Augsburg

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Augsburg
Ougschburg (Swabian)
Augsburg - Markt.jpg
Maximilianmuseum.jpg
Fugger Fuggerei-Markuskirche+Herrengasse.jpg
Der Hohe Dom zu AugsburgDSC 2136.jpg
Schaezlerpalais Augsburg.jpg
St-ulrich-aus-der-luft.JPG
Flag of Augsburg.svg
DEU Augsburg COA.svg
Location of Augsburg
Augsburg
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Augsburg
Bavaria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Augsburg
Coordinates: 48°22′08″N10°53′52″E / 48.36889°N 10.89778°E / 48.36889; 10.89778
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Swabia
District Urban district
Government
   Lord mayor (202026) Eva Weber [1] (CSU)
Area
   City 146.84 km2 (56.70 sq mi)
Elevation
494 m (1,621 ft)
Population
 (2022-12-31) [2]
   City 301,033
  Density2,100/km2 (5,300/sq mi)
   Metro
885,000
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
86150–86199
Dialling codes 0821
Vehicle registration A
Website www.augsburg.de

Augsburg ( UK: /ˈɡzbɜːrɡ/ OWGZ-burg, [3] US: /ˈɔːɡz-/ AWGZ-, [4] German: [ˈaʊksbʊʁk] ; Swabian German : Ougschburg) is a city in the Bavarian part of Swabia, Germany, around 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of the Bavarian capital Munich. It is a university town and the regional seat of the Regierungsbezirk Swabia with a well preserved Altstadt (historical city centre). Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is the third-largest city in Bavaria (after Munich and Nuremberg), with a population of 304,000 [5] and 885,000 in its metropolitan area. [6]

Contents

After Neuss, Trier, Worms, Cologne and Xanten, Augsburg is one of Germany's oldest cities, founded in 15 BC by the Romans as Augusta Vindelicorum and named after the Roman emperor Augustus. It was a Free Imperial City from 1276 to 1803 and the home of the patrician Fugger and Welser families that dominated European banking in the 16th century. According to Behringer, in the sixteenth century it became "the dominant centre of early capitalism", having benefited from being part of the Kaiserliche Reichspost system as "the location of the most important post office within the Holy Roman Empire" and the city's close connection to Maximilian I. [7] The city played a leading role in the Reformation as the site of the 1530 Augsburg Confession and the 1555 Peace of Augsburg. The Fuggerei, the oldest social housing complex in the world, was founded in 1513 by Jakob Fugger.

In 2019 UNESCO recognised the Water Management System of Augsburg as a World Heritage Site because of its unique medieval canals and water towers and its testimony to the development of hydraulic engineering. [8]

Geography

Augsburg lies at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach and on the Singold. The oldest part of the city and the southern quarters are on the northern foothills of a high terrace, which has emerged between the steep rim of the hills of Friedberg in the east and the high hills of the west. In the south extends the Lechfeld, an outwash plain of the post ice age between the rivers Lech and Wertach, where rare primeval landscapes were preserved. The Augsburg city forest and the Lech valley heaths today rank among the most species-rich middle European habitats. [9]

Augsburg borders the nature park Augsburg Western Woods - a large forestland. The city itself is also heavily verdant. As a result, in 1997 Augsburg was the first German city to win the Europe-wide contest Entente Florale for Europe's greenest and most livable city.

Augsburg-Pan.jpg
View of Augsburg, from the west

Suburbs and neighbouring municipalities

Augsburg is surrounded by the counties Landkreis Augsburg in the west and Aichach-Friedberg in the east.

The suburbs of Augsburg are Friedberg, Königsbrunn, Stadtbergen, Neusäß, Gersthofen, Diedorf.

Neighbouring municipalities: Rehling, Affing, Kissing, Mering, Merching, Bobingen, Gessertshausen.

