This article needs additional citations for verification . (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki|
The gallery building, showing the clock tower
|Former names||Auckland City Art Gallery|
|Type||Art gallery, formerly public library and council offices|
|Architectural style||French Renaissance|
|Location||Corner Wellesley and Kitchener Streets, Auckland City|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Grainger & Charles D'Ebro (1887), FJMT + Archimedia (2011)|
|Awards and prizes||2013 World Building of the Year, World Architecture Festival|
Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki is the principal public gallery in Auckland, New Zealand, and has the most extensive collection of national and international art in New Zealand. It frequently hosts travelling international exhibitions.
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. The most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of around 1,628,900. It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. Auckland is a diverse, multicultural and cosmopolitan city, home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. A Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki Makaurau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions.
Set below the hilltop Albert Park in the central-city area of Auckland, the gallery was established in 1888 as the first permanent art gallery in New Zealand.
Albert Park is a public park in central Auckland, bounded by Wellesley Street East, Princes Street, Bowen Avenue and Kitchener Street. From the entrance at the corner of Bowen Ave and Kitchener St, sealed footpaths climb steeply through native trees to the large flat area at the summit, where a formal layout of paths and flower gardens encircle a fountain.
The building originally housed the Auckland Art Gallery as well as the Auckland public library opening with collections donated by benefactors Governor Sir George Grey and James Tannock Mackelvie. This was the second public art gallery in New Zealand opened three years after the Dunedin Public Art Gallery in 1884. Wellington's New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts opened in 1892 and a Wellington Public Library in 1893.
The Dunedin Public Art Gallery holds the main public art collection of the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Located in The Octagon in the heart of the city, it is close to the city's public library, municipal chambers,(Dunedin Town Hall) and other facilities such as the Regent Theatre.
The New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts was founded by William Beetham the esteemed portrait painter in 1882. The galleries were opened as a free public gallery on Whitmore Street in 1892. In 1936 the Academy sold their land and donated the proceeds to the new Dominion Museum and National Art Gallery of New Zealand on the provision that they would be accommodated in the new New Zealand Dominion Museum building on Buckle Street.
In 2009, it was announced that the museum received a donation from American businessman Julian Robertson, valued at over $100 million, the largest ever of its kind in the region. The works will be received from the owner's estate.
Julian Hart Robertson Jr. is an American billionaire hedge fund manager, and philanthropist. Now retired, Robertson invests in other hedge funds, mostly those run by former employees of his own defunct hedge fund company, Tiger Management. The so-called Tiger cubs manage around 50 of the world's top hedge funds, including Stephen Mandal's Lone Pine, Andreas Halvorsen's Viking, Rob Citrone's Discovery Capital Management, Philippe Laffont of Coatue Management, Lee Ainslie of Maverick Capital and Chase Coleman of Tiger Global Management. He is a signatory of The Giving Pledge.
Throughout the 1870s many people in Auckland felt the city needed a municipal art collection but the newly established Auckland City Council was unwilling to commit funds to such a project. Following pressure by such eminent people as Sir Maurice O'Rorke (Speaker of the House of Representatives) and others, the building of a combined Art Gallery & Library was made necessary by the promise of significant bequests from two major benefactors; former colonial governor Sir George Grey, and James Tannock Mackelvie. Grey had promised books for a municipal library as early as 1872 and eventually donated large numbers of manuscripts, rare books and paintings from his collection to the Auckland Gallery & Library [in all over 12,500 items, including 53 paintings]. He also gave material to Cape Town, where he had also been governor. The Grey bequest includes works by Caspar Netscher, Henry Fuseli, William Blake and David Wilkie.
Sir George Maurice O’Rorke was a New Zealand politician, representing the Auckland seat of Onehunga, and later Manukau, and was Speaker of the House of Representatives. He was a committed provincialist and was the eighth Superintendent of the Auckland Province. Upon receiving his knighthood in 1880, he became known as Sir Maurice.
Cape Town is a legislative capital of South Africa, colloquially named the Mother City. It is the legislative capital of South Africa and primate city of the Western Cape province. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality.
