Augustus III of Poland

Last updated

Augustus III
Louis de Silvestre - Portrait of Augustus III of Poland (after 1733) - Google Art Project.jpg
Portrait by Louis de Silvestre
King of Poland
Grand Duke of Lithuania
Reign5 October 1733 – 5 October 1763
Coronation 17 January 1734
Wawel Cathedral, Kraków
Predecessor Stanisław I
Successor Stanisław II Augustus
Elector of Saxony
Reign1 February 1733 – 5 October 1763
Predecessor Frederick Augustus I
Successor Frederick Christian
Born17 October 1696
Dresden, Electorate of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire
Died5 October 1763(1763-10-05) (aged 66)
Dresden, Electorate of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire
(m. 1719;died 1757)
Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony
Maria Amalia, Queen of Spain
Maria Anna, Electress of Bavaria
Prince Francis Xavier of Saxony
Maria Josepha, Dauphine of France
Charles, Duke of Courland
Maria Christina, Abbess of Remiremont
Princess Maria Elisabeth
Albert Casimir, Duke of Teschen
Clemens Wenceslaus, Archbishop-Elector of Trier
Maria Kunigunde, Abbess of Essen
House Wettin
Father Augustus II of Poland
Mother Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Religion Roman Catholic (since 1712)
Lutheran (until 1712)
Signature Augustus III signature.svg

Augustus III (Polish : August III Sas, Lithuanian : Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1733 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (German: Friedrich August II).


He was the only legitimate son of Augustus II the Strong, and converted to Roman Catholicism in 1712 to secure his candidacy for the Polish throne. In 1719 he married Maria Josepha, daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, and became elector of Saxony following his father's death in 1733. Augustus was able to gain the support of Charles VI by agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and also gained recognition from Russian Empress Anna by supporting Russia's claim to the region of Courland. He was elected king of Poland by a small minority on 5 October 1733 and subsequently banished the former Polish king Stanisław I. He was crowned in Kraków on 17 January 1734. [1]

Augustus was supportive of Austria against Prussia in the War of Austrian Succession and again in the Seven Years' War (1756), both of which resulted in Saxony being defeated and occupied by Prussia. In Poland, his rule was marked by the increasing influence of the Czartoryski and Poniatowski families, and by the intervention of Catherine the Great in Polish affairs. His rule deepened the social anarchy in Poland and increased the country's dependence on its neighbours, notably Prussia, Austria, and Russia. The Russian Empire prevented him from installing his family on the Polish throne, supporting instead the aristocrat Stanisław August Poniatowski, the lover of Catherine the Great. Throughout his reign, Augustus was known to be more interested in ease and pleasure than in the affairs of state; this notable patron of the arts left the administration of Saxony and Poland to his chief adviser, Heinrich von Brühl, who in turn left Polish administration chiefly to the powerful Czartoryski family.

Royal titles

Royal titles in Latin : Augustus tertius, Dei gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniæ, Russiæ, Prussiæ, Masoviæ, Samogitiæ, Kijoviæ, Volhiniæ, Podoliæ, Podlachiæ, Livoniæ, Smolensciæ, Severiæ, Czerniechoviæque, nec non-hæreditarius dux Saxoniæ et princeps elector etc.

English translation: August III, by the grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlachia, Livonia, Smolensk, Severia, Chernihiv, and also hereditary Duke of Saxony and Prince-Elector, etc.


Augustus, aged 19 years in 1715 by Nicolas de Largilliere Augustus III of Poland.jpg
Augustus, aged 19 years in 1715 by Nicolas de Largillière

Early life and education

Augustus was born 17 October 1696 in Dresden, the only legitimate son of Augustus II the Strong, Prince-Elector of Saxony and ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth who belonged to the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin. His mother was Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, daughter of Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. Unlike his father, Christiane remained a fervent Protestant throughout her life and never set foot in Catholic Poland during her 30-year service as queen consort. Despite the pressure from Augustus II, she was never crowned at Wawel in Kraków and purely held a titular title of queen. [2] This move was viewed by the Polish nobility as a provocation and from the beginning the prince was treated with prejudice in Poland.

