Auquihuato

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Auquihuato
Vulkan Aukuikhuato.jpg
The cinder cone at the margin of the light-colored plateau just below the center of this NASA Landsat image (with north to the top) is Auquihuato.
Highest point
Elevation 4,980 m (16,340 ft)
Coordinates 15°04′30″S73°11′26″W / 15.07500°S 73.19056°W / -15.07500; -73.19056 Coordinates: 15°04′30″S73°11′26″W / 15.07500°S 73.19056°W / -15.07500; -73.19056
Geography
Peru physical map.svg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Auquihuato
Peru
Location Peru, Ayacucho Region
Parent range Andes
Geology
Mountain type Cinder cone

Auquihuato [1] [2] (possibly from Quechua, awki: prince, watu: prediction, fortuneteller) [3] [4] is a cinder cone in the Andes of Peru, 4,980 metres (16,339 ft) high. [1] It is situated in the Ayacucho Region, Paucar del Sara Sara Province, on the border of the districts Colta and Oyolo. [5] Auquihuato lies northeast of Sara Sara volcano. [2]

Cinder cone A steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments around a volcanic vent

A cinder cone is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, cinders, volcanic ash, or cinder that has been built around a volcanic vent. They consist of loose pyroclastic debris formed by explosive eruptions or lava fountains from a single, typically cylindrical, vent. As the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as either cinders, clinkers, or scoria around the vent to form a cone that often is symmetrical; with slopes between 30–40°; and a nearly circular ground plan. Most cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit.

Andes mountain range running along the tu mamide of South America

The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km wide, and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.

Peru republic in South America

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.

Contents

Geology

Context

Auquihuato is surrounded by a Pliocene volcanic plateau, [6] the cone formed on the plateau's southern margin. Sara Sara lies 30 kilometres (19 mi) southwest [1] and Firura lies 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) farther east. Auquihuato lies east of the main volcanic arc and is aligned with several other volcanic centres in a northwest-southeast line. [7]

The Pliocene Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Pliocene follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene Epoch. Prior to the 2009 revision of the geologic time scale, which placed the four most recent major glaciations entirely within the Pleistocene, the Pliocene also included the Gelasian stage, which lasted from 2.588 to 1.806 million years ago, and is now included in the Pleistocene.

Sara Sara volcano in Peru

Sara Sara is a 5,505-metre-high (18,061 ft) volcano lying between Lake Parinacochas and Ocoña River in Peru. It is situated in the Parinacochas Province, Puyusca District, and in the Paucar del Sara Sara Province, in the districts of Pausa and Sara Sara.

Firura mountain in Peru

Firura is an extinct volcano of the Central Andean Volcanic Belt, located in the Arequipa Region of southern Peru. Together with Sara Sara, Solimana and Coropuna it forms one of the Central Andean volcanoes. It is in the Andes, north of the Pucuncho Basin.

Volcano

Auquihuato is c.400 metres (1,300 ft) high and a lava flow extends southward from the cone, reaching a length of 12 kilometres (7.5 mi). The lava flow has a pahoehoe texture. [6] It has well developed levees. [1]

Levee Ridge or wall to hold back water

A levee, dike, dyke, embankment, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels. It is usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river in its floodplain or along low-lying coastlines.

Activity

The noticeable lava flow is of Holocene age. [6]

Ground deformation has been observed by InSAR observation, centered 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) southeast of Auquihuato and with a circular shape. The ground deformation may be caused by changes in the pressure within the volcano's magma system, at depths probably exceeding 1 kilometre (0.62 mi). [6]

Magma Mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth

Magma is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rocks are formed. Magma is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and evidence of magmatism has also been discovered on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites. Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended crystals and gas bubbles. Magma is produced by melting of the mantle and/or the crust at various tectonic settings, including subduction zones, continental rift zones, mid-ocean ridges and hotspots. Mantle and crustal melts migrate upwards through the crust where they are thought to be stored in magma chambers or trans-crustal crystal-rich mush zones. During their storage in the crust, magma compositions may be modified by fractional crystallization, contamination with crustal melts, magma mixing, and degassing. Following their ascent through the crust, magmas may feed a volcano or solidify underground to form an intrusion. While the study of magma has historically relied on observing magma in the form of lava flows, magma has been encountered in situ three times during geothermal drilling projects—twice in Iceland, and once in Hawaii.

