhouse.

The department has 34.8 km of navigable waterways. [11] The city of Nogent-sur-Seine has two river ports for grain. [18]


Early history

The first inhabitants of Aube were the Tricasses and Lingones with a substantial human settlement around the year 400 BC.

Saints Potentian and Savinian, [19] Greek priests from Samos, came to preach the gospel from the middle of the 3rd century. Saint Patroclus was one of the first martyrs of the new faith in the year 259. Shortly after Saint Jule and some notables of the city of Tricasses also suffered martyrdom. Nevertheless, as elsewhere, the Christian community became large enough to accommodate a bishop. Saint Amateur was the first in 340. In the year 286 the Bagaudae ravaged the land which forms Aube. Emperor Julian came to Troyes with his army and rescued it.

The territory making up Aube was first attached to France in 843, following the Treaty of Verdun.

The 12th century and the monasteries

The Abbey of Clairvaux: today a prison Kloster von Clairvaux, heute Strafanstalt.jpg
The Abbey of Clairvaux: today a prison

Two important monasteries were founded in the department: one at Clairvaux in 1114, created by Bernard of Clairvaux, the other was the Abbey of the Paraclete near Nogent-sur-Seine, by his illustrious rival, Pierre Abélard and of which Héloïse d'Argenteuil was the first abbess. Bernard of Clairvaux was noted for his eloquence at the Council of Troyes and his preaching of the Second Crusade which had no result and whose outcome was disastrous.

The reunion of Champagne with the kingdom of France was finalised in 1361. Yet people wanted absolutely the incorporation of Champagne but in 1328 King Philip VI gave the city of Bar-sur-Seine to Philippe de Croy. The inhabitants, however, ransomed him to return it to the king on the condition that it become inalienable.

Definitive reunion with Kingdom of France

The decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790 formally established the department of Aube. Its first president was Augustin-Henri-Marie Picot [20] and his first deputy was Louis Antoine Joseph Robin. Jacques Claude Beugnot was elected Attorney-General and also MP. [20]

The 19th century marked the emergence of the Hosiery business in the department.

After the victory of the allies in the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815, the department was occupied by Russian troops from June 1815 to November 1818.

In 1911 following the revolt of the vineyards of Champagne large Riots broke out in the department. The consequences of this were tragic because the clashes resulted in dozens of injuries.

In 1919, a decree allowed Aube department to produce champagne for the first time. [21]

In 1932 Turkish president Mustafa Kemal Atatürk visited Aube and signed a friendship treaty with France there on 4 July 1938. [22]


Arms of Aube Blason departement fr Aube.svg
Arms of Aube

Azure, a band argent with two cotises potent and counter potent in Or, chief wavy in argent.

Politics and administration

General Council

The General Council of Aube is located in Troyes. Its president has been DVD Senator Philippe Adnot since July 1990. It includes the 34 councillors of the 17 cantons of Aube. Of these, 32 are from the Right (mainly the UMP), the others are from the Miscellaneous left. [23] Currently the budget of the General Council is €329.8 million. Its main mission and expenditure on social activities and health. [11]


Aube returns three Deputies to the National Assembly, two of whom are from The Republicans (LR), and two Senators: one UMP and one right-wing independent.

Presidential elections 2nd round

ElectionWinning CandidateParty%2nd Place CandidateParty%
2022 Emmanuel Macron LREM 48.32 Marine Le Pen RN 51.68
2017 [24] Emmanuel Macron LREM 54.15 Marine Le Pen FN 45.85
2012 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 57.37 François Hollande PS 42.63
2007 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 61.70 Ségolène Royal PS 38.30
2002 [24] Jacques Chirac RPR 76.87 Jean-Marie Le Pen FN 23.13
1995 [25] Jacques Chirac RPR 55.30 Lionel Jospin PS 44.70