Prince Frederick Augustus, by Louis de Silvestre, 1727 Portrait of King Augustus III of Poland.jpg
Prince Frederick Augustus, by Louis de Silvestre, 1727

From his early years, Augustus was groomed to succeed as king of Poland-Lithuania; best tutors were hired from across the continent and the prince studied Polish, German, French and Latin. [3] He was taught Russian, but was unable to speak it fluently, [4] as well as exact sciences including mathematics, chemistry and geography. [4] He also practiced equestrianism in his youth. [5] While his father spent time in Poland, the young Augustus was left in the care of his grandmother, Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark, who initially raised him Lutheran. [6] This was particularly unfavourable for the Poles, who wouldn't accept or tolerate a Protestant monarch. As a consequence, a troubled Augustus II organized a tour of Catholic countries in Europe for his son which he hoped would bring him closer to Catholicism and break the bond between him and his controlling grandmother. In Venice, the Polish entourage thwarted a kidnapping attempt organized by British agents of Queen Anne in order to prevent him from converting. [7] [8] He also witnessed the coronation of Charles VI in 1711 after the death of his brother and predecessor, Joseph I. [5]

Augustus eventually converted to Roman Catholicism in November 1712 while extensively touring Italy, and its cultural and religious heritage. [6] He was then under the supervision of the Jesuits, who certainly contributed to the cause. The public announcement of conversion in 1717 triggered discontent among the Protestant Saxon aristocracy. [6] [9] [10] Faced with a hereditary Catholic succession for Saxony, Prussia and Hanover attempted to oust Saxony from the directorship of the Protestant body in the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire, but Saxony managed to retain the directorship. [11]

Reception of Augustus at Versailles by Louis XIV, 1714 Louis XIV 1714.jpg
Reception of Augustus at Versailles by Louis XIV, 1714

On 26 September 1714, Augustus was warmly welcomed by Louis XIV of France at Versailles. Louis rejoiced when he heard that Augustus converted to Catholicism and permitted him to stay at the royal court and in Paris. The young prince participated in balls, masquerades and private parties that were hosted by the Sun King himself. [5] During this time, Augustus improved his knowledge of the French language and learnt how to approach politics and diplomacy. [5] In June 1715, he departed Versailles and travelled across France, visiting Bordeaux, Moissac, Toulouse, Carcassonne, Marseille and Lyon. [5] Apart from sightseeing, the purpose of this trip was to understand how cities and villages function. Being brought up in great wealth, Augustus was not entirely aware of how extensive poverty and poor living conditions could be in the countryside.

Marriage and wedding

Wedding reception of Augustus III and Maria Josepha at the Zwinger Palace in Dresden, 1719 ZwingerZurVermahlungFriedrichAugustII.jpg
Wedding reception of Augustus III and Maria Josepha at the Zwinger Palace in Dresden, 1719

On 20 August 1719, Augustus married Maria Josepha of Austria in Vienna. She was the daughter of the deceased Emperor Joseph I and niece of Charles VI of the Holy Roman Empire, whose coronation young Augustus attended. This marriage wasn't coincidental; Augustus II the Strong orchestrated it to maintain the position of the Saxons within the Holy Roman Empire. The alliance with Catholic Charles would prove fruitful in case of hostile or armed opposition from the Protestant states within the Empire. Ten days earlier, on 10 August 1719, Maria Josepha was forced to renounce her claim to the throne of Austria in favour of her uncle's daughter, Maria Theresa. In accordance with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 issued by Charles, a female heir or the eldest daughter would be permitted to inherit the throne of Austria. Augustus II also hoped to place Saxony in a better position should there arise a war of succession to the Austrian territories. [12]

Royal Monogram of King Augustus III of Poland. Royal Monogram of King Augustus III of Poland.svg
Royal Monogram of King Augustus III of Poland.