History

Silver coin: 1 conventionsthaler Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1765 1 conventionsthaler Francis I - 1765.png
Silver coin: 1 conventionsthaler Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1765

Early history

Panorama of Augsburg, 1493 Nuremberg chronicles - Augusta vendilicorum.png
Panorama of Augsburg, 1493
Perlach market place in 1550 Augsburg1550.jpg
Perlach market place in 1550

The city of Augsburg was founded in 15 BC on the orders of Emperor Augustus. [10] Emperor Augustus conducted extensive military campaigns and established administrative settlements. The Roman colony that became Augsburg was known as Augusta Vindelicorum, meaning "the Augustan city of the Vindelici". [11] The settlement was established at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach. In 120 AD Augsburg became the administrative capital of the Roman province of Raetia. [12] Augsburg was sacked by the Huns in the fifth century AD, by Charlemagne in the eighth century and by Welf I, Duke of Bavaria in the 11th century.[ citation needed ]

Augsburg Confession

Augsburg was granted the status of a Free Imperial City on 9 March 1276 and from then until 1803, it was independent of its former overlord, the Prince-Bishop of Augsburg. Frictions between the city-state and the prince-bishops were to remain frequent however, particularly after Augsburg became Protestant and curtailed the rights and freedoms of Catholics. With its strategic location at an intersection of trade routes to Italy, the Free Imperial City of Augsburg became a major trading centre.[ citation needed ]

Augsburg produced large quantities of woven goods, cloth and textiles. Augsburg became the base of two banking families that rose to great prominence, the Fuggers and the Welsers. The Fugger family donated the Fuggerei part of the city devoted to housing for needy citizens in 1516, which remains in use today. [13]

In 1530, the Augsburg Confession was presented to the Holy Roman Emperor at the Diet of Augsburg. Following the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, after which the rights of religious minorities in imperial cities were to be legally protected, a mixed Catholic–Protestant city council presided over a majority Protestant population; see Paritätische Reichsstadt . [14]

Leading European centre of capitalism of the sixteenth century

A "bird's-eye view" plan of western Augsburg, 1521 Seld Joerg Vogelschauplan von Westen Augsburg.jpeg
A "bird’s-eye view" plan of western Augsburg, 1521

Augsburg's economic boom years occurred during the 15th and 16th centuries thanks to the bank and metal businesses of the merchant families Fugger, Welser and Hochstetter. These families held a near total monopoly in important industries. Monopolies were considered criminal in contemporary laws and these families' practices were criticised by Martin Luther himself, but as Emperor Charles V needed their financial assistance, he cancelled the charge in the 1530s. [15] [16] In the 16th century Augsburg became one of Germany's largest cities. Augsburg was a major manufacturing centre for textiles, armor, scientific instruments, as well as gold- and silver-smithing. The prolific printers of Augsburg also made the city the largest producer of German-language books in the Holy Roman Empire. Like other free imperial cities, Augsburg was an independent entity, and had authority over its tax policies. [17]

Augsburg's wealth attracted artists seeking patrons. The city rapidly became a creative centre for sculptors and musicians. Augsburg became the base of the Holbein family, starting with Hans Holbein the Elder. The composer Leopold Mozart was born and educated in Augsburg. [18] Rococo became so prevalent that it became known as "Augsburg style" throughout Germany.[ citation needed ]

Augsburg benefitted majorly from the establishment and expansion of the Kaiserliche Reichspost in the late 15th and early 16th century. This postal system, which was the first modern postal service in the world, was created through negotiations and agreements between the Taxis family represented by Franz von Taxis  [ de ] and the early Habsburgs monarches, notably Maximilian I, his son Philip the Handsome and grandson Charles V. [19] [20] Even when the Habsburg empire began to extend to other parts of Europe, Maximilian's loyalty to Augsburg, where he conducted a lot of his endeavours, meant that the imperial city became "the dominant centre of early capitalism" of the sixteenth century, and "the location of the most important post office within the Holy Roman Empire". From Maximilian's time, as the "terminuses of the first transcontinental post lines" began to shift from Innsbruck to Venice and from Brussels to Antwerp, in these cities, the communication system and the news market started to converge. As the Fuggers as well as other trading companies based their most important branches in these cities, these traders gained access to these systems as well (despite a widely circulated theory which holds that the Fuggers themselves operated their own communication system, in reality they relied upon the imperial posts, presumably from the 1490s onwards, as official members of the court of Maximilian I). [21]

