Aurélio Buarque de Holanda Ferreira (May 3, 1910 – February 28, 1989) was a Brazilian lexicographer, philologist, translator, and writer, best known for editing the Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa , a major dictionary of the Portuguese language.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection between textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics. Philology is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist.
Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "Lusophone" in both English and Portuguese.
His family name was originally spelled Hollanda, but was changed to Holanda, presumably to follow the Portuguese spelling reform of 1943.
Aurélio was born in Passo de Camaragibe, Alagoas state, Brazil. In 1923 he moved to the state capital Maceió, where, at only 14 years of age, he gave private lessons of Portuguese language. One year later he became a first-grade teacher at the local high school Ginásio Primeiro de Março.
Passo de Camaragibe is a municipality located in the northern coast of the Brazilian state of Alagoas. Its population is 13,544 (2005) and its area is 187 km².
Maceió is the capital and the largest city of the coastal state of Alagoas, Brazil. The name "Maceió" is an Indigenous term for a spring. Most maceiós flow to the sea, but some get trapped and form lakes.
In 1936 obtained a law degree at the Recife Law School in Pernambuco, and in that same year he started teaching French and Portuguese grammar, as well as Brazilian and Portuguese literature, at the Alagoas State High School in Maceió. In 1937–1938 he also served as director of the Maceió City Public Library.
The College of Law of Recife, now called College of Law, Federal University of Pernambuco, is a law school in the city of Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil.
Portuguese literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the Portuguese language, particularly by citizens of Portugal; it may also refer to literature written by people living in Portugal, Brazil, Angola and Mozambique, as well as other Portuguese-speaking countries. An early example of Portuguese literature is the tradition of a medieval Galician-Portuguese poetry, originally developed in Galicia and northern Portugal. The literature of Portugal is distinguished by a wealth and variety of lyric poetry, which has characterized it from the beginning of its language, after the Roman occupation; by its wealth of historical writing documenting Portugal’s rulers, conquests, and expansion; by the then considered Golden Age of the Renaissance period of which it forms part the moral and allegorical Renaissance drama of Gil Vicente, Bernardim Ribeiro, Sá de Miranda and especially the great 16th-century national epic of Luís de Camões, author of national and epic poem Os Lusíadas.
In 1938 he moved to the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he taught Brazilian and Portuguese Literature at elite secondary schools including the public Pedro II High School and the private Anglo-American High School.
It was in Rio that he has started his career as a writer, by publishing articles, tales and chronicles in the local press. Between 1939 and 1943, he was acting secretary of the magazine Revista do Brasil .
Aurélio started his career as a lexicographer in 1941, as a collaborator of the Pequeno Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa . In 1942 he published a book of short stories, Dois Mundos ("Two Worlds"), which earned him a prize by the prestigious Brazilian Literary Academy. In 1943 he collaborated with the Dicionário Enciclopédico sponsored by the Brazilian Book Institute. In 1945 he took part in the First Brazilian Writers Conference in São Paulo. Between 1944 and 1949 he was a member of the Brazilian Writers Association (Rio de Janeiro branch).
In 1945 he married Marina Baird, with whom he would have two children – Aurélio and Maria Luísa – and five grandchildren.
Between 1947 and 1960, Aurélio authored various texts for the Conto da Semana ("Weekly Tale") section of the newspaper Diário de Notícias . Starting in 1950 he also authored the column Enriqueça o Seu Vocabulário ("Enrich Your Vocabulary") for the Brazilian edition of Reader's Digest; these columns were later published as a book.
Between 1954 and 1955 he lectured Brazilian studies at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, on a grant by the Brazilian Foreign Ministry.
He was elected a member of the Brazilian Literary Academy on May 4, 1961, and inaugurated on December 18, 1961, taking over seat number 30, formerly of Antônio Austregésilo.
Inspired by his love of the Portuguese language, he decided to produce his own dictionary. After several years of work, in 1975 he published the Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa which would be for many decades the reference lexicon in Brazil – to the point that Aurélio and Aurelião ("big Aurélio") became popular synonyms of dictionary. (It is said that his collaborators once proposed to add that entry to the dictionary, but Aurélio vetoed it.) This book went through dozens of reprints and revisions, and spawned several derivative editions.
Aurélio was also member of the Brazilian Academy of Philology, of the Pen Clube do Brasil (the Brazilian section of the International Writers Association), the Brazilian Folklore Commission, the Alagoas Literary Academy, the Alagoas Historical and Geographical Institute, and the Hispanic Society of America.
Casamance is the area of Senegal south of the Gambia including the Casamance River. It consists of the Lower Casamance and the Upper Casamance. The largest city of Casamance is Ziguinchor.
Alagoas is one of the 27 states of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region. It borders: Pernambuco ; Sergipe (S); Bahia (SW); and the Atlantic Ocean (E). It occupies an area of 27,767 km², being slightly larger than Haiti. Its capital is the city of Maceió.