The wedding celebration in Dresden was one of the most splendorous and expensive of the Baroque era in Europe. [13] Over 800 guests were invited for a 2-week celebration. The main banquet was held in a chamber that was transformed into an artificial silver mine to astound the invitees. Apart from exotic dishes, over 500 deer were brought in from the Białowieża Forest for the feast. Approximately 4 million thalers were spent for this occasion. [13]


Coronation mantle of Augustus III, National Museum in Warsaw Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie Plaszcz koronacyjny Augusta III Sasa.JPG
Coronation mantle of Augustus III, National Museum in Warsaw

Augustus II died suddenly on 1 February 1733, following a Sejm (Polish parliament) session in Warsaw. Augustus III inherited the Saxon electorate without any problems, but his election to the Polish throne was much more complicated. Shortly before the ailing king died, Prussia, Austria and Russia signed a pact known as the Treaty of the Three Black Eagles, which would prevent Augustus III and Stanisław Leszczyński from inheriting the Polish throne. The royal elections in Poland and the elective monarchy, in general, weakened the country and allowed other powers to meddle in Polish affairs. The neighbouring countries that signed the treaty preferred a neutral monarch like Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém, brother of John V of Portugal, or any living relative of the Piast dynasty. The agreement had provisions for all three powers to agree that it was in their best interest that their common neighbour, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, did not undertake any reforms that might strengthen it and trigger expansionism. The new king would also have to maintain friendly relations with these countries.

The treaty quickly became ineffective as Prussia began to support Leszczyński and allowed him safe passage from France to Poland through German lands. As a result, Austria and Russia signed on 19 August 1733 the Löwenwolde's Treaty, named after Karl Gustav von Löwenwolde. The terms of Löwenwolde's Treaty were direct; Russia opted for a quid pro quo – they would provide troops to ensure Augustus III was elected king and in turn, Augustus would recognise Anna Ivanovna as Empress of Russia, thus relinquishing Polish claims to Livonia and Courland. [14] [15] Austria received a promise that as king, Augustus would both renounce any claim to the Austrian succession and continue respecting the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. [16]

War of the Polish Succession

Royal Polish Regalia of Augustus III, made around the time of the Succession War Koler Regalia of Augustus III of Poland 02.jpg
Royal Polish Regalia of Augustus III, made around the time of the Succession War

Augustus on his candidacy to the Polish throne was opposed by Stanisław I Leszczyński (Stanislaus I), who had usurped the throne with Swedish support during the Great Northern War. Reigning from 1706 until 1709, Stanisław was overthrown after the Swedish defeat at Poltava. Returning from exile in 1733 with the support of Louis XV of France and Spain, Stanisław sparked the War of the Polish Succession.

Throughout the spring and summer of 1733, France began mobilizing and stationing forces along its northern and eastern borders, while Austria massed troops on the Polish frontier, reducing garrisons in the Duchy of Milan for the purpose. Prince Eugene of Savoy recommended to the emperor a more warlike posture against its longtime rival, France. He suggested that the Rhine valley and northern Italy should be strengthened with more troops, however only minimal steps were taken to improve imperial defences on the Rhine. In July 1733, Augustus agreed to Austria's and Russia's terms per Löwenwolde's Treaty. During the election sejm in August, Russian troops counting 30,000 men under the command of Peter Lacy entered Poland to secure Augustus' succession. The election was de jure won by Stanisław, with 12,000 votes. Augustus received 3,000, however, he had the support of Poland's influential, wealthiest and most corrupt magnates, such as Michał Serwacy Wiśniowiecki.

The Franco-Spanish coalition declared war on Austria and Saxony on 10 October. The Italian states of Savoy-Sardinia and Parma also joined the struggle against Austrian rule in northern Italy. Most of the battles took place outside of Poland and the main focus of the war was personal interests and demonstration of superiority. The Russian-Saxon forces chased Stanisław until he was besieged at Gdańsk (Danzig) on 22 February 1734. In June, when the garrisons at Gdańsk surrendered, Stanisław fled to Königsberg and then back to France. The Pacification Sejm in 1736 de facto confirmed Augustus III as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

To this day, the aphorism and phrase od Sasa do Lasa (lit. from the Saxon to Leszczyński) exists in the Polish language and is used when describing two completely opposite things in everyday life. [17]

Reign and diplomacy


Count von Bruhl exhibiting his extravagant Meissen porcelain. Bruhl was the viceroy of Poland and headed the Saxon court CWA Seiler Count Bruhl Goat VA.jpg
Count von Brühl exhibiting his extravagant Meissen porcelain. Brühl was the viceroy of Poland and headed the Saxon court