Witch hunts

Several witch hunts occurred in Augsburg in the late 16th century. Following the 1585–1588 plague epidemic, southeast Germany was shattered by the 1589–1591 witch hunts. Following the 1592–1593 plague epidemic, cities in southeast Germany entered a period of inflation, marked by brutal witch hunts in urban areas. [22]

Thirty Years' War

Religious peace in the city was largely maintained despite increasing tensions up to the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). In 1629, the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution, which restored the legal situation of 1552. However, the edict was revoked in April 1632, when Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden occupied Augsburg.[ citation needed ]

In 1634, the Swedish army was defeated at the nearby Battle of Nördlingen. By October 1634, Catholic troops had surrounded Augsburg. The Swedish army refused to surrender and a siege ensued through the winter of 1634/35 and thousands died from hunger and disease. During the Swedish occupation and the siege by Catholic troops, the population of the city was reduced from about 70,000 to about 16,000. Diseases such as typhus and the plague ravaged the city. [23]

Guilds

In the first half of the 17th century Augsburg was pivotal in the European network of goldsmiths. Augsburg attracted goldsmith journeymen from all over Europe and in the 18th century a large number of silversmiths and goldsmiths became master craftsman in Augsburg. [24]

Nine Years' War

In 1686 the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I formed the League of Augsburg, also known as the "Grand Alliance" after England joined in 1689. The coalition consisted at various times of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Electorate of the Palatinate, Portugal, Savoy, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic. The coalition was formed to defend the Electorate of the Palatinate and fought against France in the Nine Years' War.[ citation needed ]

End of Free Imperial City status

Early 18th century map of Augsburg and surrounding area Augsburg map 1705-1720.png
Early 18th century map of Augsburg and surrounding area
A map of Augsburg in 1800 Stockdale 1800 - Augsburg.jpeg
A map of Augsburg in 1800

The Reichsdeputationshauptschluss or the Final Recess of 1803, saw the annexation of nearly all of the 51 Free Imperial Cities, excepting Augsburg and five others. However, when the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, Napoleon encouraged his German allies to annex their smaller neighbours, and Augsburg lost its independence. It was annexed to the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1817, the city became an administrative capital of the Oberdonaukreis, then administrative capital in 1837 for the district Swabia and Neuburg.[ citation needed ]

Industrial revolution

During the end of the 19th century, Augsburg's textile industry again rose to prominence followed by the machine manufacturing industry.[ citation needed ]

Second World War and Cold War

Augsburg was historically a militarily important city due to its strategic location. During the German re-armament before the Second World War, the Wehrmacht enlarged Augsburg's one original Kaserne (barracks) to three: Somme Kaserne (housing Wehrmacht Artillerie-Regiment 27); Arras Kaserne (housing Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 27) and Panzerjäger Kaserne (housing Panzerabwehr-Abteilung 27 (later Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27)). Wehrmacht Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27 was later moved to Füssen.

A Polish woman weeps as she tells American soldiers of her life as a slave labourer for the Nazis. She was liberated in Augsburg when the third-largest Bavarian city fell to the Americans (23 April 1945). A-Polish-woman-weeps-as-she-tells-her-story-to-US-troops-142365089506.jpg
A Polish woman weeps as she tells American soldiers of her life as a slave labourer for the Nazis. She was liberated in Augsburg when the third-largest Bavarian city fell to the Americans (23 April 1945).

The MAN factory at Augsburg was the largest German manufacturer of engines for U-boats in World War II and became the target of the Augsburg Raid. When the Avro Lancaster bomber was new in service, the RAF sent 12 at low level to bomb the factory in daylight, on 17 April 1942. The bombers were intercepted en route and only five returned, all damaged. The factory was damaged but production continued; the factory was repeatedly bombed later. A subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp outside Augsburg supplied approximately 1,300 forced labourers to local military-related industry, especially the Messerschmitt AG military aircraft firm, headquartered in Augsburg. [25] [26]

In 1941 Rudolf Hess, without Adolf Hitler's permission, secretly took off from a local Augsburg airport and flew to Scotland, crashing in Eaglesham, to the south of Glasgow. His objective was to meet the Duke of Hamilton in an attempt to mediate the end of the European front of World War II and join sides for the upcoming Russian Campaign.

