Aube

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Aube
FR-10-Troyes11.JPG
Prefecture building of the Aube department, in Troyes
Drapeau fr departement Aube.svg
Flag
Blason departement fr Aube.svg
Coat of arms
Aube-Position.svg
Location of Aube in France
Coordinates: 48°20′N4°10′E / 48.333°N 4.167°E / 48.333; 4.167 Coordinates: 48°20′N4°10′E / 48.333°N 4.167°E / 48.333; 4.167
CountryFrance
Region Grand Est
Prefecture Troyes
Subprefectures Bar-sur-Aube
Nogent-sur-Seine
Government
   President of the general council Philippe Pichery (DVD)
Area
1
  Total6,004 km2 (2,318 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)
  Total308,910
  Rank 75th
  Density51/km2 (130/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 10
Arrondissements 3
Cantons 17
Communes 431
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Aube (French pronunciation:  [ob] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. As with sixty departments in France, this department is named after a river: the Aube. With 305,606 inhabitants (2012), Aube is 76th department in terms of population. The inhabitants of the department are known as Aubois or Auboises [1]

Contents

The department was constituted as it is today by a decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790.

Geography

Location

Entry to the Aube department from Route N77 FR-10-Border.JPG
Entry to the Aube department from Route N77

The Aube department is located in the south-west side of the Grand Est region. It borders the departments of Marne in the north (about 130 km long), Haute-Marne to the east (about 100 km long), Côte-d'Or in the south-east (about 45 km long), Yonne in the south-west (about 175 km long), and Seine-et-Marne in the west (about 45 km long). [2]

Subregions of Aube

Map of natural and traditional regions of the department. Aube regions map-fr.svg
Map of natural and traditional regions of the department.

Within the department regions of natural or traditional countryside can be identified as follows:

Communes of Aube

Aube is divided into 431 communes totalling 308,503 inhabitants. Major cities (with more than 10,000 inhabitants) are:

They are mostly located in the centre of the department. Four of those five cities are part of the Agglomeration of Troyes.

Topography and geology

Altitude of the main towns of Aube [3]
Troyes Romilly-sur-Seine Bar-sur-Aube Nogent-sur-Seine
Lowest Altitude100 metres67 metres156 metres60 metres
Highest Altitude126 metres112 metres348 metres113 metres
Average Altitude113 metres90 metres252 metres87 metres
Town Hall Altitude107 metres77 metres165 metres71 metres

Hydrography

The Seine at Bar-sur-Seine La Seine a Bar-sur-Seine.JPG
The Seine at Bar-sur-Seine

There are 23 rivers throughout the department, [Note 1] the four main rivers being the Seine, the Aube (tributary of the Seine), the Armance (tributary of the Armançon), and the Vanne (a tributary of the Yonne).

Forests and lakes

Temple Lake seen from the dam Lac-Temple-Digue.jpg
Temple Lake seen from the dam

The department has 140,000 hectares of forests. [4]

Located in the Community of communes of Forests, lakes, and lands in Champagne, the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park was one of the first natural parks created in France.

In the same place, there is the Orient Lake and the Amance and Temple lakes where fishing, recreational water sports, and bathing are available. Each lake specialises in one or more of these activities.

Climate

The climate is moderate without intense cold or excessive heat which represents a climate similar to continental and oceanic.

Between 1950 and 1985 the average annual temperature recorded in the department was 10.1 °C [5] which is equivalent to the Paris basin and the cities of north-eastern France. The average sunshine hours per year is 1771.

Average annual rainfall is quite high (653.4 mm over 115 days of rain [5] ). In general there is more rain in autumn than in winter but rainfall is highest during spring. In contrast summer is the season when rainfall is lowest. There is, however, more rain in the south-east than the north-west.

Snow is relatively infrequent. Prevailing wind is from the west.