As King, Augustus was uninterested in the affairs of his Polish–Lithuanian dominion, focusing instead on hunting, the opera, and the collection of artwork at the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. He spent less than three years of his thirty-year reign in Poland, where political feuding between the House of Czartoryski and the Potocki paralyzed the Sejm (Liberum veto), fostering internal political anarchy and weakening the Commonwealth. Augustus delegated most of his powers and responsibilities in the Commonwealth to Heinrich von Brühl, who served in effect as the viceroy of Poland. Brühl in turn left the politics in Poland to the most powerful magnates and nobles, which resulted in widespread corruption. [18] Under Augustus, Poland was not involved in any major conflicts which further lessened its position in Europe and allowed the neighbouring countries to take advantage of the disorder. Any opposition was violently crushed by Brühl, who used either Saxon or Russian forces that permanently stationed in the country. [18]

Brühl was a skillful diplomat and strategist; Augustus could only be reached through him if an important political feud arose. He was also the head of the Saxon court in Dresden and was fond of collectibles, such as gadgets, jewellery and Meissen porcelain, the most famous being the Swan Service composed of 2,200 individual pieces made between 1737 and 1741. [19] It has been described as possibly "the finest table service ever produced" and part of it are exhibited at the National Museum in Warsaw. [19] He also owned the largest collections of watches, vests, wigs and hats in Europe, though this cannot be accurately assessed. [20] [21] Brühl was depicted by his rivals as a nouveau-riche materialist, who used his wealth to gain support. His lavish spending was immortalized by Augustus' reported question to the viceroy "Brühl, do I have money?" [18]

By 1748 Augustus III completed extending the Saxon Palace in Warsaw and made significant contributions in remodelling the Royal Castle. In 1750, von Brühl purchased a residence adjacent to the larger Saxon Palace and transformed it into a rococo masterpiece, which later became known as the Brühl Palace. Both buildings were completely destroyed by the Nazis during World War II. [22]

War of the Austrian Succession

View of Dresden's Neumarkt in 1747, by Bernardo Bellotto Bernardo Bellotto, Neumarkt in Dresden, 1747.jpg
View of Dresden's Neumarkt in 1747, by Bernardo Bellotto

With the marriage to the Austrian princess Maria Josepha, Augustus was bound to accept the succession of her cousin, Maria Theresa, as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. Saxony mediated between the friendly French faction and the Habsburg faction of Maria Theresa. Between 1741 and 1742 Saxony was allied with France, but changed sides with the help of Austrian diplomats. [23]

In the first days of December 1740, the Prussians assembled along the Oder river and on 16 December, Frederick II invaded Silesia without a formal declaration of war. The Austrian troops which then stationed in Silesia were poorly supplied and outnumbered as the Habsburgs concentrated their supreme force on Hungary and Italy. They held onto the fortresses of Glogau, Breslau, and Brieg, but abandoned the rest of the region and withdrew into Moravia. This campaign gave Prussia control of most of the richest provinces in the Habsburg monarchy, with the commercial centre of Breslau as well as mining, weaving and dyeing industries. Silesia was also rich in natural resources such as coal, chalk, copper and gold.

Augustus III by Rotari, 1755 Pietro Antonio Rotari - King Augustus III of Poland - WGA20141.jpg
Augustus III by Rotari, 1755

Saxony joined Austria in the Second Silesian War, which erupted after Prussia proclaimed its support of Charles VII as Holy Roman Emperor and invaded Bohemia on 15 August 1744. The true cause behind the invasion was Frederick's personal expansionist ideas and goals. On 8 January 1745, the Treaty of Warsaw united Great Britain, the Habsburg monarchy, the Dutch Republic and Saxony into what became known as the "Quadruple Alliance", which was aimed at securing the Austrian throne for Maria Theresa. Soon-after Charles VII died of gout in Munich, which weakened the Prussians. However, Prussia still maintained military superiority; the successful battles of Hennersdorf and Kesselsdorf opened the way to Dresden, which Frederick occupied on 18 December. The Treaty of Dresden was eventually completed on Christmas Day (25 December) and Saxony was obliged to pay one million rixdollars in reparations to the Prussian state. The treaty ended the Second Silesian War with a status quo ante bellum .