Current National Assembly Representatives

ConstituencyMember [26] Party
Aube's 1st constituency Grégory Besson-Moreau La République En Marche!
Aube's 2nd constituency Valérie Bazin-Malgras The Republicans
Aube's 3rd constituency Gérard Menuel The Republicans
Seats on the General Council by Political Party
PartyAbbrev.No. Members
Left Wing
Socialist Party PS2
Communist Party PCF2
Miscellaneous left DVG1
Europe Ecology – The Greens EELV1
Right Wing
Democratic Movement MoDem1
New Centre NC2
Miscellaneous right DVD10
Union for a Popular Movement UMP13
Independent SE1
President of the General Council


Aube is inhabited by 310,242 people with more than a third (137,500 inhabitants) living in the Troyes agglomeration (2019). [27]

Demographic change

In 2017, the department had 310,020 inhabitants.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 228,885    
1800 231,455+0.16%
1806 238,819+0.52%
1821 230,688−0.23%
1831 246,361+0.66%
1836 253,870+0.60%
1841 258,180+0.34%
1846 261,881+0.29%
1851 265,247+0.26%
1856 261,673−0.27%
1861 262,785+0.08%
1866 261,951−0.06%
1872 255,687−0.40%
1876 255,217−0.05%
1881 255,326+0.01%
1886 257,374+0.16%
1891 255,548−0.14%
1896 251,435−0.32%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 246,163−0.42%
1906 243,670−0.20%
1911 241,036−0.22%
1921 227,839−0.56%
1926 238,253+0.90%
1931 242,596+0.36%
1936 239,563−0.25%
1946 235,237−0.18%
1954 240,797+0.29%
1962 255,099+0.72%
1968 270,325+0.97%
1975 284,823+0.75%
1982 289,300+0.22%
1990 289,207−0.00%
1999 292,131+0.11%
2007 300,840+0.37%
2012 305,606+0.31%
2017 310,020+0.29%
Source: SPLAF [28] and INSEE [29]

Distribution of age groups

Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Aube Department in 2017

Age RangeMenWomen
0 to 14 Years19.417.3
15 to 29 Years17.916.2
30 to 44 Years18.217.4
45 to 59 Years19.919.2
60 to 74 Years17.017.7
75 to 89 Years7.010.3
90 Years+0.71.9

Source: INSEE [30]

Breakdown of population by socio-professional categories

Population of 15 years or more by sex, age, and socio-professional category
socio-professionnel category201720071999
Farmers and Farm workers4,3191.75,0942.15,4082.3
Artisans, shopkeepers, business managers7,7013.07,2322.97,6193.2
Executives and Intellectuals13,8965.512,6565.19,4354.0
Intermediate Professions30,54012.028,80511.724,95310.6
Others without occupation41,41416.340,19416.347,19820.0
Source : INSEE Census 2017 [31]



The economy of Aube has focused on the textile industry since the 19th century. This sector is now in crisis due to the department being in an area of real economic change.

In 2017, the departmental workforce totalled 137,774 with 114,530 persons in employment and 23,244 people unemployed. Men accounted for 51.4% of the active population and women 48.6%. [31]

The Aube department has a high rate of feminization in employment. Nearly half of people with active jobs (48.1% in 2017) are women. The main areas affected by the feminization are trade, transport, textiles, utilities, education, and health. Women are slightly more affected than men by unemployment (51.3% of the unemployed in 2017). This is mainly due to layoffs in the textile sector.

Employment by sector

Distribution of Employment by Industry sector (2015)

 AgricultureIndustryConstructionCommerce [Note 2] Public Administration [Note 3]
Source: INSEE [31]

Main economic sectors


Large Industrial Companies [11]
No. of Employees
Petit Bateau (Textiles)1,022
Devanlay (Textiles)1,018
Soufflet (Cereals)874
Kléber (Pneumatics)790
Vachette (Locks)600
Mefro Roues (Wheel rims)584
Valco (Furniture)575
Petitjean (Public lighting)567
Jacquot (Chocolate)550


Accommodations [11]
No. Establishments
Hotels661,991 rooms
Camping231,618 places
Holiday Cottages3102,006 places