TownSunshine
Weather-clear.svg
(hours/yr)
Rain
Weather-overcast-rare-showers.svg
(mm/yr)
Snow
Weather-snow.svg
(days/yr)
Storm
Weather-violent-storm.svg
(days/yr)
Fog
Weather-day-more-fog.svg
(days/yr)
National Average1,973770142240
Troyes [7] 1,817645151738
Paris 1,661637121810
Nice 2,7247671291
Strasbourg 1,693665292956
Brest 1,6051,21171275
Climate data for Troyes
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)6.2
(43.2)
7.7
(45.9)
11.9
(53.4)
15.2
(59.4)
19.5
(67.1)
22.7
(72.9)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
21.2
(70.2)
16.3
(61.3)
10.1
(50.2)
6.7
(44.1)
15.7
(60.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.1
(37.6)
3.7
(38.7)
7.0
(44.6)
9.5
(49.1)
13.7
(56.7)
16.7
(62.1)
19.3
(66.7)
19.0
(66.2)
15.4
(59.7)
11.6
(52.9)
6.6
(43.9)
3.8
(38.8)
10.8
(51.4)
Average low °C (°F)−0.1
(31.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.0
(35.6)
3.7
(38.7)
7.8
(46.0)
10.7
(51.3)
12.8
(55.0)
12.6
(54.7)
9.6
(49.3)
6.8
(44.2)
3.0
(37.4)
0.8
(33.4)
5.8
(42.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)50.5
(1.99)
42.1
(1.66)
47.7
(1.88)
50.9
(2.00)
61.7
(2.43)
56.6
(2.23)
54.4
(2.14)
52.2
(2.06)
53.3
(2.10)
63.6
(2.50)
51.2
(2.02)
60.6
(2.39)
644.8
(25.39)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)10.08.410.39.110.18.67.27.07.59.69.810.6108.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 698814418521522923522817912467541,817
Source: Meteorological data for Troyes – 112 m altitude, from 1981 to 2010 January 2015 (in French)

Channels of communication and transport

Road network

The department has 150 km of autoroutes, 33 km of national roads, 4,517 km of departmental roads and 2,116 km of local roads. [8]

Communal transport

In the Agglomeration of Troyes TCAT (Transport for the Communes of Troyes) provides a transport network between communes. Unlike many networks that are provided by other operators, the agglomeration community of the city is the owner of the company. [9] The network currently serves eleven communes including two outside the Troyes agglomeration. Other cities, including Romilly-sur-Seine, have no transport network. [10]

Aube also has intercity transport networks. 21 regular bus routes are operated between the major cities of the department. The use of these lines is entrusted to private coaches: Transdev – The Carriers of Aube has 15 routes, [11] Keolis Sud Lorraine has 4 routes, [12] Procars Champagne has 2 routes, [13] Autocars Bardy has one route. [14]

Rail network

Troyes Station Gare de Troyes.jpg
Troyes Station

Five railway stations are currently in operation. These are: Nogent-sur-Seine, Romilly-sur-Seine, Troyes, Vendeuvre-sur-Barse, Bar-sur-Aube.

Aube does not have a strong rail coverage. Only one main non-electrified line passes through Aube – the line that connects Paris-Est to Mulhouse.

The department has 34.8 km of navigable waterways. [8] The city of Nogent-sur-Seine has two river ports for grain. [15]

History

Early history

The first inhabitants of Aube were the Tricasses and Lingones with a substantial human settlement around the year 400 BC.

Saints Potentian and Savinian, [16] Greek priests from Samos, came to preach the gospel from the middle of the 3rd century. Saint Patroclus was one of the first martyrs of the new faith in the year 259. Shortly after Saint Jule and some notables of the city of Tricasses also suffered martyrdom. Nevertheless, as elsewhere, the Christian community became large enough to accommodate a bishop. Saint Amateur was the first in 340. In the year 286 the Bagaudae ravaged the land which forms Aube. Emperor Julian came to Troyes with his army and rescued it.

The territory making up Aube was first attached to France in 843, following the Treaty of Verdun.

The 12th century and the monasteries

The Abbey of Clairvaux: today a prison Kloster von Clairvaux, heute Strafanstalt.jpg
The Abbey of Clairvaux: today a prison

Two important monasteries were founded in the department: one at Clairvaux in 1114, created by Bernard of Clairvaux, the other was the Abbey of the Paraclete near Nogent-sur-Seine, by his illustrious rival, Pierre Abélard and of which Héloïse d'Argenteuil was the first abbess. Bernard of Clairvaux was noted for his eloquence at the Council of Troyes and his preaching of the Second Crusade which had no result and whose outcome was disastrous.

The reunion of Champagne with the kingdom of France was finalised in 1361. Yet people wanted absolutely the incorporation of Champagne but in 1328 King Philip VI gave the city of Bar-sur-Seine to Philippe de Croy. The inhabitants, however, ransomed him to return it to the king on the condition that it become inalienable.