Maria Theresa was finally recognized in her inheritance with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, which proved a Pyrrhic victory for Augustus III; the conflict nearly bankrupted Saxony. Meanwhile, the affairs in Poland remained highly neglected.

Seven Years' War

The Electorate of Saxony was involved in the Seven Years' War from 1756 to 1763. The Saxons were allied with Austria and Russia against Frederick the Great of Prussia, who saw Saxony as another potential field for expansion. Saxony was then merely a buffer zone between Prussia and Austrian Bohemia as well as Silesia, which Frederick attempted to annex in their entirety. Moreover, Saxony and Poland were separated by a strip of land in Silesia and Lusatia which made the movement of troops even more difficult. Frederick's plans also entailed annexing the Electorate of Hanover, but joining France would trigger an Austro-Russian attack and occupation. On 29 August 1756, the Prussian Army preemptively invaded Saxony, beginning the Third Silesian War, a theatre of the Seven Years' War. Saxony was bled dry and exploited at the maximum extent to support Prussia's war effort. The Treaty of Hubertusburg signed on 15 February 1763 ended the conflict with Frederick's victory and Saxony renounced its claim to Silesia.


In April 1763, Augustus returned ill and frail from Poland to Dresden with his closest advisors, leaving Primate Władysław Aleksander Łubieński behind to take care of the affairs in the Commonwealth. [24] He died suddenly on 5 October 1763 in Dresden from apoplexy (stroke). [24] Unlike his father who rests at Wawel in Kraków, Augustus III was buried at Dresden Cathedral and remains one of the few Polish monarchs who were buried outside of Poland.

Augustus's eldest surviving son, Frederick Christian, succeeded his father as elector but died two and a half months later.

In the Commonwealth, on 7 September 1764, with the small participation of the szlachta initiated by the Czartoryski's and the strong support of Russia, Stanisław August Poniatowski was elected king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Reigning under the name Stanisław II Augustus, Poniatowski was the son of the elder Stanisław Poniatowski, a powerful Polish noble and a onetime agent of Stanisław I; in youth he was a lover of Catherine II of Russia and as such enjoyed strong support from that Empress's court.


Patron of arts

Saxon Facade of the Royal Castle in Warsaw Poland-01104 - Castle Garden Side (30397740244).jpg
Saxon Facade of the Royal Castle in Warsaw

Augustus III was a great patron of the arts and architecture. During his reign the Baroque Catholic Church of the Royal Court in Dresden (present-day Dresden Cathedral) was built, in which he was later buried as one of the few Polish kings buried outside the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków. He greatly expanded the Dresden art gallery, to the extent that in 1747 it was placed in a new location at the present-day Johanneum, where it remained until 1855 when it was moved to the newly built Semper Gallery. In 1748 he founded the Opera House (Operalnia) in Warsaw and the Collegium medico-chirurgicum, the first medical school in Dresden. [25] During his reign, the extension of the Saxon Palace in Warsaw, begun by his father Augustus II, was completed, and the reconstruction of the eastern façade of the Royal Castle was ordered, thus creating the so-called Saxon Façade, an iconic part of the Vistula panorama of the Warsaw Old Town.

Meissen porcelain figure of King Augustus III Augustus III, Johann Joachim Kaendler, Meissen Porcelain Factory, c. 1753, hard-paste porcelain - Wadsworth Atheneum - Hartford, CT - DSC05283.jpg
Meissen porcelain figure of King Augustus III

In 1733, the composer Johann Sebastian Bach dedicated the Kyrie–Gloria Mass in B minor, BWV 232 I (early version), to Augustus in honor of his succession to the Saxon electorate, with the hope of appointment as Court Composer, a title Bach received three years later. [26] Bach's title of Koeniglicher Pohlnischer Hoff Compositeur (Royal Polish Court Composer, and court composer to the Elector of Saxony) is engraved on the title page of Bach's famous Goldberg Variations. Augustus III was also the patron of composer Johann Adolph Hasse, who was granted the title of the Royal-Polish and Electoral-Saxon Kapellmeister by his father, Augustus II, in 1731, [27] and thanks to Augustus III the same title was obtained in 1716 by composer Johann David Heinichen. [28]