Harvesting hemp at Saint-Flavy Saint-Flavy (Aube) culture du Chanvre.JPG
Harvesting hemp at Saint-Flavy

The utilized agricultural area is 379,720 hectares. Aube is the largest producer of hemp; the 2nd largest producer of champagne, cabbage for sauerkraut, medicinal poppies, and alfalfa; the 6th largest producer of potatoes; the 8th largest producer of cereals; and the 9th largest producer of beet in France. [11]

Population and society


An old school at Troyes Esaa troyes vieux.jpg
An old school at Troyes

Primary and secondary

In 2010 elementary and secondary education consisted of:

  • 11,568 students in kindergarten across 136 schools (including 1 private); [32]
  • 18,465 students in primary school across 255 schools (including 14 private); [32]
  • 12,311 students in college across 34 institutions (including 9 private); [33]
  • 5,199 students in schools of general education across 10 institutions (including 3 private); [33]
  • 2,666 students in vocational high school across 10 institutions (including 3 private). [33]

Higher education

According to the latest census of the academic inspectorate of Aube in 2009 the department has 8,794 students in higher education. [11] [Note 4]

List of Universities and Higher Educational Schools

Public Schools

Private Schools

  • Graduate School of Commerce in Troyes
  • Supinfo


List of Hospitals and Health Clinics [11]
Hospitals and Clinics
Type of InstitutionNo. of Institutions
Hospital 4
Clinic 7
Children's Institutions
Type of InstitutionNo. of Institutions
Child Protection12
Handicapped Children's Centre18
Institutions for Handicapped Adults
Type of InstitutionNo. of Institutions
Institution to help for work8
Businesses adapted for handicapped people2
Professional rehabilitation Centres1
Specialised Foster Homes2
Accommodation Facilities20
Residential Home Care for the autistic 2
Home Care2
Institutions for the Elderly
Type of InstitutionNo. of Institutions
Nursing Homes for the Elderly (EHPAD)38
Home Housing10
Long Term Care Units (USLD)5
Group Homes1
Home Care7
Rural Homes for the Elderly1


The Aube Stadium is the residence of the ES Troyes AC football club. Stade de l'Aube.jpg
The Aube Stadium is the residence of the ES Troyes AC football club.

There are 580 clubs and sports associations in the Aube department. [34] The main ones are:



At Troyes there are three independent local radio stations:

  • Radio Latitude: that broadcasts programming focused on the dance floor. This was the first local radio station in the department. It broadcasts from Troyes, Romilly-sur-Seine, and Vendeuvre-sur-Barse
  • Theme Radio: community radio broadcasting music and information flashes
  • Troyes Campus radio: rock music oriented radio and sometimes rap

At Romilly-sur-Seine, in addition to Latitude Radio, there is a local independent radio broadcaster: Radio Aube et Seine.

French Christian Radio (RCF) Aube is located in the department.


  • Canal 32: television network with a local Troyes and department station
  • France 3 Aube (France 3 Lorraine Champagne-Ardenne)

Daily newspapers

NamePlaceDistribution AreaPress GroupCirculation [35]
L'Est-Éclair Saint-André-les-Vergers (agglomération de Troyes)AubeGroupe Hersant Média27,948
Libération ChampagneTroyesAubeGroupe Hersant Média6,395


All Aube jurisdictions are located in Troyes. The city has a Tribunal d'instance and a High Court, a commercial court and an Employment Tribunal for civil and criminal jurisdictions. There is also a Correctional court and a Juvenile court.

Appeals, however, are passed to the Court of Appeal in Reims. [36]

Waste management

Aube currently has two storage facilities for radioactive waste:

Culture and heritage

Cultural venues

Theatres and concerts

  • The Cube – in the Parc des Expositions in Troyes
  • Champagne Theatre
  • Théâtre of la Madeleine
  • Argence space


The four main theatres are:

Cultural festivities

  • Festival in Othe
  • Aube Templiers 2012 event


Andouillette from Troyes. Andouillette de Troyes.jpg
Andouillette from Troyes.