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Department of Arequipa Region in 8 provinces and 109 districts, Peru

Arequipa is a department in southwestern Peru. It is bordered by the departments of Ica, Ayacucho, Apurímac and Cusco in the north, the Department of Puno in the east, the Department of Moquegua in the south, and the Pacific Ocean in the west. Its capital, also called Arequipa, is Peru's second-largest city.

Cordón del Azufre mountain

Cordón del Azufre is a small, inactive complex volcano located in the Central Andes, at the border of Argentina and Chile. The centre contains a series of craters and lava flows covering a surface area of 60 square kilometres (23 sq mi). A western component with four craters aligned in a north–south direction on a 5-kilometre-long (3.1 mi) ridge forms the oldest part. The eastern component is formed by lava flows and craters in Argentina, and the youngest part la Moyra volcano in the western component generated a lava flow that advanced 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) westwards. Weakly porphyritic Andesite and dacite form the rocks of the volcano. No activity, including fumarolic activity, has been recorded at Cordón del Azufre, but the appearance and radiometric age of the lava flows suggest a recent age.

Cerro Azul (Chile volcano)

Cerro Azul, sometimes referred to as Quizapu, is an active stratovolcano in the Maule Region of central Chile, immediately south of Descabezado Grande. Part of the South Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit is 3,788 meters (12,428 ft) above sea level, and is capped by a summit crater that is 500 meters (1,600 ft) wide and opens to the north. Beneath the summit, the volcano features numerous scoria cones and flank vents.

Incahuasi mountain in Argentina

Incahuasi is a volcanic mountain in the Andes of South America. It lies on the border of the Argentine province of Catamarca, and the Atacama Region of Chile. Incahuasi has a summit elevation of 6,621 metres (21,722 ft) above sea level.

Ampato dormant Peruvian volcano

Ampato is a dormant 6,288-metre (20,630 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru. It lies about 70–75 kilometres (43–47 mi) northwest of Arequipa and is part of a north-south chain that includes the volcanoes Hualca Hualca and Sabancaya, the last of which has been active in historical time.

Cordón de Puntas Negras mountain in Chile

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Hualca Hualca volcano in Peru

Hualca Hualca is an extinct volcano in Arequipa Region in the Andes of Peru. It has a height of 6,025 metres.

Quimsachata (Canchis) mountain in Peru

Quimsachata is an extinct volcano in the Andes of Peru. It is located in the Cusco Region, Canchis Province at about 24 kilometres (15 mi) northwest of the town of Sicuani. This volcano is constructed from two separate centres, one active 11,500 years ago which formed a scoria cone and a lava field and another active 4450 BCE which formed two lava flows and a lava dome.

Chiqllarasu mountain in Peru

Chiqllarasu Portugueza or Portuguesa is a mountain in the Andes of Peru, about 5,167 metres (16,952 ft) high. It is situated in the Ayacucho Region, Cangallo Province, Paras District. Chiqllarasu lies north-east of the mountain Saywa Q'asa, between the villages Patawasi (Patahuasi) in the northwest and Kichkawasi (Quichcahuasi) in the southeast.

Hatun Tipiqucha is a lake in Peru located in the Ayacucho Region, Paucar del Sara Sara Province, Oyolo District. It lies south of the lakes Tipiqucha and Huch'uy Tipiqucha, and northeast of the lakes Yanaqucha and Kunturqucha.

Kunturqucha is a lake in Peru located in the Ayacucho Region, Paucar del Sara Sara Province, Oyolo District. It lies southwest of the lakes Tipiqucha, Huch'uy Tipiqucha, Hatun Tipiqucha and Chawpi Tipiqucha, and east of the lake Yanaqucha.

Huch'uy Tipiqucha is a lake in Peru located in the Ayacucho Region, Paucar del Sara Sara Province, Oyolo District. It lies between the lakes Tipiqucha in the north and Hatun Tipiqucha in the south, northeast of the lakes Yanaqucha, Kunturqucha and Chawpi Tipiqucha.