CasparNetscher was a Dutch portrait and genre painter. He was a master in depicting oriental rugs, silk and brocade and introduced an international style to the Northern Netherlands.
Mackelvie was a businessman who had retained an interest in Auckland affairs after returning to Britain. In the early 1880s he announced a gift of 105 framed watercolours, oil paintings, and a collection of drawings. His gift eventually amounted to 140 items, including paintings, decorative arts, ceramics and furniture from his London residence, these form the core of the Mackelvie Trust Collection which is shared between the Auckland City Art Gallery, the Public Library and the Auckland Museum. Mackelvie's will stipulated a separate gallery to display his bequest, this was not popular with the city authorities but a special room was dedicated to the collection in 1893 and eventually the top lit Mackelvie Gallery was built in 1916. The Mackelvie Trust continues to purchase art works to add to the collection which now includes significant 20th-century bronzes by Archipenko, Bourdelle, Epstein, Moore and Elisabeth Frink.
Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko was a Ukrainian-born American avant-garde artist, sculptor, and graphic artist.
Antoine Bourdelle, born Émile Antoine Bordelles, was an influential and prolific French sculptor and teacher. He was a student of Auguste Rodin, a teacher of Giacometti and Henri Matisse, and an important figure in the Art Deco movement and the transition from the Beaux-Arts style to modern sculpture.
Sir Jacob Epstein was an American-British sculptor who helped pioneer modern sculpture. He was born in the United States, and moved to Europe in 1902, becoming a British subject in 1911. He often produced controversial works which challenged ideas on what was appropriate subject matter for public artworks. He also made paintings and drawings, and often exhibited his work.
The Auckland Gallery collection was initially dominated by European old master paintings following the standard taste of the 19th century. Today the collection has expanded to include a wider variety of periods, styles and media, and numbers over 15,000 artworks.Many New Zealand and Pacific artists are represented, as well as Europe and material from the Middle Ages to the present day. Notable New Zealand artists with extensive representation include Gretchen Albrecht, Marti Friedlander, C.F. Goldie, Alfred Henry O'Keeffe, Frances Hodgkins, Gottfried Lindauer and Colin McCahon. Some of these works were donated by the artists themselves.
In 1915 a collection of paintings of Māori by Gottfried Lindauer was donated to the Gallery by Henry Partridge, an Auckland businessman. He made the gift on the proviso that the people of Auckland raise 10,000 pounds for the Belgium Relief Fund. The money was raised within a few weeks.
Another major benefactor was Lucy Carrington Wertheim. Miss Wertheim was an art gallery owner in London and through her support of expatriate artist Frances Hodgkins bestowed on the Auckland Art Gallery a representative collection of British paintings from the interwar period. Her gifts in 1948 and 1950 totalled 154 works by modern British artists, including Christopher Wood, Frances Hodgkins, Phelan Gibb, R. O. Dunlop and Alfred Wallis. The Wertheim collection was initially displayed in a separate room opened by the Mayor J. A. C. Allum on 2 December 1948.
In 1953 Rex Nan Kivell donated an important collection of prints, including work by George French Angas, Sydney Parkinson, Nicholas Chevalier, and Augustus Earle. The 1960s saw the arrival of the Watson Bequest, a collection of European medieval art. In 1967 the Spencer collection of early English and New Zealand watercolours was donated, this included early New Zealand views by John Gully, John Hoyt, and John Kinder. In 1982 on the death of Dr Walter Auburn, print collector and valued adviser to the Gallery's prints and drawings department, the Mackelvie Trust received his magnificent collection of over one and a half thousand prints, including work by Callot, Piranesi, della Bella and Hollar.
In 1952 Eric Westbrook was appointed as the first full-time director of the Art Gallery (previously the Head Librarian was formally in charge of both the Gallery and Library). He was succeeded in 1955 by Peter Tomory who stayed until 1965. Both men sought to revitalise the Gallery and introduce modern art to a largely conservative public in the face of resistance from a largely hostile City Council. The 1956 Spring Exhibition 'Object and Image' showed works by modern artists such as John Weeks, Louise Henderson, Milan Mrkusich, Colin McCahon, Kase Jackson and Ross Fraser. Other controversial exhibitions, including Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth, resulted in serious confrontation between the Council and Tomory, resulting in his resignation.