Monuments and tourist sites

The castle of La Motte-Tilly Chateau de La Motte-Tilly.jpg
The castle of La Motte-Tilly

The Aube has 365 historical monuments of which 144 are classified, and 221 are enrolled. [37]



Hall in the style of Baltard d'Aix en Othe Aix en Othe Baltard.jpg
Hall in the style of Baltard d'Aix en Othe


Other historic sites

The Hotel de Ville in Troyes Hotel de ville de Troyes facade.jpg
The Hôtel de Ville in Troyes

Tourist places

Notable people linked to the department

Signature of Danton. GeorgesDantonSignature.jpg
Signature of Danton.

See also


  1. The complete list can be found at Water Courses of Aube (in French)
  2. Including transport and services
  3. Including education, health, and social workers
  4. This figure does not take into account students from the National Conservatory of Music in Troyes

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Communes of the Aube department</span>

The following is a list of the 431 communes of the Aube department of France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Troyes</span> Prefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in the Grand Est region of north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 140 km (87 mi) south-east of Paris. Troyes is situated within the Champagne wine region and is near to the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arcis-sur-Aube</span> Commune in Grand Est, France

Arcis-sur-Aube is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

The following is a list of the 17 cantons of the Aube department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bar-sur-Aube</span> Subprefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Bar-sur-Aube is a commune and a sub-prefecture in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of France.

Nogent is the name or part of the name of several communes in France:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bar-sur-Seine</span> Commune in Grand Est, France

Bar-sur-Seine is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arrondissements of the Aube department</span>

The 3 arrondissements of the Aube department are:

  1. Arrondissement of Bar-sur-Aube, with 108 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 28,759 in 2016.
  2. Arrondissement of Nogent-sur-Seine, with 79 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 54,067 in 2016.
  3. Arrondissement of Troyes, with 244 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 226,084 in 2016.
<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arrondissement of Nogent-sur-Seine</span> Arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Nogent-sur-Seine is an arrondissement of France in the Aube department in the Grand Est region. It has 79 communes. Its population is 54,067 (2016), and its area is 1,223.6 km2 (472.4 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arrondissement of Troyes</span> Arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Troyes is an arrondissement of France in the Aube department in the Grand Est region. It has 244 communes. Its population is 226,084 (2016), and its area is 3,540.4 km2 (1,367.0 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arrentières</span> Commune in Grand Est, France

Arrentières is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Avant-lès-Marcilly</span> Commune in Grand Est, France

Avant-lès-Marcilly is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Avon-la-Pèze</span> Commune in Grand Est, France

Avon-la-Pèze is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barberey-Saint-Sulpice</span> Commune in Grand Est, France

Barberey-Saint-Sulpice is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bayel</span> Commune in Grand Est, France

Bayel is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Essoyes</span> Commune in Grand Est, France

Essoyes is a commune in the Aube department in north-central France.

The Canton of Romilly-sur-Seine-1 is a former canton of the arrondissement of Nogent-sur-Seine, in the Aube department, in northern France. It had 9,558 inhabitants (2012). It was disbanded following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. It consisted of 12 communes:

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Troyes, France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grand Reims</span> Communauté urbaine in Grand Est, France

The Communauté urbaine du Grand Reims is the communauté urbaine, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Reims. It is located in the Marne department, in the Grand Est region, northeastern France. It was created on 1 January 2017 by the merger of the previous communauté d'agglomération Reims Métropole with the communautés de communes Beine-Bourgogne, Champagne Vesle, Nord Champenois, Fismes Ardre et Vesle, Vallée de la Suippe, Rives de la Suippe, Vesle et Coteaux de la Montagne de Reims and 18 other communes. Its area is 1432.4 km2. Its population was 295,926 in 2018, of which 182,211 lived in Reims proper.

