Auguste Charlois

Last updated
Minor planets discovered: 99 [1]
see § List of discovered minor planets
Auguste Charlois
La Cadiere-d'Azur 26.jpg
Birthplace,
3 Avenue Marx Dormoy,
La Cadière-d'Azur [2] [3]
Born(1864-11-26)November 26, 1864
DiedMarch 26, 1910(1910-03-26) (aged 45)
Nationality French
OccupationAstronomer
Awards Prix Jules Janssen
Valz Prize

Auguste Honoré Charlois (November 26, 1864 – March 26, 1910) was a French astronomer who discovered 99 asteroids while working at the Nice Observatory in southeastern France. [1] [4] [5]

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Astronomer Scientist who studies celestial bodies

An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, planets, moons, comets, and galaxies – in either observational or theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers study include planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. Related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology, which studies the Universe as a whole.

Asteroid Minor planet that is not a comet

Asteroids are minor planets, especially of the inner Solar System. Larger asteroids have also been called planetoids. These terms have historically been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun that did not resemble a planet-like disc and was not observed to have characteristics of an active comet such as a tail. As minor planets in the outer Solar System were discovered they were typically found to have volatile-rich surfaces similar to comets. As a result, they were often distinguished from objects found in the main asteroid belt. In this article, the term "asteroid" refers to the minor planets of the inner Solar System including those co-orbital with Jupiter.

Contents

Asteroid Discovery

His first discovery was the asteroid 267 Tirza in 1887. [6] He photographed 433 Eros on the very night of its discovery by Gustav Witt, but was not able to act quickly enough before Witt announced his find. [7]

Tirza is a fairly sizeable, very dark Main belt asteroid.

433 Eros near-Earth asteroid

Eros, provisional designation 1898 DQ, is a stony and elongated asteroid of the Amor group and the first discovered and second-largest near-Earth object with a mean-diameter of approximately 16.8 kilometers. Visited by the NEAR Shoemaker space probe in 1998, it became the first asteroid ever studied from orbit.

Although he started searching for asteroids in the era of visual detection, by 1891 Max Wolf had pioneered the use of astrophotography to drastically speed up the rate of detection of asteroids, and both Wolf and Charlois separately discovered far more asteroids than would have been feasible by visual detection. [4] In 1899, Charlois received the Prix Jules Janssen, the highest award of the Société astronomique de France, the French astronomical society, and was also awarded the Valz Prize by the French Academy of Sciences in 1889 for his work on calculating asteroid orbits. [8]

Max Wolf German astronomer

Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius "Max" Wolf was a German astronomer and a pioneer in the field of astrophotography. He was chairman of astronomy at the University of Heidelberg and director of the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory from 1902 until his death.

Astrophotography specialized type of photography for recording images of astronomical objects and large areas of the night sky

Astrophotography is photography of astronomical objects, celestial events, and areas of the night sky. The first photograph of an astronomical object was taken in 1840, but it was not until the late 19th century that advances in technology allowed for detailed stellar photography. Besides being able to record the details of extended objects such as the Moon, Sun, and planets, astrophotography has the ability to image objects invisible to the human eye such as dim stars, nebulae, and galaxies. This is done by long time exposure since both film and digital cameras can accumulate and sum light photons over these long periods of time.

The Société astronomique de France (SAF), the French astronomical society, is a non-profit association in the public interest organized under French law. Founded by astronomer Camille Flammarion in 1887, its purpose is to promote the development and practice of astronomy.

Murder

At the age of 46, he was murdered by Gabriel Brengues, the brother of his first wife, Jeanne Charlois and husband to the sister (Therese) of his second wife, Marie Brengues, over an inheritance by the death of Jeanne (née Brengues). The man was found guilty and given a life sentence of hard labor in New Caledonia. [9]

New Caledonia Overseas territory of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean

New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, located to the south of Vanuatu, about 1,210 km (750 mi) east of Australia and 20,000 km (12,000 mi) from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, and a few remote islets. The Chesterfield Islands are in the Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as Le Caillou.

Memorial

The asteroid 1510 Charlois, discovered by André Patry at Nice Observatory in 1939, was named in his honour. [4]

1510 Charlois, provisional designation 1939 DC, is a carbonaceous Eunomia asteroid from the middle region of the asteroid belt, approximately 24 kilometers in diameter.

André Patry was a French astronomer and discoverer of 9 minor planets in the late 1930s.