Personal life and criticism

Donors to the General Hospital of Infant Jesus; Augustus III is in the top left corner, 18th-century depictions Portrety darczyncow Szpitala Dzieciatka Jezus.jpg
Donors to the General Hospital of Infant Jesus; Augustus III is in the top left corner, 18th-century depictions

In 1732, a French priest named Gabriel Piotr Baudouin founded the first orphanage in Poland, situated in Warsaw's Old Town. The facility was later moved to the nearby Warecki Square (now Warsaw Insurgents Square), and in 1758 Augustus III decreed that the new institution be called Szpital Generalny Dzieciątka Jezus (The General Hospital of Infant Jesus). The newly established hospital expanded its operations into treating not only orphans but also the sick and the poor. [29] Augustus remained a charitable man throughout his life and donated to the hospital. His successor, Stanisław Augustus, also contributed to the cause.

Despite his charitable manner, Augustus was viewed in Poland as an impotent monarch, obese, plump, ugly and lazy sybarite with no interest in the affairs of the state. [30] Such harsh critique and opinion continues to this day. On the other hand, historian Jacek Staszewski was able to find a description of Augustus' character in the Dresden archives in the late 1980s; he was considered an honest and affectionate man, who was widely respected during his reign by both the Saxons and the Poles. [30] In his personal life, Augustus was a devoted husband to Maria Josepha, with whom he had sixteen children. Unlike his father who was a notorious womanizer, he was never unfaithful and enjoyed spending time with his spouse, uncommon among the royalty in those days. [31] He also favoured hunting.


Augustus III was portrayed by Ernst Dernburg in the 1941 film Friedemann Bach .


On 20 August 1719, Augustus married Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria, the eldest child of Joseph I, the Holy Roman Emperor. They had sixteen children, but only fourteen or fifteen are recognized by historians: [9] [10]


See also

Notes and references

  1. "Augustus III | king of Poland and elector of Saxony". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. Clarissa Campbell Orr: Queenship in Europe 1660–1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge University Press (2004)
  3. Jacek Staszewski, August III Sas, Wrocław, 2010, p. 27–29, 70 (in Polish)
  4. 1 2 Staszewski, Op. cit. , p. 28
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 "August III - przedostatni król i jego legenda | Łazienki Królewskie".
  6. 1 2 3 "August III Wettyn (król Polski 1733–1763)".
  7. "Polski slownik biograficzny: Kopernicki, I.-Kozłowska". Skład główny w księg, Gebethnera i Wolffa. 21 March 1935.
  8. Konopczyński, Władysław (21 March 1969). "Polski słownik biograficzny". Nakł. Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności.
  9. 1 2 Flathe, Heinrich Theodor (1878), "Friedrich August II., Kurfürst von Sachsen", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, 7: 784–86.
  10. 1 2 Staszewski, Jacek (1996), August III. Kurfürst von Sachsen und König von Polen (in German), Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, ISBN   3-05-002600-6 .
  11. Kalipke, Andreas (2010). "The Corpus Evangelicorum". In Coy, J.P.; Marschke, B. Benjamin; Sabean D.W. (eds.). The Holy Roman Empire, Reconsidered. Berghahn. pp. 228–247.
  12. Helen, Watanabe-O'Kelly (2004). "Religion and the Consort: Two Electresses of Saxony and Queens of Poland (1697–1757)". In Campbell Orr, Clarissa (ed.). Queenship in Europe 1660–1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge University Press. p. 265. ISBN   0-521-81422-7.
  13. 1 2 "Ostatnia polska królowa. Władczyni. o której nie powiedzieli Ci na lekcjach historii". WielkaHistoria. 30 July 2019.
  14. That effectivity meant supporting the rule of Ernest Biron, a Russian court favourite. Corwin, Edward Henry Lewinski (1917) The Political History of Poland Polish Book Importing Company, New York, page 288, OCLC   626738
  15. Ragsdale, Hugh (1993) Imperial Russian foreign policy Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, page 3233, ISBN   0-521-44229-X
  16. Corwin, Edward Henry Lewinski (1917) The political History of Poland Polish Book Importing Company, New York, page 286288, OCLC   626738
  17. "Od Sasa do Lasa". 17 April 2015.
  18. 1 2 3 "Zdanie, które podobno mówi wszystko o rządach Augusta III Sasa. Ale czy słusznie?". 16 January 2019.
  19. 1 2 "Swan Service | porcelain tableware". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  20. Różycki, Bogusław Wojciech (22 March 2011). Zachodnie kresy Rzeczpospolitej: wzdłuż granicy na Odrze i Nysie : przewodnik. Oficyna Wydawnicza "Rewasz". ISBN   9788362460113.
  21. Watra-Przewłocki, J. (22 March 1918). "Historya Polski ilustrowana". Nakł. i drukiem Wydawn. Braci Worzałłów.
  22. "Fundacja Warszawa 1939". Fundacja Warszawa 1939.
  23. Browning, Reed S. (1994). War of the Austrian Succession. Alan Sutton. ISBN   978-0-750-90578-7.{{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  24. 1 2 "250. rocznica śmierci króla Polski Augusta III Wettyna".
  25. "Collegium medico-chirurgicum". Stadtwiki Dresden. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  26. "Missa in B Minor ("Kyrie" and "Gloria" of the B Minor Mass)". World Digital Library . 1733. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  27. "Johann Adolph Hasse Museum". KomponistenQuartier. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  28. "Słuchajmy Heinichena..." Radio Kraków. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  29. "Szpital Kliniczny Dzieciątka Jezus - O Szpitalu". Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  30. 1 2 August III Sas: Staszewski, Jacek: 9788304050341: Books. ASIN   830405034X.
  31. "August III Sas - Staszewski Jacek - Ossolineum - Księgarnia internetowa".
  32. "Christine", Saxony Albert, Netherlands: Royalty guide, 1735, archived from the original (JPEG) on 28 February 2008.
  33. "Elisabeth", Saxony Albert, Netherlands: Royalty guide, 1736, archived from the original (JPEG) on 28 February 2008.
Augustus III of Poland (Frederick Augustus II of Saxony)
Born: 17 October 1696 Died: 5 October 1763
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Poland
Succeeded by
Preceded by Elector of Saxony
Succeeded by