Definitive reunion with Kingdom of France

The decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790 formally established the department of Aube. Its first president was Augustin-Henri-Marie Picot [17] and his first deputy was Louis Antoine Joseph Robin. Jacques Claude Beugnot was elected Attorney-General and also MP. [17]

The 19th century marked the emergence of the Hosiery business in the department.

After the victory of the allies in the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815, the department was occupied by Russian troops from June 1815 to November 1818.

In 1911 following the revolt of the vineyards of Champagne large Riots broke out in the department. The consequences of this were tragic because the clashes resulted in dozens of injuries.

In 1919, a decree allowed Aube department to produce champagne for the first time. [18]

In 1932 Turkish president Mustafa Kemal Atatürk visited Aube and signed a friendship treaty with France there on 4 July 1938. [19]

Heraldry

Arms of Aube Blason departement fr Aube.svg
Arms of Aube
Blazon:

Azure, a band argent with two cotises potent and counter potent in Or, chief wavy in argent.

Politics and administration

General Council

The General Council of Aube is located in Troyes. Its president has been DVD Senator Philippe Adnot since July 1990. It includes the 34 councillors of the 17 cantons of Aube. Of these, 32 are from the Right (mainly the UMP), the others are from the Miscellaneous left. [20] Currently the budget of the General Council is €329.8 million. Its main mission and expenditure on social activities and health. [8]

Politics

Aube returns three Deputies to the National Assembly, two of whom are from The Republicans (LR), and two Senators: one UMP and one right-wing independent.

Current National Assembly Representatives

ConstituencyMember [21] Party
Aube's 1st constituency Grégory Besson-Moreau La République En Marche!
Aube's 2nd constituency Valérie Bazin-Malgras The Republicans
Aube's 3rd constituency Gérard Menuel The Republicans
Seats on the General Council by Political Party
PartyAbbrev.No. Members
Left Wing
Socialist Party PS2
Communist Party PCF2
Miscellaneous left DVG1
Europe Ecology – The Greens EELV1
Right Wing
Democratic Movement MoDem1
New Centre NC2
Miscellaneous right DVD10
Union for a Popular Movement UMP13
Independent
Independent SE1
President of the General Council

Demography

Distribution of the population

Aube is inhabited by 310,020 people [22] with more than a third (138,308 inhabitants) living in the Troyes agglomeration. [23]

Population of the main towns of Aube (2017) [22]
Rosières-près-TroyesBar-sur-AubePont-Sainte-MarieNogent-sur-SeineSaint-Julien-les-VillasSainte-SavineSaint-André-les-VergersLa Chapelle-Saint-LucRomilly-sur-SeineTroyesAube

Demographic change

In 2017, the department had 310,020 inhabitants.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 228,885    
1800 231,455+0.16%
1806 238,819+0.52%
1821 230,688−0.23%
1831 246,361+0.66%
1836 253,870+0.60%
1841 258,180+0.34%
1846 261,881+0.29%
1851 265,247+0.26%
1856 261,673−0.27%
1861 262,785+0.08%
1866 261,951−0.06%
1872 255,687−0.40%
1876 255,217−0.05%
1881 255,326+0.01%
1886 257,374+0.16%
1891 255,548−0.14%
1896 251,435−0.32%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 246,163−0.42%
1906 243,670−0.20%
1911 241,036−0.22%
1921 227,839−0.56%
1926 238,253+0.90%
1931 242,596+0.36%
1936 239,563−0.25%
1946 235,237−0.18%
1954 240,797+0.29%
1962 255,099+0.72%
1968 270,325+0.97%
1975 284,823+0.75%
1982 289,300+0.22%
1990 289,207−0.00%
1999 292,131+0.11%
2007 300,840+0.37%
2012 305,606+0.31%
2017 310,020+0.29%
Source: SPLAF [24] and INSEE [25]

Distribution of age groups

Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Aube Department in 2017

Aube
Age RangeMenWomen
0 to 14 Years19.417.3
15 to 29 Years17.916.2
30 to 44 Years18.217.4
45 to 59 Years19.919.2
60 to 74 Years17.017.7
75 to 89 Years7.010.3
90 Years+0.71.9

Source: INSEE [26]

