The Duke of Grafton
Portrait by Pompeo Batoni (1762)
|Prime Minister of Great Britain|
14 October 1768 –28 January 1770
|Preceded by||The Earl of Chatham|
|Succeeded by||Lord North|
|Born||28 September 1735|
|Died||14 March 1811 75) (aged|
Euston Hall, Suffolk
|Resting place||St Genevieve Churchyard, Euston, Suffolk|
|Children||12, including |
George FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton
Lord William FitzRoy
Lord John FitzRoy
|Parents|| Lord Augustus FitzRoy |
|Alma mater||Peterhouse, Cambridge|
Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, KG , PC (28 September 1735 –14 March 1811), styled Earl of Euston between 1747 and 1757, was a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era. He is one of a handful of dukes who have served as Prime Minister.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.
The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to c. 1830–37, named after the Hanoverian kings George I, George II, George III and George IV. The sub-period that is the Regency era is defined by the regency of George IV as Prince of Wales during the illness of his father George III. The definition of the Georgian era is often extended to include the relatively short reign of William IV, which ended with his death in 1837.
He became Prime Minister in 1768 at the age of 33, leading the supporters of William Pitt, and was the youngest person to have held the office until the appointment of William Pitt the Younger 15 years later. However, he struggled to demonstrate an ability to counter increasing challenges to Britain's global dominance following the nation's victory in the Seven Years' War. He was widely attacked for allowing France to annex Corsica, and stepped down in 1770, handing over power to Lord North.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, was a British statesman of the Whig group who served twice as Prime Minister of Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century. Historians call him Pitt of Chatham, or William Pitt the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, William Pitt the Younger, who also was a prime minister. Pitt was also known as The Great Commoner, because of his long-standing refusal to accept a title until 1766.
William Pitt the Younger was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. He became the youngest UK Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24. He left office in 1801, but served as Prime Minister again from 1804 until his death in 1806. He was Chancellor of the Exchequer for most of his time as Prime Minister. He is known as "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father, William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, called William Pitt the Elder or simply "Chatham", who had previously served as Prime Minister.
Great Britain was one of the major participants in the Seven Years' War which lasted between 1754 and 1763, although warfare in the European Theatre involving countries other than Britain and France only commenced in 1756. Britain emerged from the war as the world's leading colonial power, having gained a number of new territories at the Treaty of Paris in 1763 and established itself as the world's pre-eminent naval power.
He was a son of Lord Augustus FitzRoy, a Captain in the Royal Navy,and Elizabeth Cosby, daughter of Colonel William Cosby, who served as a colonial Governor of New York. His father was the third son of the 2nd Duke of Grafton and Lady Henrietta Somerset, which made FitzRoy a great-grandson of both the 1st Duke of Grafton and the Marquess of Worcester. He was notably a fourth-generation descendant of King Charles II and the 1st Duchess of Cleveland; the surname FitzRoy stems from this illegitimacy. His younger brother was the 1st Baron Southampton. From the death of his uncle in 1747, he was styled Earl of Euston as his grandfather's heir apparent.
Lord Augustus FitzRoy was a British officer of the Royal Navy. He served during the War of the Austrian Succession, and was involved in the capture of the Spanish ship of the line, Princesa, a major prize in the war. He was also the father of Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, who became Prime Minister of Great Britain.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.
Brigadier-General William Cosby (1690–1736) was an Irish soldier who served as the British royal governor of New York from 1732 to 1736.
Lord Euston was educated at Newcome's School in Hackney and at Westminster School, made the Grand Tour, and obtained a degree at Peterhouse, University of Cambridge.
Newcome's School was a fashionable school in Hackney, then to the east of London, founded in the early 18th century. A number of prominent Whig families sent their children there. The school closed in 1815, and the buildings were gutted in 1820. In 1825 the London Orphan Asylum opened on the site. Today the Clapton Girls' Academy is located here.
Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, England, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey. With origins before the 12th century, the educational tradition of Westminster probably dates back as far as 960, in line with the Abbey's history. Boys are admitted to the Under School at age seven and to the senior school at age thirteen; girls are admitted at age sixteen into the Sixth Form. The school has around 750 pupils; around a quarter are boarders, most of whom go home at weekends, after Saturday morning school. The school motto, Dat Deus Incrementum, is taken from the New Testament, specifically 1 Corinthians 3:6.
The "Grand Tour" was the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank when they had come of age. Young women of equally sufficient means ("debutantes"), or those of either gender of a more humble origin who could find a sponsor, could also partake. The custom—which flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transport in the 1840s and was associated with a standard itinerary—served as an educational rite of passage. Though the Grand Tour was primarily associated with the British nobility and wealthy landed gentry, similar trips were made by wealthy young men of other Protestant Northern European nations, and, from the second half of the 18th century, by some South and North Americans. By the mid 18th century, the Grand Tour had become a regular feature of aristocratic education in Central Europe, as well, although it was restricted to the higher nobility. The tradition declined as enthusiasm for neo-classical culture waned, and with the advent of accessible rail and steamship travel—an era in which Thomas Cook made the "Cook's Tour" of early mass tourism a byword.
In 1756, he entered Parliament as MP for Boroughbridge, a pocket borough; several months later, he switched constituencies to Bury St Edmunds, which was controlled by his family. However, a year later, his grandfather died and he succeeded as 3rd Duke of Grafton, which elevated him to the House of Lords.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolved the separate English and Scottish parliaments in favour of a single parliament, located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801.
Boroughbridge was a parliamentary borough in Yorkshire from 1553 until 1832, when it was abolished under the Great Reform Act. Throughout its existence it was represented by two Members of Parliament in the House of Commons.
Bury St Edmunds, commonly referred to locally as Bury, is a historic market town and civil parish in Suffolk, England. Bury St Edmunds Abbey is near the town centre. Bury is the seat of the Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich of the Church of England, with the episcopal see at St Edmundsbury Cathedral.
He first became known in politics as an opponent of Lord Bute,a favourite of King George III. Grafton aligned himself with the Duke of Newcastle against Lord Bute, whose term as Prime Minister was short-lived largely because it was felt that the peace terms to which he had agreed at the Treaty of Paris were not a sufficient return for Britain's performance in the Seven Years' War.
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, was a British nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1762 to 1763 under George III. He was arguably the last important favourite in British politics. He was the first Prime Minister from Scotland following the Acts of Union in 1707 and the first Tory to have held the post. He was also elected as the first President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland when it was founded in 1780.
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.
Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. He is commonly known as the Duke of Newcastle.
In 1765, Grafton was appointed a Privy Counsellor; then, following discussions with William Pitt the Elder, he was appointed Northern Secretary in Lord Rockingham's first government. However, he retired the following year, and Pitt (by then Lord Chatham) formed a ministry in which Grafton was First Lord of the Treasury but not Prime Minister.
Chatham's illness, at the end of 1767, resulted in Grafton becoming the Government's effective leader (he is credited with entering the office of Prime Minister in 1768), but political differences, the impact of the Corsican Crisis and the attacks of "Junius" led to his resignation in January 1770. Also, in 1768, Grafton became Chancellor of Cambridge University.He became Lord Privy Seal in Lord North's ministry (1771) but resigned in 1775, being in favour of conciliatory action towards the American colonists. In the second Rockingham ministry of 1782, he was again Lord Privy Seal.
In later years he was a prominent Unitarian, being one of the early members of the inaugural Essex Street Chapel under Rev. Theophilus Lindsey when founded in 1774. Grafton had associated with a number of liberal Anglican theologians when at Cambridge, devoted much time to theological study and writing after leaving office as Prime Minister. In 1773 in the House of Lords he supported a bill to release Anglican clergy from subscribing to all the Thirty-nine Articles. He became an advocate of moral reformation among the upper classes and of liturgical reform. He was author of:
He was a sponsor of Richard Watson's Consideration of the Expediency of Revising the Liturgy and Article of the Church of England (published 1790) and he funded the printing of 700 copies of Griesbach's edition of the Greek New Testament in 1796.