Tomory's intended purchase of Hepworth's Torso II in 1963 (likened by one councillor to 'the buttock of a dead cow') changed the climate of art and culture in New Zealand. Even the conservative NZ Herald pointed out to its readers, "It is no function of an Art Gallery to be stuffed with exhibits which everyone can comprehend." The bronze statue was privately bought by local businessman George Wooler and anonymously donated to the Gallery.
In 1988, Christopher Johnstone succeeded Rodney Wilson as director. During his 8 years as director major exhibitions included Pablo Picasso: The artist before nature (1989), Rembrandt to Renoir, which attracted a record attendance for an exhibition charge exhibition of 210,000 (1993) and, in 1995, a programme marking the centennial of the artist's visit to the gallery, including the exhibition Paul Gauguin: Pages from the Pacific and a major book: Gauguin and Maori Art. Other achievements during his incumbency were the funding and development of the New Gallery for contemporary art, which opened in 1995, the establishment of Haerewa, the Maori Advisory Group and a significant range of acquisitions for the collection and the Mackelvie Trust including works by including works by Vanessa Bell, John Nash, John Tunnard, Anish Kapoor, Jesus Rafael Soto and Ed Ruscha.
In 2009, it was announced that American investor Julian Robertson would donate art valued at $115 million to the Auckland Art Gallery. The donation included works by Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Piet Mondrian, Salvador Dali, Georges Braque, Andre Derain, Fernand Leger, Pierre Bonnard and Henri Fantin-Latour and was the largest of its kind in Australasia. Following the donation, the Kitchener Street rooms were named the Julian and Josie Robertson Galleries.
On 4 April 2012, it was announced that the Auckland Art Gallery would join the Google Art project. 'It is a fantastic opportunity to share with the rest of the world some of the best of our New Zealand and international collection,' said RFA Gallery Director Chris Saines.'People can learn about and enjoy New Zealand art up close even when they are on the other side of the planet.' Auckland Art Gallery has contributed 85 artworks to the project: 56 are from its New Zealand Pacific collection and 29 by international artists. The Gallery's two Senior Curators, Ron Brownson (New Zealand and Pacific Art) and Mary Kisler (Mackelvie Collection, International Art), selected the works. Examples of New Zealand art now available via Google Art Project include Colin McCahon's On Building Bridges (1952) and paintings by Dunedin-born Frances Hodgkins.
The main gallery building was originally designed by Melbourne architects Grainger & D'Ebro to house not only the art gallery but also the City Council offices, lecture theatre and public library. It is constructed of brick and plaster in an early French Renaissance style and was completed in 1887, with an extension built in 1916.It is three storeys high, with an attic in the steep pitched roofs, and a six-storey clock tower. The building was registered as a Category I heritage item by Heritage New Zealand on 24 November 1983, listed with registration number 92.
The new building eventually proved too small to house all the Council departments and overflow space in the Customs House in Customs Street was found to be necessary. Following the completion of the Auckland Town Hall in 1911 all Council departments left the Gallery building allowing expansion of Gallery facilities, including extra workshop space for art classes. Several artists maintained studio space in the complex during the period just after the war; the weaver Ilse von Randow utilised the clock tower rooms and created onsite the Art Gallery Ceremonial curtains, executed as part of the 1950s modernisation. In 1969 the art classes and studios were relocated to Ponsonby where a decommissioned Police Station by John Campbell at 1 Ponsonby Road was relaunched as 'Artstation' which continues the gallery outreach programmes.