Communauté d'agglomération Troyes Champagne Métropole is the communauté d'agglomération, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Troyes. It is located in the Aube department, in the Grand Est region, northeastern France. It was created in January 2017 by the merger of the former Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Troyes with 3 former communautés de communes and 6 other communes. Its area is 889.6 km2. Its population was 172,329 in 2018, of which 61,996 in Troyes proper.


  1. "Répertoire national des élus: les conseillers départementaux"., Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 4 May 2022.
  2. "Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  3. 1 2 Populations légales 2019: 10 Aube, INSEE
  4. "Le nom des habitants des communes de France - Habitants".
  5. Denajar, Laurent (9 July 2017). Carte archéologique de la Gaule: 10. Aube. Les Editions de la MSH. ISBN   9782877540933.
  6. Geographical Information, website, consulted on 24 June 2010 (in French)
  7. Geographical Presentation of the Aube department Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine , Aube prefecture website, consulted on 22 September 2010 (in French)
  8. 1 2 Readings from the Météo-France station at Barberey-Saint-Sulpice
  9. Paris, Nice, Strasbourg, Brest
  10. Data from the Station at Troyes from 1981 to 2010 (in French)
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Aube and its budget [ permanent dead link ], General Council of Aube, 2011, consulted on 14 May 2011 (in French)
  12. "Résultats de recherche l-entreprise - TCAT". Archived from the original on 15 March 2015.
  13. List of Networks in Aube department, Trans'bus, consulted on 20 September 2010 (in French)
  14. "Implantations, Ets interurbains et Pôle Régional de Transdev Grand Est".
  15. Keolis Sud Lorraine (in French)
  16. "ProCars Champagne - Partenaire de tous vos déplacements et voyages. - L'entreprise". Archived from the original on 11 November 2008.
  17. "Autocars Bardy". Archived from the original on 23 June 2012.
  18. The port of Aube at Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube Développement, consulted on 21 September 2010 (in French)
  19. "Saint-Potentien and Saint-Savinien, first preachers of the Gospel in Gaul". Archived from the original on 8 February 2008.
  20. 1 2 Genealogical and Heraldic History of the peers of France, Volume 8, Jean Baptiste Pierre Jullien de Courcelles, 1827 (in French)
  21. Regions-Tourism-Arkantz, 2007, consulted on 19 September 2010 (in French)
  22. Foreign Policy Of Atatürk
  23. EOLAS. "Les élus au Conseil départemental – Département de l'Aube". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  24. 1 2 "Présidentielles".
  25. "Résultats de l'élection présidentielle de 1995 par département - Politiquemania".
  26. Nationale, Assemblée. "Assemblée nationale ~ Les députés, le vote de la loi, le Parlement français". Assemblée nationale.
  27. "Comparateur de territoire − Unité urbaine 2020 de Troyes (10601), Département de l'Aube (10)". INSEE . Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  28. Historique de l'Aube, SPLAF
  29. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  30. "Évolution et structure de la population en 2017 − Recensement de la population – Résultats pour toutes les communes, départements, régions, intercommunalités... | Insee".
  31. 1 2 3 Dossier complet: Département de l'Aube (10), INSEE. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  32. 1 2 The first degree in Aube [ permanent dead link ], rectory of the Academy of Reims, consulted on 27 October 2010 (in French)
  33. 1 2 3 The second degree in Aube [ permanent dead link ], rectory of the Academy of Reims, consulted on 27 October 2010 (in French)
  34. Lists of associations, Departmental Directorate of Youth and Sports in Aube Archived 18 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine , consulted on 23 September 2010 m (in French)
  35. Circulation is weekly in 2008, OJD Archived 10 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  36. Competent Jurisdictions for the commune of Troyes, consulted on 2 July 2010 (in French)
  37. Heritage and Architecture – Figures for 2012, Ministry of Culture and Communication, consulted on 7 June 2012 (in French)
  38. Champagne, Office du Tourisme de l'Aube en. "Vacances et tourisme dans l'Aube en Champagne". Aube Champagne. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013.