The Reichswehr Infanterie Regiment 19 was stationed in Augsburg and became the base unit for the Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 40, a subsection of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27 (which later became the Wehrmacht Panzerdivision 17). Elements of Wehrmacht II Battalion of Gebirgs-Jäger-Regiment 99 (especially Wehrmacht Panzerjäger Kompanie 14) was composed of parts of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27. The Infanterie Regiment 40 remained in Augsburg until the end of the war, finally surrendering to the United States on 28 April 1945 when the U.S. Army occupied the city. The city and its Messerschmitt works were bombed on three occasions during the war. Collateral damage included the destruction of just under 25% of all homes in the city and the deaths of several hundred people. [27]

Following the war the three Kasernen changed hands confusingly between the American and Germans, finally ending up in US hands for the duration of the Cold War. They became the three main US barracks in Augsburg: Reese, Sheridan and FLAK. US Base FLAK had been an anti-aircraft barracks since 1936 and US Base Sheridan 'united' the former infantry barracks with a smaller Kaserne for former Luftwaffe communications units.

The American military presence in the city started with the U.S. 5th Infantry Division stationed at FLAK Kaserne from 1945 to 1955, then by 11th Airborne Division, followed by the 24th Infantry Division, U.S. Army VII Corps artillery, USASA Field Station Augsburg and finally the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade, which returned the former Kaserne to German hands in 1998. Originally the Heeresverpflegungshauptamt Südbayern and an Officers' caisson existed on or near the location of Reese-Kaserne but was demolished by the occupying Americans.

Politics

Municipality

From 1266 until 1548, the terms Stadtpfleger (head of town council) and Mayor were used interchangeably, or occasionally, simultaneously. In 1548 the title was finally fixed to Stadtpfleger, who officiated for several years and was then awarded the title for life (though no longer governing), thus resulting confusingly, in records of two or more simultaneous Stadtpfleger.

After the transfer to Bavaria in 1806, Augsburg was ruled by a Magistrate with two mayors, supported by an additional council of "Community Commissioners": the Gemeindebevollmächtige.

As of 1907, the Mayor was entitled Oberbürgermeister, as Augsburg had reached a population of 100,000, as per the Bavarian Gemeindeordnung.

Mayor

The mayor of Augsburg has been Eva Weber of the Christian Social Union (CSU) since 2020. The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 March 2020, with a runoff held on 29 March, and the results were as follows:

CandidatePartyFirst roundSecond round
Votes %Votes %
Eva Weber Christian Social Union 41,53443.163,76262.3
Dirk Wurm Social Democratic Party 18,11618.838,53237.7
Martina Wild Alliance 90/The Greens 17,85118.5
Andreas Jurca Alternative for Germany 4,6734.8
Peter Hummel Free Voters of Bavaria 3,0533.2
Frederik Hintermayr The Left 2,5642.7
Lisa McQueen Die PARTEI 1,8962.0
Bruno MarconAugsburg in the Citizens' Hands1,4781.5
Anna TabakWe are Augsburg1,2611.3
Lars Vollmar Free Democratic Party 1,2491.3
Christian Pettinger Ecological Democratic Party 1,1831.2
Claudia EberlePro Augsburg9411.0
Florian Betz V-Partei³ 6780.7
Valid votes96,47799.4102,29499.4
Invalid votes5780.66610.6
Total97,055100.0102,955100.0
Electorate/voter turnout214,11045.3213,98248.1
Source: City of Augsburg (first round, second round)

City council

Results of the 2020 city council election 2020 Augsburg City Council election.svg
Results of the 2020 city council election

The Augsburg city council governs the city alongside the Mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 15 March 2020, and the results were as follows:

PartyVotes %+/-Seats+/-
Christian Social Union (CSU)1,653,78132.3Decrease2.svg 5.420Decrease2.svg 3
Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)1,198,09023.4Increase2.svg 11.014Increase2.svg 7
Social Democratic Party (SPD)734,06614.3Decrease2.svg 8.19Decrease2.svg 4
Alternative for Germany (AfD)337,8346.6Increase2.svg 0.74±0
Free Voters of Bavaria (FW)230,9524.5Increase2.svg 0.93Increase2.svg 1
The Left (Die Linke)189,0343.7Increase2.svg 0.52±0
Free Democratic Party (FDP)117,2012.3Increase2.svg 0.71±0
Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP)114,1192.2Increase2.svg 0.31±0
Generation AUX (GenAUX)108,9562.1New1New
Augsburg in the Citizens' Hands (AiB)96,6901.9New1New
Pro Augsburg (PRO A)94,3461.8Decrease2.svg 3.31Decrease2.svg 2
We are Augsburg (WSA)77,1891.5New1New
Die PARTEI 76,5571.5New1New
V-Partei³ 69,6431.4New1New
Political Voters' Association/Democracy in Motion (Polit-WG/DiB)29,1490.6Decrease2.svg 2.50Decrease2.svg 1
Total5,127,607100.0
Invalid votes2,0792.1
Total97,013100.060±0
Electorate/voter turnout214,11045.3Increase2.svg 4.1
Source: City of Augsburg

Members of the Bundestag

Augsburg is located in the Wahlkreis 253 Augsburg-Stadt constituency, which includes Königsbrunn and parts of the District of Augsburg (Landkreis Augsburg).

Volker Ullrich of the CSU was directly elected to the Bundestag in the 18th German Bundestag.

Indirectly elected to the Bundestag to adhere to the Landesliste were Ulrike Bahr for the SPD and Claudia Roth for Bündnis 90/Die Grünen. [28]

Climate

Augsburg has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) or, following the 0 °C isotherm, a humid continental climate (Dfb).

Climate data for Augsburg (1991–2020 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)3.0
(37.4)
4.8
(40.6)
9.5
(49.1)
14.5
(58.1)
18.8
(65.8)
22.2
(72.0)
24.2
(75.6)
24.1
(75.4)
19.1
(66.4)
13.6
(56.5)
7.1
(44.8)
3.7
(38.7)
13.7
(56.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−0.1
(31.8)
0.7
(33.3)
4.4
(39.9)
8.8
(47.8)
13.2
(55.8)
16.6
(61.9)
18.3
(64.9)
18.0
(64.4)
13.4
(56.1)
8.9
(48.0)
3.9
(39.0)
0.8
(33.4)
8.9
(48.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)−3.2
(26.2)
−3.2
(26.2)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.8
(37.0)
7.2
(45.0)
10.7
(51.3)
12.2
(54.0)
11.9
(53.4)
8.0
(46.4)
4.6
(40.3)
0.7
(33.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
4.1
(39.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)45.1
(1.78)
34.1
(1.34)
47.3
(1.86)
45.8
(1.80)
84.8
(3.34)
92.0
(3.62)
94.3
(3.71)
91.8
(3.61)
61.9
(2.44)
52.9
(2.08)
50.2
(1.98)
49.7
(1.96)
749.4
(29.50)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)14.914.214.812.414.716.015.414.213.214.314.416.8175.3
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm)10.810.13.70.3000000.12.77.438.1
Average relative humidity (%)86.282.578.072.572.973.873.474.981.185.589.288.279.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.888.1138.3186.4211.9228.0243.8230.2162.8106.655.954.11,768.5
Source: NOAA [29]

Main sights

Augsburg Town Hall and Perlachturm (left) Augsburg - Markt.jpg
Augsburg Town Hall and Perlachturm (left)
The Fuggerei Herrengasse, Fuggerei, Augsburg.jpg
The Fuggerei
Fugger's City Palace Augsburg Fuggerhaeuser Stadtpalast.jpg
Fugger's City Palace

Water Management System

Water Management System in Meitingen Kraftwerk Meitingen01.JPG
Water Management System in Meitingen

The water systems of Augsburg have been the site of innovations in hydraulic engineering for centuries. [31] Augsburg was built on top of an aquifer fed by the Lech and Wertach rivers, which provided purified groundwater that ran through the city through springs and streams. [32] The canals channelling this water through the city were first mentioned in 1276, and by 1416 waterworks, pumps and water towers were added to distribute this water effectively. [32] In 1545 Augsburg was one of the first European towns to separate drinking water from water used for industry, effectively preventing water-borne diseases. [8] The pumps and waterwheels also generated power for fountains and food processing, such as a 17th-century butcher's hall that still stands today. [32] In the 19th and 20th centuries hydroelectic power plants were also installed. These power plants were some of the first in the world to generate electricity from water and they are still in use today. [32] On 6 July 2019 the Water Management System of Augsburg was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [33]