From 1969 to 1971 the building underwent remodelling and a new wing and sculpture garden were added. This was the result of the lavish Philip Edmiston bequest which had been announced in 1946, which had stipulated the building of a new gallery. In 1971 the Public library was moved to the new Auckland Public Library building by Ewen Wainscott in nearby Lorne Street.[ citation needed ]
In the late 2000s, a major extension was mooted, which caused substantial criticism from some quarters due to its cost, design and the fact that land from Albert Park would be required for the extension. In late 2007, the Gallery closed for extensive renovations, and re-opened on 3 September 2011. During this time of closure, temporary exhibitions were held at the NEW Gallery on the corner of Wellesley and Lorne Streets. The new renovation and expansion of the Gallery creates at least 50 per cent additional display space. In 2008, Council decided to go ahead with the extension, which finished in 2011 for a total of NZ$113 million, of which Auckland City Council contributed just under NZ$50 million.
The expansion design by Australian architecture firm FJMT in partnership with Auckland-based Archimedia,increased exhibition space by 50%, for up to 900 artworks, and provided dedicated education, child and family spaces. As part of the upgrade, existing parts of the structure were renovated and restored to its 1916 state - amongst other things ensuring that the 17 different floor levels in the building were reduced to just 6. The redevelopment has to date received 17 architectural and 6 design-related awards, including the World Architecture Festival's 2013 World Building of the Year.
One of the sealed entrances to the Albert Park tunnels can be found behind the Art Gallery on Wellesley Street.
Although founded in 1888, the Gallery did not employ a professional director until the appointment of Englishman Eric Westbrook in 1952.
Colin John McCahon was a prominent New Zealand artist whose work over forty-five years consisted of various styles including landscape, figuration, abstraction and the overlay of painted text. Along with Toss Woollaston and Rita Angus, McCahon is credited with introducing modernism to New Zealand in the mid twentieth century. He is regarded as New Zealand's most important modern artist, particularly in his landscape work.
Frances Mary Hodgkins was a painter chiefly of landscape and still life, and for a short period was a designer of textiles. She was born and raised in New Zealand, but spent most of her working life in England. She is considered one of New Zealand's most prestigious and influential painters, although it is the work from her life in Europe, rather than her home country, on which her reputation rests.
George O'Brien (1821–1888) was an engineer of aristocratic background who turned to art in 19th century Australasia, dying in poverty but leaving a body of remarkable work.
Girolamo Pieri Pecci Ballati Nerli, known more commonly as Girolamo Nerli was an Italian painter who worked and travelled in Australia and New Zealand in the late 19th century influencing Charles Conder and Frances Hodgkins and helping to move Australian and New Zealand art in new directions. His portrait of Robert Louis Stevenson in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery Edinburgh, is usually considered the most searching portrayal of the writer.
Shane William Cotton is a New Zealand painter whose work explores biculturalism, colonialism, cultural identity, Maori spirituality, and life and death.
Dame Louise Etiennette Sidonie Henderson was a New Zealand artist and painter.
George Baloghy is a prominent New Zealand artist. He is a painter, preferring to paint with oil on canvas.
Hamish Henry Cordy Keith is a New Zealand writer, art curator, arts consultant and social commentator.
Towner Art Gallery is located in Eastbourne, East Sussex, on the south coast of England.
Doris More Lusk was a New Zealand artist and art teacher, potter, university lecturer. In 1990 she was posthumously awarded the Governor General Art Award in recognition of her artistic career and contributions.
Fiona Dorothy Pardington is a New Zealand artist, her principal medium being photography.
James Tannock Mackelvie (1824–1885) was a New Zealand philanthropist who donated a substantial art collection to the Auckland Art Gallery.
Joanna Margaret Paul was a New Zealand visual artist, poet and film-maker.
Sylvia Grace Siddell, Lady Siddell was a New Zealand painter, etcher, and screen-printer, based in Auckland.
Jean Alice Horsley was a New Zealand artist. Her work is held in the permanent collection of the Auckland City Art Gallery.
Avril Elizabeth Zanders, generally known as Beth Zanders, was a New Zealand artist.
Mary McIntyre is a New Zealand artist. Her works are included in major art collections in New Zealand and Australia.
Lois Rayma McIvor was a New Zealand artist.
Margot Leonie Luise Philips was a New Zealand painter. Her artworks are held in the collections of Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki and the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.