The Duke also had horse racing interests. His racing silks were sky blue, with a black cap.
Grafton County, New Hampshire,in the United States, is named in his honour, as are the towns of Grafton, New South Wales, Australia, the town of Grafton, New York, the unincorporated community of Grafton, Virginia, and possibly the township (since 1856 a city) of Grafton, West Virginia. The Grafton Centre Shopping Mall in Cambridge is also named after him, and indeed lies on Fitzroy Street. Cape Grafton in Far North Queensland was named after him by Lieutenant James Cook during his first voyage of discovery.
Grafton had the longest post-premiership of any prime minister in British history, totalling 41 years and 45 days.
On 29 January 1756, he married The Hon. Anne Liddell, daughter of Henry Liddell, 4th Baronet Ravensworth (1708–1784). They had three children:
In 1764, the Duke had a very public affair with the courtesan Nancy Parsons [ page needed ] Three months later, on 24 June 1769, the Duke married Elizabeth Wrottesley (1 November 1745 –25 May 1822), daughter of the Reverend Sir Richard Wrottesley, Dean of Worcester. They had the following children:whom he kept at his town house and took to the opera. This brazen lack of convention offended society's standards. After the Duchess had become pregnant by her lover, the Earl of Upper Ossory, she and the Duke were divorced by Act of Parliament, passed 23 March 1769.
Grafton was thus the first British Prime Minister, before Sir Anthony Eden,to be divorced and the second, after Sir Robert Walpole, to marry while in office.
|Portfolio||Minister||Took office||Left office||Party|
|First Lord of the Treasury||The Duke of Grafton *||14 October 1768||28 January 1770||Whig|
|Lord Chancellor||The Lord Camden||30 July 1766||17 January 1770||Whig|
|Charles Yorke||17 January 1770||20 January 1770||Independent|
|Lord President of the Council||The Earl Gower||22 December 1767||24 November 1779||Tory|
|Lord Privy Seal||The Earl of Bristol||1768||1770||Independent|
|Lord North||11 September 1767||27 March 1782||Tory|
|Secretary of State for the Northern Department||The Viscount Weymouth||20 January 1768||21 October 1768||Tory|
|The Earl of Rochford||21 October 1768||19 December 1770||Independent|
|Secretary of State for the Southern Department||The Earl of Shelburne||30 July 1766||20 October 1768||Whig|
|The Viscount Weymouth||21 October 1768||12 December 1770||Whig|
|Secretary of State for the Colonies||The Earl of Hillsborough||27 February 1768||27 August 1772||Independent|
|First Lord of the Admiralty||Sir Edward Hawke||1766||1771||Independent|
|Master-General of the Ordnance||The Marquess of Granby||14 May 1763||18 October 1770||Independent|
|Minister without Portfolio||Henry Seymour Conway||1768||1770||Whig|
The Earl of Sandwich
| Secretary of State for the Northern Department |
Henry Seymour Conway
The Marquess of Rockingham
| First Lord of the Treasury |
| Leader of the House of Lords |
The Viscount Weymouth
The Earl of Chatham
| Prime Minister of Great Britain |
14 October 1768 –28 January 1770
The Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire
| Lord Privy Seal |
The Earl of Dartmouth
The Earl of Dartmouth
| Lord Privy Seal |
The Earl of Carlisle
|Parliament of Great Britain|
Sir Cecil Bisshopp, Bt
| Member of Parliament for Boroughbridge |
Served alongside: Sir Cecil Bisshopp, Bt
Sir Cecil Bisshopp, Bt
| Member of Parliament for Bury St Edmunds |
Served alongside: Felton Hervey
The Duke of Grafton
| Lord Lieutenant of Suffolk |
The Lord Maynard
The Viscount Maynard
| Lord Lieutenant of Suffolk |
Earl of Euston
| Oldest living Prime Minister of Great Britain |
| Acts of Union 1800 merged|
Great Britain and Ireland
to form the United Kingdom
|New title|| Oldest living Prime Minister of the United Kingdom |
The Viscount Sidmouth
The Duke of Newcastle
| Chancellor of the University of Cambridge |
The Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
|Peerage of England|
| Duke of Grafton |
Duke of Grafton is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1675 by Charles II of England for Henry FitzRoy, his second illegitimate son by the Duchess of Cleveland. The most famous duke was probably Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, who served as Prime Minister in the 1760s.
Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, was an Irish and English politician.
Fitzroy or FitzRoy is an Anglo-Norman name originally meaning "son of the king". In several cases, this surname was used by an illegitimate son of a king and is still borne by their descendants. It may refer to:
Hugh Denis Charles FitzRoy, 11th Duke of Grafton was the son of Charles FitzRoy, 10th Duke of Grafton, and his first wife Lady Doreen Maria Josepha Sydney Buxton, second daughter of Sydney Buxton, 1st Earl Buxton. He was known from 1936 to 1970 as the Earl of Euston.
George Henry FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton, KG, styled Earl of Euston until 1811, was a British peer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1782 to 1811 when he succeeded to the Dukedom.
Henry FitzRoy, 5th Duke of Grafton, styled Viscount Ipswich until 1811 and Earl of Euston between 1811 and 1844, was a British peer and politician.
Augustus Charles Lennox FitzRoy, 7th Duke of Grafton, styled Lord Augustus FitzRoy before 1882, was the second son of Henry FitzRoy, 5th Duke of Grafton and his wife, Mary Caroline, daughter of Admiral the Hon. Sir George Cranfield-Berkeley.
Alfred William Maitland FitzRoy, 8th Duke of Grafton, styled Lord Alfred FitzRoy between 1882 and 1912 and Earl of Euston between 1912 and 1918, was the second son of Augustus FitzRoy, 7th Duke of Grafton and his wife Anna Balfour, daughter of James Balfour (-1845) and aunt of Arthur Balfour. His elder brother and heir to the dukedom Henry James FitzRoy, Earl of Euston died in 1912, before their father's death.
Charles Alfred Euston FitzRoy, 10th Duke of Grafton, known as Charles FitzRoy until 1936, was a British aristocrat, soldier, politician, and farmer.
Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy was a British military officer, politician and member of the aristocracy, who held governorships in several British colonies during the 19th century.
Ann Fortune FitzRoy, Dowager Duchess of Grafton,, is the widow of Hugh FitzRoy, 11th Duke of Grafton. She has been Mistress of the Robes since 1967.
This is a list of people who have served as Lord-Lieutenant of Suffolk. Since 1642, all Lord Lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of Suffolk.
James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl WaldegraveKG PC FRS was a British statesman.
John FitzPatrick, 2nd Earl of Upper Ossory FRS DL, styled 'Lord Gowran' from 1751 to 1758, was an Irish peer and member of parliament.
General Lord Charles FitzRoy was a British Army officer and politician.
Lord John Edward FitzRoy, was a British politician.
George FitzRoy, Earl of Euston (1715–1747) was an English aristocrat and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1737 to 1747. He was disowned by his father for his brutal treatment of his wife and tenants.
Anne Maynard or Anne, Viscountess Maynard; Anne Parsons; Nancy Parsons; Nancy Maynard; Mrs Horton was a Kingdom of Great Britain successful courtesan and political mistress. She was de facto first lady, entertaining guests for her lover, the First Minister.
Anne FitzPatrick, Countess of Upper Ossory was an English noblewoman and the first wife of Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton. Grafton divorced her while serving as Prime Minister. She was a noted correspondent of Horace Walpole.
Charlotte Fitzroy, Countess of Euston, formerly Lady Charlotte Maria Waldegrave, was the wife of George FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton. Although she is sometimes referred to as "Duchess of Grafton", her husband did not inherit the dukedom until 1811, after his wife's death.