Incorporations

YearMunicipalityArea
1 July 1910Meringerau9.5 km2
1 January 1911 Pfersee 3.5 km2
1 January 1911 Oberhausen 8.6 km2
1 January 1913Lechhausen27.9 km2
1 January 1913 Hochzoll 4.4 km2
1 April 1916Kriegshaber59 km2
1 July 1972 Göggingen
1 July 1972 Haunstetten
1 July 1972 Inningen

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
163516,432    
164519,960+21.5%
180626,200+31.3%
183029,019+10.8%
187151,220+76.5%
189075,629+47.7%
190089,109+17.8%
1910102,487+15.0%
1916146,226+42.7%
1925165,522+13.2%
1933176,575+6.7%
1939185,369+5.0%
1945146,416−21.0%
1950185,183+26.5%
1961208,659+12.7%
1970211,566+1.4%
1975252,000+19.1%
1980246,600−2.1%
1985244,200−1.0%
1990256,877+5.2%
1995259,699+1.1%
2000254,982−1.8%
2005262,676+3.0%
2010264,708+0.8%
2015281,111+6.2%
2019296,582+5.5%
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions.

Augsburg has a population of about 300,000. It is the third largest city in Bavaria and the largest city in the Swabia region. In the 16th century, Augsburg was one of the largest cities in Holy Roman Empire, with a population of about 30,000. This put it on a level with cities like Cologne and Prague. Augsburg passed 100,000 residents in 1909 and the population has grown steadily since then.

Largest groups of foreign residents [34]
NationalityPopulation (31 December 2022)
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 11,701
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 7,242
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 5,382
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 4,280
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 4,123
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 2,581
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 2,332
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 2,249
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 2,169
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 2,107
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,823
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 1,650

Twin towns – sister cities

Augsburg is twinned with: [35]

Transport

Roads

The main road link is autobahn A 8 between Munich and Stuttgart.

Public transport

Public transport is very well catered for. It is controlled by the Augsburger Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund (Augsburg transport and tariff association, AVV) extended over central Swabia. There are seven rail Regionalbahn lines, five tram lines, 27 city bus lines and six night bus lines, as well as several taxi companies.

The Augsburg tramway network is now 35.5 km-long after the opening of new lines to the university in 1996, the northern city boundary in 2001 and to the Klinikum Augsburg (Augsburg hospital) in 2002. Tram line 6, which runs 5.2 km from Friedberg West to Hauptbahnhof (Central Station), opened in December 2010. [36]

Intercity bus

There is one station for intercity bus services in Augsburg: Augsburg Nord, located in the north of the city. [37]

Railway

The front of the station Bahnhofsgebaude Augsburg.JPG
The front of the station

Augsburg has seven stations, the Central Station (Hauptbahnhof), Hochzoll, Oberhausen, Haunstetterstraße, Morellstraße, Messe and Inningen. The Central Station, built from 1843 to 1846, is Germany's oldest main station in a large city still providing services in the original building. It is currently being modernised and an underground tram station is built underneath it. Hauptbahnhof is on the Munich–Augsburg and Ulm–Augsburg lines and is connected by ICE and IC services to Munich, Berlin, Dortmund, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Stuttgart. As of December 2007, the French TGV connected Augsburg with a direct High Speed Connection to Paris. In addition EC and night train services connect to Amsterdam, Paris and Vienna and connections will be substantially improved by the creation of the planned Magistrale for Europe.

The AVV operates seven Regionalbahn lines from the main station to:

Starting in 2008, the regional services are planned to be altered to S-Bahn frequencies and developed long term as integrated into the Augsburg S-Bahn.