Breakdown of population by socio-professional categories

Population of 15 years or more by sex, age, and socio-professional category
socio-professionnel category201720071999
Nb%Nb%Nb%
Total253,551246,346236,393
Farmers and Farm workers4,3191.75,0942.15,4082.3
Artisans, shopkeepers, business managers7,7013.07,2322.97,6193.2
Executives and Intellectuals13,8965.512,6565.19,4354.0
Intermediate Professions30,54012.028,80511.724,95310.6
Employees41,09116.240,27616.335,30314.9
Workers38,67215.343,95017.847,77120.2
Retirees75,91829.968,13827.758,70624.8
Others without occupation41,41416.340,19416.347,19820.0
Source : INSEE Census 2017 [27]

Economy

General

The economy of Aube has focused on the textile industry since the 19th century. This sector is now in crisis due to the department being in an area of real economic change.

In 2017, the departmental workforce totalled 137,774 with 114,530 persons in employment and 23,244 people unemployed. Men accounted for 51.4% of the active population and women 48.6%. [27]

The Aube department has a high rate of feminization in employment. Nearly half of people with active jobs (48.1% in 2017) are women. The main areas affected by the feminization are trade, transport, textiles, utilities, education, and health. Women are slightly more affected than men by unemployment (51.3% of the unemployed in 2017). This is mainly due to layoffs in the textile sector.

Employment by sector

Distribution of Employment by Industry sector (2015)

 AgricultureIndustryConstructionCommerce [Note 2] Public Administration [Note 3]
Aube3.4%17.9%6.7%39.6%32.4%
Source: INSEE [27]

Main economic sectors

Industry

Large Industrial Companies [8]
No. of Employees
Petit Bateau (Textiles)1,022
Devanlay (Textiles)1,018
Soufflet (Cereals)874
Kléber (Pneumatics)790
Vachette (Locks)600
Mefro Roues (Wheel rims)584
Valco (Furniture)575
Petitjean (Public lighting)567
Jacquot (Chocolate)550

Tourism

Accommodations [8]
No. Establishments
Hotels661,991 rooms
Camping231,618 places
Holiday Cottages3102,006 places

Agriculture

Harvesting hemp at Saint-Flavy Saint-Flavy (Aube) culture du Chanvre.JPG
Harvesting hemp at Saint-Flavy

The utilized agricultural area is 379,720 hectares. Aube is the largest producer of hemp; the 2nd largest producer of champagne, cabbage for sauerkraut, medicinal poppies, and alfalfa; the 6th largest producer of potatoes; the 8th largest producer of cereals; and the 9th largest producer of beet in France. [8]

Population and society

Education

An old school at Troyes Esaa troyes vieux.jpg
An old school at Troyes

Primary and secondary

In 2010 elementary and secondary education consisted of:

  • 11,568 students in kindergarten across 136 schools (including 1 private); [28]
  • 18,465 students in primary school across 255 schools (including 14 private); [28]
  • 12,311 students in college across 34 institutions (including 9 private); [29]
  • 5,199 students in schools of general education across 10 institutions (including 3 private); [29]
  • 2,666 students in vocational high school across 10 institutions (including 3 private). [29]

Higher education

According to the latest census of the academic inspectorate of Aube in 2009 the department has 8,794 students in higher education. [8] [Note 4]

List of Universities and Higher Educational Schools

Public Schools

Private Schools

  • Graduate School of Commerce in Troyes
  • Supinfo

Health

List of Hospitals and Health Clinics [8]
Hospitals and Clinics
Type of InstitutionNo. of Institutions
Hospital 4
Clinic 7
Children's Institutions
Type of InstitutionNo. of Institutions
Child Protection12
Handicapped Children's Centre18
Institutions for Handicapped Adults
Type of InstitutionNo. of Institutions
Institution to help for work8
Businesses adapted for handicapped people2
Professional rehabilitation Centres1
Specialised Foster Homes2
Accommodation Facilities20
Residential Home Care for the autistic 2
Home Care2
Institutions for the Elderly
Type of InstitutionNo. of Institutions
Nursing Homes for the Elderly (EHPAD)38
Home Housing10
Long Term Care Units (USLD)5
Group Homes1
Home Care7
Rural Homes for the Elderly1

Sports

The Aube Stadium is the residence of the ES Troyes AC football club. Stade de l'Aube.jpg
The Aube Stadium is the residence of the ES Troyes AC football club.