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">War of the Polish Succession</span> 18th century Succession wars for the Polish Commonwealth

The War of the Polish Succession was a major European conflict sparked by a civil war in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth over the succession to Augustus II the Strong, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests. France and Spain, the two Bourbon powers, tested the power of the Austrian Habsburgs in Western Europe, as did the Kingdom of Prussia, whilst Saxony and Russia mobilized to support the eventual victor. The fighting in Poland–Lithuania resulted in the accession of Augustus III, who in addition to Russia and Saxony, was politically supported by the Habsburgs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Frederick Augustus I of Saxony</span> Elector of Saxony (1763–1806) and King of Saxony (1806-1827)

Frederick Augustus I was a member of the House of Wettin who reigned as the last Elector of Saxony from 1763 to 1806 and as the first King of Saxony from 1806 to 1827. He was also Duke of Warsaw from 1807 to 1815, and a legitimate candidate to the Polish throne.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony</span> Elector of Saxony in 1763

Frederick Christian was the Prince-Elector of Saxony for 73 days in 1763. He was a member of the House of Wettin. He was the third but eldest surviving son of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, by his wife, Maria Josepha of Austria.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stanisław Leszczyński</span> King of Poland from 1704 to 1709

Stanisław I Leszczyński, also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, was twice King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and at various times Prince of Deux-Ponts, Duke of Bar and Duke of Lorraine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Augustus II the Strong</span> Elector of Saxony (r. 1694–1733); Ruler of Poland-Lithuania (r. 1697–1706, 1709–33)

Augustus II the Strong, was Elector of Saxony from 1694 as well as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1697 to 1706 and from 1709 until his death in 1733. He belonged to the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Heinrich von Brühl</span> Polish-Saxon statesman (1700–1763)

Heinrich, count von Brühl, was a Polish-Saxon statesman at the court of Saxony and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and a member of the powerful German von Brühl family. The incumbency of this ambitious politician coincided with the decline of both states. Brühl was a skillful diplomat and cunning strategist, who managed to attain control over of Saxony and Poland, partly by controlling its king, Augustus III, who ultimately could only be accessed through Brühl himself.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski</span> Polish nobleman (1696–1775)