Air transport

Until 2005 Augsburg was served by nearby Augsburg Airport (AGB). In that year all air passenger transport was relocated to Munich Airport. Since then, the airport is used almost entirely by business airplanes. [38]

Economy

Statue of Archangel Michael in Augsburg Erzengel-Michael-Augsburg-1.jpg
Statue of Archangel Michael in Augsburg
KUKA's industrial robots Industrial robots-transparent.gif
KUKA's industrial robots

Augsburg is a vibrant industrial city. Many global market leaders namely MAN, EADS or KUKA produce high technology products like printing systems, large diesel engines, industrial robots or components for the Airbus A380 and the Ariane carrier rocket. After Munich, Augsburg is considered the high-tech centre for Information and Communication in Bavaria and takes advantage of its lower operating costs, yet close proximity to Munich and potential customers. In 2018 the Bavarian State Government recognised this fact and promoted Augsburg to Metropole. [39]

Major companies

Education

Augsburg is home to the following universities and colleges:

Media

The local newspaper is the Augsburger Allgemeine first published in 1807.[ citation needed ]

Notable people

Saint Afra Heilige Afra.jpg
Saint Afra
Holbein's house Holbeinhaus Augsburg.jpg
Holbein's house
Guilehelmus Xylander, 1669 Guilehelmus Xylander 1669.jpg
Guilehelmus Xylander, 1669
Rudolf Diesel, c. 1900 Rudolf Diesel2.jpg
Rudolf Diesel, c.1900
Bertolt Brecht, 1954 Bertolt-Brecht.jpg
Bertolt Brecht, 1954

Sport

Helmut Haller, 1969 1969 Juventus FC - Helmut Haller.jpg
Helmut Haller, 1969

Sports

FC Augsburg against Borussia Dortmund in the Bundesliga at the SGL arena in November 2012 Borussia dortmund augsburg.jpg
FC Augsburg against Borussia Dortmund in the Bundesliga at the SGL arena in November 2012

FC Augsburg is a football team based in Augsburg and plays in the WWK ARENA to the south of the city centre. FC Augsburg secured promotion to Bundesliga in 2011 and have remained there ever since, qualifying for the Europa League for the first time in 2015 and securing mid-table finishes across the last few seasons. The club, nicknamed the Fuggerstädter or simply as FCA, reached the last 32 in the 2015–16 Europa League with a 1–0 aggregate defeat to Liverpool. The WWK ARENA, nicknamed the "Anfield of the B17 Highway" following the Liverpool UEL match, opened in July 2009 and also hosted games of the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. The 30,660 capacity arena is easily accessible from the city centre or the adjacent B17 dual carriageway.

The city is home to a DEL (first-division) ice hockey team, the Augsburger Panther. The original club, AEV, was formed in 1878, the oldest German ice sport club and regularly draws around 4,000 spectators, quite reasonable for German ice hockey. Home games are played at the Curt Frenzel Stadion: a recently rebuilt (2012–2013) indoor rink and modern stadium and the club reached the 2018/19 DEL semi finals, eventually losing in the winner-takes-all game 7 to EHC Red Bull München (4–3 series defeat). Consequently, the Panthers qualified for the Champions Hockey League. Augsburg is also home to one of the most traditional German Baseball clubs, the Augsburg Gators and 2 American Football Clubs, the Raptors and Augsburg Storm, and in nearby Königsbrunn there is the Königsbrunn Ants.

For the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, a protective diversion channel of the Lech dam for river ice was transformed into the world's first artificial whitewater slalom course: the Eiskanal, which remains a world-class competition venue and has served as a prototype for two dozen similar courses abroad.

Local city nicknames

While commonly called Fuggerstadt (Fuggers' city) due to the Fuggers residing there, within Swabia it is also often referred to as Datschiburg: which originated sometime in the 19th century refers to Augsburg's favorite sweet: the Datschi made from fruit, preferably prunes, and thin cake dough. [54] The Datschiburger Kickers charity football team (founded in 1965) reflects this in its choice of team name. [55] [56]

Among younger people, the city is commonly called "Aux" for short. [ citation needed ]