There are 580 clubs and sports associations in the Aube department. [30] The main ones are:

Media

Radio

At Troyes there are three independent local radio stations:

  • Radio Latitude: that broadcasts programming focused on the dance floor. This was the first local radio station in the department. It broadcasts from Troyes, Romilly-sur-Seine, and Vendeuvre-sur-Barse
  • Theme Radio: community radio broadcasting music and information flashes
  • Troyes Campus radio: rock music oriented radio and sometimes rap

At Romilly-sur-Seine, in addition to Latitude Radio, there is a local independent radio broadcaster: Radio Aube et Seine.

French Christian Radio (RCF) Aube is located in the department.

Television

  • Canal 32: television network with a local Troyes and department station
  • France 3 Aube (France 3 Lorraine Champagne-Ardenne)

Daily newspapers

NamePlaceDistribution AreaPress GroupCirculation [31]
L'Est-Éclair Saint-André-les-Vergers (agglomération de Troyes)AubeGroupe Hersant Média27,948
Libération ChampagneTroyesAubeGroupe Hersant Média6,395

Justice

All Aube jurisdictions are located in Troyes. The city has a Tribunal d'instance and a High Court, a commercial court and an Employment Tribunal for civil and criminal jurisdictions. There is also a Correctional court and a Juvenile court.

Appeals, however, are passed to the Court of Appeal in Reims. [32]

Waste management

Aube currently has two storage facilities for radioactive waste:

Culture and heritage

Cultural venues

Theatres and concerts

  • The Cube – in the Parc des Expositions in Troyes
  • Champagne Theatre
  • Théâtre of la Madeleine
  • Argence space

Cinemas

The four main theatres are:

Cultural festivities

  • Festival in Othe
  • Aube Templiers 2012 event

Gastronomy

Andouillette from Troyes. Andouillette de Troyes.jpg
Andouillette from Troyes.

Monuments and tourist sites

The castle of La Motte-Tilly Chateau de La Motte-Tilly.jpg
The castle of La Motte-Tilly

The Aube has 365 historical monuments of which 144 are classified, and 221 are enrolled. [33]

Castles

Museums

Hall in the style of Baltard d'Aix en Othe Aix en Othe Baltard.jpg
Hall in the style of Baltard d'Aix en Othe

[34]

Other historic sites

The Hotel de Ville in Troyes Hotel de ville de Troyes facade.jpg
The Hôtel de Ville in Troyes

Tourist places

Notable people linked to the department

Signature of Danton. GeorgesDantonSignature.jpg
Signature of Danton.

See also

Notes

  1. The complete list can be found at Water Courses of Aube (in French)
  2. Including transport and services
  3. Including education, health, and social workers
  4. This figure does not take into account students from the National Conservatory of Music in Troyes

Related Research Articles

Communes of the Aube department

The following is a list of the 431 communes of the Aube department of France.

Troyes Prefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in the Grand Est region of north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 140 km (87 mi) south-east of Paris. Troyes is situated within the Champagne wine region and is near to the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park.

Arcis-sur-Aube Commune in Grand Est, France

Arcis-sur-Aube[aʁ.si.syʁ.ob] is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

The following is a list of the 17 cantons of the Aube department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015:

Bar-sur-Aube Subprefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Bar-sur-Aube is a commune and a sub-prefecture in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of France.

Bar-sur-Seine Commune in Grand Est, France

Bar-sur-Seine is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

Arrondissement of Bar-sur-Aube Arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Bar-sur-Aube is an arrondissement of France in the Aube department in the Grand Est region. It has 108 communes. Its population is 28,759 (2016), and its area is 1,240.1 km2 (478.8 sq mi).

Arrondissement of Nogent-sur-Seine Arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Nogent-sur-Seine is an arrondissement of France in the Aube department in the Grand Est region. It has 79 communes. Its population is 54,067 (2016), and its area is 1,223.6 km2 (472.4 sq mi).

Arrondissement of Troyes Arrondissement in Grand Est, France

The arrondissement of Troyes is an arrondissement of France in the Aube department in the Grand Est region. It has 244 communes. Its population is 226,084 (2016), and its area is 3,540.4 km2 (1,367.0 sq mi).

The Route nationale 19 (N19) is a trunk road (nationale) in north east France. The road forms part of European route E54.