Puka Urqu (Arequipa)

Puka Urqu is a mountain in the Andes of Peru, about 4,923.1 metres (16,152 ft) high. It is situated in the Arequipa Region, La Unión Province, Charcana District, and in the Ayacucho Region, Paucar del Sara Sara Province, Oyolo District. Puka Urqu lies west of Charcana, between the mountains Qinchu (Gencho) in the north and Anchaqalla (Anchacalla) in the south.

Uturunku stratovolcano

Uturunku is a dormant volcano in the Cordillera de Lípez in Potosí Department, Bolivia. It is located in the Sur Lípez Province, San Pablo de Lípez Municipality. It is in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, and its highest summit is 6,008 metres (19,711 ft) above sea level. The volcano has two summits, with a fumarole field between them. The volcano's landforms include lava domes and lava flows.

Cerro Chao

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Inka Qhamachu Mountain in the Andes

Inka Qhamachu is a 4,792-metre-high (15,722 ft) mountain in the Andes of Bolivia. It is located in the Oruro Department, Litoral Province, Huachacalla Municipality. Inka Qhamachu lies southeast of Pacha Qullu, southeast of the village of Huachacalla (Wachaqalla).

Crater Basalt volcanic field is a volcanic field in Argentina in the Chubut province.

Sabancaya Peruvian stratovolcano

Sabancaya is an active 5,976-metre-high (19,606 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) northwest of Arequipa. It is considered part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the three distinct volcanic belts of the Andes. The Central Volcanic Zone includes a number of volcanoes, some of which like Huaynaputina have had large eruptions and others such as Sabancaya and Ubinas have been active in historical time. Sabancaya forms a volcanic complex together with Hualca Hualca to the north and Ampato to the south and has erupted andesite and dacite. It is covered by a small ice cap which leads to a risk of lahars during eruptions.

Ubinas volcano in Peru

Ubinas is a stratovolcano in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru, 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 5,672 metres (18,609 ft) above sea level. The volcano's summit is cut by a 1.4-kilometre (0.87 mi) wide and 150-metre (490 ft) deep caldera, which itself contains a smaller crater. Below the summit, Ubinas has the shape of an upwards-steepening cone with a prominent notch on the southern side. The gently sloping lower part of the volcano is also known as Ubinas I and the steeper upper part as Ubinas II; they represent different stages in the geologic history of Ubinas.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Cerro Auquihuato". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution.
  2. 1 2 Peru 1:100 000, Pausa (31-p). IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional - Perú).
  3. Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary): awki. - s. Príncipe. Hijo de un ser superior o de un rey.watu. - s. Cordón. Cuerda delgada.watuq, wamuni, umu.. - s. Adivino. Persona que adivina. || fig. Hechicero, brujo. Layqa.
  4. Diccionario Quechua - Español - Quechua, Academía Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, Gobierno Regional Cusco, Cusco 2005: awki - s. Mit. En la mitología inkaica y la actual andina, man o espíritu protector, personaje mítico que habita en las altas cumbres, ser protector encamado en los montes, el alma de los cerros elevados. Generalmente se usa en plural: awkikuna, espíritus protectores. SINÓN: apucha, machula. || Príncipe, hijo del Inka. || Abuelo.watu - - s. Augurio, pronóstico, predicción, vaticinio, presagio. Ec: huatu. || Cordón, pita, cuerda, hilo retorcido. || Cinturón, correa.
  5. escale.minedu.gob.pe - UGEL Map of the Paucar del Sara Sara Province (Ayacucho Region)
  6. 1 2 3 4 Morales Rivera, Anieri M.; Amelung, Falk; Mothes, Patricia (July 2016). "Volcano deformation survey over the Northern and Central Andes with ALOS InSAR time series". Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 17 (7): 2869–2883. doi:10.1002/2016GC006393.
  7. de Silva, SL; Francis, PW (March 1990). "Potentially active volcanoes of Peru-Observations using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Space Shuttle imagery". Bulletin of Volcanology. 52 (4): 286–301. doi:10.1007/BF00304100.