See also

Notes

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  2. Genesis Online-Datenbank des Bayerischen Landesamtes für Statistik Tabelle 12411-003r Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes: Gemeinden, Stichtag (Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011)
  3. "Augsburg". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020.
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  5. Koristka, Thomas (22 February 2023). "Neuer Einwohnerrekord: Augsburg reißt (wieder) die 300.000er-Marke". Hallo Augsburg (in German). Archived from the original on 15 March 2024. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  6. "Und-wieder-5000-Menschen-mehr-Augsburg-waechst-und-waechst". www.augsburger-allgemeine.de. 17 February 2015. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  7. Behringer 2011, p. 350.
  8. 1 2 "Water Management System of Augsburg". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  9. John G. Kelcey; Norbert Müller (7 June 2011). Plants and Habitats of European Cities. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN   978-0-387-89684-7. Archived from the original on 15 March 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  10. Jecmen, Gregory; Spira, Freyda (2012). Imperial Augsburg: Renaissance Prints and Drawings, 1475-1540. National Gallery of Art (U.S.). p. 25. ISBN   9781848221222.
  11. Tore Janson (2007). A Natural History of Latin. OUP Oxford. p. 169. ISBN   9780191622656.
  12. Jecmen, Gregory; Spira, Freyda (2012). Imperial Augsburg: Renaissance Prints and Drawings, 1475-1540. National Gallery of Art (U.S.). p. 25. ISBN   9781848221222.
  13. "After Almost 500 Years, the World's Oldest Social Housing Complex is Still Going Strong". Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  14. Mark, Joshua J. (26 January 2022). "Augsburg Confession". World History Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 26 April 2023. Retrieved 26 April 2023.
  15. Luther, Martin (15 September 2015). On Commerce and Usury (1524). Anthem Press. p. 146. ISBN   978-1-78308-387-9. Archived from the original on 15 March 2024. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  16. studio, Istituto internazionale di storia economica F. Datini Settimana di (1999). Poteri economici e poteri politici secc. XIII-XVIII: atti della "trentesima Settimana di studi," 27 aprile-1 maggio 1998. Le Monnier. p. 56. ISBN   978-88-00-72230-8. Archived from the original on 15 March 2024. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
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  18. "Leopold Mozart: Biography & History". allmusic.com. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  19. Metzig, Gregor (21 November 2016). Kommunikation und Konfrontation: Diplomatie und Gesandtschaftswesen Kaiser Maximilians I. (1486–1519) (in German). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. pp. 98, 99. ISBN   978-3-11-045673-8. Archived from the original on 2 July 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  20. Meinel, Christoph; Sack, Harald (2014). Digital Communication: Communication, Multimedia, Security. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 31. ISBN   9783642543319. Archived from the original on 26 September 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  21. Behringer, Wolfgang (2011). "Core and Periphery: The Holy Roman Empire as a Communication(s) Universe". The Holy Roman Empire, 1495-1806 (PDF). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 347–358. ISBN   9780199602971. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  22. Behringer, Wolfgang (2003). Witchcraft Persecutions in Bavaria: Popular Magic, Religious Zealotry and Reason of State in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 95. ISBN   9780521525107.
  23. Hays, J. N. (2005). Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history. ABC-CLIO. p. 98]. ISBN   1851096582.
  24. Prak, Maarten; Epstein, S. R. (2008). Guilds, Innovation and the European Economy, 1400–1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 123. ISBN   9781139471077.
  25. Wolfgang Sofsky, William Templer, The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp: Princeton University Press: 1999, ISBN   0-691-00685-7, page 183
  26. Edward Victor. Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps. "List of Camps". Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
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  30. "Römisches Museum". kunstsammlungen-museen.augsburg.de. 2023. Archived from the original on 1 March 2023. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
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  39. "Verordnung zur Änderung der Verordnung über das Landesentwicklungsprogramm Bayern" (PDF). Bayerisches Staatsministerium der Finanzen, für Landesentwicklung und Heimat. 21 February 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
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  43. "Holbein, Hans, the elder"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 13 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 577–578.
  44. "Peutinger Konrad"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 21 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 338.
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  47. Crowe, Joseph Archer (1911). "Holbein, Hans, the younger"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 13 (11th ed.). pp. 578–580.
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  50. "Schürer, Emil"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 24 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 386.
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  54. Augsburger Stadtlexikon – Datschiburg Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in German) accessed: 18 November 2008
  55. Datschiburger Kickers website Archived 6 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine accessed: 18 November 2008
  56. Augsburger Stadtlexikon – Datschiburger Kickers Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in German) accessed: 18 November 2008

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References

Bibliography