Arrentières Commune in Grand Est, France

Arrentières is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

Avant-lès-Marcilly Commune in Grand Est, France

Avant-lès-Marcilly is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

Avirey-Lingey Commune in Grand Est, France

Avirey-Lingey is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

Avon-la-Pèze Commune in Grand Est, France

Avon-la-Pèze is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

Barberey-Saint-Sulpice Commune in Grand Est, France

Barberey-Saint-Sulpice is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

Bayel Commune in Grand Est, France

Bayel is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

Essoyes Commune in Grand Est, France

Essoyes is a commune in the Aube department in north-central France.

Mesgrigny Commune in Grand Est, France

Mesgrigny is a commune in the Aube department in north-central France. It is a small village located in the canton of Creney-près-Troyes and the arrondissement of Nogent-sur-Seine. It is located 120 km from Paris and 310 km from the port at Calais. Nearby towns include Méry-sur-Seine, 2.4 km (1.5 mi) north; Vallant-Saint-Georges, 2.5 km (1.6 mi) southeast; and Châtres, 4 km (2.5 mi) northwest.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Troyes, France.

Communauté d'agglomération Troyes Champagne Métropole is the communauté d'agglomération, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Troyes. It is located in the Aube department, in the Grand Est region, northeastern France. It was created in January 2017 by the merger of the former Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Troyes with 3 former communautés de communes and 6 other communes. Its population was 172,967 in 2014, of which 62,204 in Troyes proper.

References

  1. Inhabitants of France (in French)
  2. Denajar, Laurent (9 July 2017). "Carte archéologique de la Gaule: 10. Aube". Les Editions de la MSH.
  3. Geographical Information, annuaire-mairie.fr website, consulted on 24 June 2010 (in French)
  4. Geographical Presentation of the Aube department Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine , Aube prefecture website, consulted on 22 September 2010 (in French)
  5. 1 2 Readings from the Météo-France station at Barberey-Saint-Sulpice
  6. Paris, Nice, Strasbourg, Brest
  7. Data from the Station at Troyes [ permanent dead link ] from 1981 to 2010 (in French)
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Aube and its budget [ permanent dead link ], General Council of Aube, 2011, consulted on 14 May 2011 (in French)
  9. TCAT website Archived 15 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  10. List of Networks in Aube department, Trans'bus, consulted on 20 September 2010 (in French)
  11. Transdev Route Map (in French)
  12. Keolis Sud Lorraine (in French)
  13. Procars Champagne Archived 11 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  14. Autocars Bardy Archived 23 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  15. The port of Aube at Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube Développement, consulted on 21 September 2010 (in French)
  16. Saint-Potentien and Saint-Savinien, first preachers of the Gospel in Gaul Archived 8 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  17. 1 2 Genealogical and Heraldic History of the peers of France, Volume 8, Jean Baptiste Pierre Jullien de Courcelles, 1827 (in French)
  18. Regions-Tourism-Arkantz, 2007, consulted on 19 September 2010 (in French)
  19. Foreign Policy Of Atatürk
  20. EOLAS. "Les élus au Conseil départemental – Département de l'Aube". aube.fr.[ permanent dead link ]
  21. http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/
  22. 1 2 Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017, INSEE
  23. Comparateur de territoire: Unité urbaine de Troyes (10601)
  24. Historique de l'Aube, SPLAF
  25. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  26. Évolution et structure de la population en 2017: Département de l'Aube (10)
  27. 1 2 3 Dossier complet: Département de l'Aube (10), INSEE. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  28. 1 2 The first degree in Aube [ permanent dead link ], rectory of the Academy of Reims, consulted on 27 October 2010 (in French)
  29. 1 2 3 The second degree in Aube [ permanent dead link ], rectory of the Academy of Reims, consulted on 27 October 2010 (in French)
  30. Lists of associations, Departmental Directorate of Youth and Sports in Aube Archived 18 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine , consulted on 23 September 2010 m (in French)
  31. Circulation is weekly in 2008, OJD Archived 10 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  32. Competent Jurisdictions for the commune of Troyes, consulted on 2 July 2010 (in French)
  33. Heritage and Architecture – Figures for 2012, Ministry of Culture and Communication, consulted on 7 June 2012 (in French)
  34. List of Museums on the Aube and Champagne Tourist website Archived 7 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine (in French)