Hermeto Pascoal is a Brazilian composer and multi-instrumentalist. He was born in Lagoa da Canoa, Alagoas, Brazil. Pascoal is a beloved figure in the history of Brazilian music, known for his abilities in orchestration and improvisation, as well as being a record producer and contributor to many Brazilian and international albums by other artists.
Tupiniquim are an indigenous people of Brazil, who now live in three indigenous territories. The indigenous territories are located near the cities of Santa Cruz and Vila do Riacho in the municipality of Aracruz in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Caieiras Velhas Indigenous Territory is located along the banks of the Piraquê-Açu River. The Pau-Brasil Indigenous Territory is near the Sahy creek. The Comboios Indigenous Territory is located on the banks of the Comboios River. A 2010 census determined the population of Tupiniquim in all three indigenous territories as 2,630.
The Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa is a comprehensive dictionary of the Portuguese language, published in Brazil, first compiled by Aurélio Buarque de Holanda Ferreira. It is popularly known as the Dicionário Aurélio, or simply Aurélio or Aurelião.
Academia Brasileira de Letras (ABL) is a Brazilian literary non-profit society established at the end of the 19th century by a group of 40 writers and poets inspired by the Académie Française. The first president, Machado de Assis, declared its foundation on December 15, 1896, with the by-laws being passed on January 28, 1897. On July 20 of the same year, the academy started its operation.
The Dicionário Houaiss da Língua Portuguesa is a major reference dictionary for the Portuguese language, edited by Brazilian writer Antônio Houaiss.
IBOPE was established in Brazil in 1942 and provides the largest collection of information in Brazilian and Latin American markets. Supporting the decision making process of its clients, IBOPE Group provides research on media, public opinion, voting intention, consumption, behavior, marketing, branding and other issues as required by clients.
Caratinga is a municipality in eastern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The population in 2009 was 85,472 inhabitants and the total area of the municipality was 1251 km2. The altitude is 578 meters above sea level, with maximum altitude of 1,516 m in the Serra do Rio Preto and 330 m at the mouth of the Córrego Boachá.
Antônio Houaiss was a Brazilian lexicographer, writer and translator.
José Duarte Ramalho Ortigão was a Portuguese writer of the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Aurelio may refer to:
Pamonha is a traditional Brazilian food. It is a paste made from sweet corn, boiled wrapped in corn husks. Variations may include coconut milk. Pamonha can be savoury or sweet. If savoury, they can be filled with cheese, sausage, minced meat, minced chicken or peppers. If sweet, ground coconut pulp is a common addition when there is one, but the overwhelming majority is served plain.
Miguel Torga, pseudonym of Adolfo Correia da Rocha, is considered one of the greatest Portuguese writers of the 20th century. He wrote poetry, short stories, theater and a 16 volume diary.
Benjamin Abdala Júnior is a Brazilian writer, scholar, and literary critic. His first book, A Escrita Neo-Realista, was published in 1981. He published the book Antologia da Poesia Brasileira - Realismo/Parnasianismo in 1985. He has written over 40 published books and hundreds of chapters in book collection,articles in newspapers and literary magazines .He has worked with the main Brazilian Scientific Agencies evaluating scholarships and grants requested by researchers from the main Brazilian universities. Benjamin has also lived in Portugal and France, where he expanded his research and gave lectures on Comparative, Portuguese and African Literatures. He has been invited to the main universities in Africa, China, United States, Canada, France, England, Portugal, Austria, Tchecoslovaquia, Russia and Chile, giving lectures on African Literatures of Portuguese Speaking Countries, Comparative Literature, Neo-realism in Portugal and Brazil, among other subjects. Grandson of Lebanese immigrants, he received a Merit Medal celebrating 130 years of Middle Eastern Immigration to South America from BibliASPA - Biblioteca e Centro de Pesquisa América do Sul - Países Árabes. He has 3 children and 3 grandchildren, and lives in São Paulo. He is retired from University of São Paulo after 35 years of contribution as professor and administrator, but he is still actively involved in the Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras and Ciencias Humanas as a researcher.
Ary Christoni de Toledo Piza, commonly known as Ary Toledo, is a Brazilian humorist, singer, lyricist and actor.
The Centre for Lusophone and European Literatures and Cultures of the Faculty of Letters, University of Lisbon (CLEPUL) is a research unit of the University of Lisbon based on the Faculty of Letters of the University of Lisbon. CLEPUL was founded by Jacinto do Prado Coelho after the Carnation Revolution, at the time with the designation of Centre for Portuguese Literatures of the Universities of Lisbon. Its main purpose is the promotion and research on literatures and cultures of the Lusophone countries.
Anilda Neves Leão (1923–2012) was a Brazilian poet, writer, feminist, actress and singer. She was a member of numerous feminist organizations in Alagoas and attended the 1963 World Congress on Women in Moscow. She published her first volume of poems in 1961 and her last volume in 2002. She performed in theater and the burgeoning film industry in Alagoas, writing scripts and acting in both short films and features.
Francisco José Tenreiro was a São Toméan geographer and poet who lived during the colonial era. He was taught at the Overseas Political and Social Sciences Institute, now known as the Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas of the University of Lisbon.