List of discovered minor planets

267 Tirza May 27, 1887
272 Antonia February 4, 1888
277 Elvira May 3, 1888
282 Clorinde January 28, 1889
283 Emma February 8, 1889
284 Amalia May 29, 1889
285 Regina August 3, 1889
289 Nenetta March 10, 1890
293 Brasilia May 20, 1890
294 Felicia July 15, 1890
296 Phaëtusa August 19, 1890
297 Caecilia September 9, 1890
298 Baptistina September 9, 1890
300 Geraldina October 3, 1890
302 Clarissa November 14, 1890
305 Gordonia February 16, 1891
307 Nike March 5, 1891
310 Margarita May 16, 1891
311 Claudia June 11, 1891
312 Pierretta August 28, 1891
314 Rosalia September 1, 1891
316 Goberta September 8, 1891
317 Roxane September 11, 1891
318 Magdalena September 24, 1891
319 Leona October 8, 1891
327 Columbia March 22, 1892
331 Etheridgea April 1, 1892
336 Lacadiera September 19, 1892
337 Devosa September 22, 1892
338 Budrosa September 25, 1892
344 Desiderata November 15, 1892
345 Tercidina November 23, 1892
346 Hermentaria November 25, 1892
347 Pariana November 28, 1892
348 May November 28, 1892
349 Dembowska December 9, 1892
350 Ornamenta December 14, 1892
354 Eleonora January 17, 1893
355 Gabriella January 20, 1893
356 Liguria January 21, 1893
357 Ninina February 11, 1893
358 Apollonia March 8, 1893
359 Georgia March 10, 1893
360 Carlova March 11, 1893
361 Bononia March 11, 1893
362 Havnia March 12, 1893
363 Padua March 17, 1893
364 Isara March 19, 1893
365 Corduba March 21, 1893
366 Vincentina March 21, 1893
367 Amicitia May 19, 1893
368 Haidea May 19, 1893
370 Modestia July 14, 1893
371 Bohemia July 16, 1893
372 Palma August 19, 1893
373 Melusina September 15, 1893
374 Burgundia September 18, 1893
375 Ursula September 18, 1893
376 Geometria September 18, 1893
377 Campania September 20, 1893
378 Holmia December 6, 1893
379 Huenna January 8, 1894
380 Fiducia January 8, 1894
381 Myrrha January 10, 1894
382 Dodona January 29, 1894
383 Janina January 29, 1894
388 Charybdis March 7, 1894
389 Industria March 8, 1894
395 Delia November 30, 1894
396 Aeolia December 1, 1894
397 Vienna December 19, 1894
398 Admete December 28, 1894
400 Ducrosa March 15, 1895
402 Chloë March 21, 1895
403 Cyane May 18, 1895
404 Arsinoë June 20, 1895
405 Thia July 23, 1895
406 Erna August 22, 1895
409 Aspasia December 9, 1895
410 Chloris January 7, 1896
411 Xanthe January 7, 1896
414 Liriope January 16, 1896
416 Vaticana May 4, 1896
423 Diotima December 7, 1896
424 Gratia December 31, 1896
425 Cornelia December 28, 1896
426 Hippo August 25, 1897
427 Galene August 27, 1897
429 Lotis November 23, 1897
430 Hybris December 18, 1897
431 Nephele December 18, 1897
432 Pythia December 18, 1897
437 Rhodia July 16, 1898
438 Zeuxo November 8, 1898
441 Bathilde December 8, 1898
451 Patientia December 4, 1899
453 Tea February 22, 1900
498 Tokio December 2, 1902
537 Pauly July 7, 1904

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References

  1. 1 2 "Minor Planet Discoverers (by number)". Minor Planet Center. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  2. martan. "Var (83) - Guide National des Maisons Natales". over-blog.com. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  3. https://www.google.com/maps/place/3+Avenue+Marx+Dormoy,+83740+La+Cadière-d'Azur,+France/
  4. 1 2 3 Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1510) Charlois". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1510) Charlois. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 120. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1511. ISBN   978-3-540-00238-3.
  5. Godillon, D. (1968). "Initiation élémentaire à l'astronomie : IX. Les astéroïdes". L'Astronomie. 82: 359–363. Bibcode:1968LAstr..82..359G.
  6. "267 Tirza". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  7. Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(433) Eros". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (433) Eros. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 50. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_434. ISBN   978-3-540-00238-3.
  8. "Charlois, l'astronome assassiné". wordpress.com. 20 March 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2019.