Prince Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski (1696–1775) was a Polish nobleman, the Duke of Klewań and Żuków, magnate, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. He headed Poland's Czartoryski "Familia".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Polish crown jewels</span> Regalia of Poland

The only surviving original piece of the Polish crown jewels from the time of the Piast dynasty is the ceremonial sword Szczerbiec. It is currently on display along with other preserved royal items at the Wawel Royal Castle Museum in Kraków.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hubertusburg</span>

Hubertusburg is a Rococo palace in Saxony, Germany. It was built from 1721 onwards at the behest of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, and after his death served as a residence of his son Augustus III. The 'Saxon Versailles' is chiefly known for the signing of the 1763 Treaty of Hubertusburg that ended the Seven Years' War. The palace is located in the municipality of Wermsdorf near Oschatz.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maria Josepha of Austria</span> Queen of Poland from 1733 to 1757

Maria Josepha of Austria was the Queen of Poland and Electress of Saxony by marriage to Augustus III. From 1711 to 1717, she was heir presumptive to the Habsburg monarchy. Her sister Maria Amalia became Electress of Bavaria.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony</span> Electress consort of Bavaria

Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony was a daughter of King Augustus III of Poland and his wife Maria Josepha of Austria who became Electress of Bavaria by marriage to Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Treaty of the Three Black Eagles</span> 1732 treaty between Austria, Russia, and Prussia

The Treaty of the Three Black Eagles, or Treaty of Berlin, was a secret treaty signed in September and December 1732 between the Habsburg monarchy, the Russian Empire and Prussia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Frederick Augustus Rutowsky</span> Count Rutowsky

Frederick Augustus, Count Rutowsky, was a Saxon field marshal who commanded Saxon forces in the Siege of Pirna during the Seven Years' War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince Francis Xavier of Saxony</span> Co-Regent of the Electorate of Saxony

Franz Xavier of Saxony was a Saxon prince and member of the House of Wettin. He was the fourth but second surviving son of Augustus III, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, and Maria Josepha of Austria.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles, Duke of Courland</span> German prince (1733-1796)

Prince Karl Christian Joseph of Saxony - in English, Charles of Saxony - was a German prince of the House of Wettin and Duke of Courland and Semigallia. Born in Dresden, he was the fifth son of Augustus III, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, and Maria Josepha of Austria. He is an ancestor of the Italian House of Savoy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Sobieski</span> Polish noble family

The House of Sobieski was a prominent magnate family of Polish nobility in the 16th and 17th centuries, from which the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Jan III Sobieski originated. The family used the Janina coat of arms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amalie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld</span> Electress/Queen of Saxony from 1769 to 1827

Amalie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler was the last Electress and first Queen of Saxony and Duchess of Warsaw.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maria Kunigunde of Saxony</span> Princess and abbess (1740–1826)

Maria Kunigunde of Saxony was Princess-Abbess of Essen and Thorn. She was a titular Princess of Poland, Lithuania and Saxony of the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin. She was a member of the Order of the Starry Cross and a collegiate lady in the abbey at Münsterbilzen.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maria Amalia Mniszech</span>

Countess Maria Amalia Mniszech (1736–1772), née Countess von Brühl, was a Polish-Saxon noblewoman and lady-in-waiting. She was active as a political Polish agent in the court of Empress Maria Theresa in Vienna, where she was sent to influence the empress in favour of Poland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Personal union of Poland and Saxony</span>

The personal union of Poland and Saxony, or Saxony-Poland, was the personal union that existed from 1697 to 1706 and from 1709 to 1763 between the Electorate of Saxony under the House of Wettin and the aristocratic republic/elective monarchy of Poland-Lithuania. After the death of Augustus III of Poland in 1763, the personal union expired because the guardian of the still underage Saxon Elector Friedrich August III. (1750–1827) renounced his claims to the throne and the Russian Empress Catherine the Great had her favorite Stanislaus II August Poniatowski elected king. In Poland, the period with Wettin rulers on the Polish throne is also called the Saxon period. In Polish memory it is known for its particular disorder.