Aurillac

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Aurillac
Terredexception-vol aurillac-GF 1.jpg
An aerial view of Aurillac
Blason ville fr Aurillac (Cantal).svg
Coat of arms
Location of Aurillac
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Aurillac
Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Aurillac
Coordinates: 44°55′34″N2°26′26″E / 44.9261°N 2.4406°E / 44.9261; 2.4406 Coordinates: 44°55′34″N2°26′26″E / 44.9261°N 2.4406°E / 44.9261; 2.4406
Country France
Region Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
Department Cantal
Arrondissement Aurillac
Canton Aurillac-1, Aurillac-2, Aurillac-3
Intercommunality CA Bassin Aurillac
Government
  Mayor (2014-2020) Pierre Mathonier
Area
1
28.76 km2 (11.10 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01) [1]
27,659
  Density960/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
15014 /15000
Elevation573–867 m (1,880–2,844 ft)
(avg. 622 m or 2,041 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Aurillac (French pronunciation:  [ɔʁijak] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Occitan : Orlhac [uɾˈʎak] ) is the prefecture of the Cantal department, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aurillacois or Aurillacoises. [2]

Occitan language Romance language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc by its native speakers, is a Romance language. It is spoken in southern France, Italy's Occitan Valleys, Monaco, and Spain's Val d'Aran; collectively, these regions are sometimes referred to as Occitania. Occitan is also spoken in the linguistic enclave of Guardia Piemontese. However, there is controversy about the unity of the language, as some think that Occitan is a macrolanguage. Others include Catalan in this family, as the distance between this language and some Occitan dialects is similar to the distance among different Occitan dialects. In fact, Catalan was considered an Occitan dialect until the end of the 19th century.

Prefectures in France deconcentrated executive authority of the French State, in charge of the administrative control of public services and territorial collectivities operating on its local territory

A prefecture in France may refer to:

Cantal Department of France

Cantal is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of France, with its prefecture in Aurillac. Its other principal towns are Saint-Flour and Mauriac and its residents are known as Cantalians. Cantal borders the departments of Puy-de-Dôme, Haute-Loire, Aveyron, Lot, Lozère and Corrèze, in the Massif Central natural region. Along with Lozère and Creuse, Cantal is among the most sparsely populated and geographically isolated departments of France and Aurillac is the departmental capital farthest removed from a major motorway. It had a population of 145,969 in 2016, making it the country's 97th most populated department.

Contents

Geography

Aurillac is at 600 m (2,000 ft) above sea level and located at the foot of the Cantal mountains in a small Sedimentary basin. The city is built on the banks of the Jordanne, a tributary of the Cère. It is 558 km (347 mi) south of Paris and 223 km (139 mi) north of Toulouse. Aurillac was part of a former Auvergne province called Haute-Auvergne and is only 20 km (12 mi) away from the heart of the Auvergne Volcano Park. Access to the commune is by numerous roads including the D922 from Naucelles in the north, the D17 from Saint-Simon in the north-east, Route nationale N122 from Polminhac in the east which continues to Sansac-de-Marmiesse in the south-west, the D920 to Arpajon-sur-Cère in the south-east, and the D18 to Ytrac in the west. [3] The Figeac-Arvant railway passes through the commune with a station in the centre of town but there is no TGV service. About 50% of the commune is urbanised with farmland to the east and west of the urban area.

Sedimentary basin Regions of long-term subsidence creating space for infilling by sediments

Sedimentary basins are regions of Earth of long-term subsidence creating accommodation space for infilling by sediments. The subsidence can result from a variety of causes that include: the thinning of underlying crust, sedimentary, volcanic, and tectonic loading, and changes in the thickness or density of adjacent lithosphere. Sedimentary basins occur in diverse geological settings usually associated with plate tectonic activity. Basins are classified structurally in various ways, with a primary classifications distinguishing among basins formed in various plate tectonic regime, the proximity of the basin to the active plate margins, and whether oceanic, continental or transitional crust underlies the basin. Basins formed in different plate tectonic regimes vary in their preservation potential. On oceanic crust, basins are likely to be subducted, while marginal continental basins may be partially preserved, and intracratonic basins have a high probability of preservation. As the sediments are buried, they are subjected to increasing pressure and begin the process of lithification. A number of basins formed in extensional settings can undergo inversion which has accounted for a number of the economically viable oil reserves on earth which were formerly basins.

Cère river in France

The Cère is a 120 km (75 mi) long river in south-western France, left tributary of the Dordogne River. Its source is in the south-western Massif Central, near the mountain Plomb du Cantal. It flows generally west through the following départements and towns:

Paris Capital city of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, as well as the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion in 2017. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018. The city is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, and is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015.

Aurillac – Tronquières Airport is located in the south of the commune with its runway extending beyond the commune boundary. It is connected to Paris by two daily flights by the Air France subsidiary HOP!. The commune was awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. [4]

Aurillac – Tronquières Airport airport

Aurillac – Tronquières Airport is an airport located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) southwest of Aurillac, a commune of the Cantal département in the Auvergne région of France.

HOP! is the brand name of the regional flights operated by subsidiaries of Air France. Its flights are operated by Airlinair, Brit Air and Régional under the HOP! brand. The brand offers daily flights to 50 French and European destinations. Its head office is at Nantes Atlantique Airport.

The Jordanne river flows through the heart of the commune from north to south where it joins the Cère just south of the commune.

Localities and districts

Naucelles Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Naucelles is a commune in the Cantal department in south-central France.

Ytrac Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Ytrac is a commune in the Cantal department in south-central France.

Climate

Aurillac has an oceanic climate with cool winters and warm summers due to its distance from the ocean and its altitude. Rainfall, however, is abundant with 1,174 millimetres (46.2 in) and 130 days per year with precipitation. Snow is common and sometimes abundant with 31 snow days per year and during some snowfalls the quantity of snow can be high. Frost is very common with 80 days of frost per year with the period of freezing frequently extending from October to May. Despite its altitude, Aurillac still has 8 days of high temperatures. Days with heavy frosts are frequent (21 days). The city also has 2118 sunshine hours per year. The record low temperature was −24.5 °C (−12 °F) on 9 January 1985 and the record high was 38.0 °C (100 °F) on 30 July 1983.

Oceanic climate a type of climate characterised by cool summers and cool winters

An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features mild summers and mild winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest month, and above 0 °C (32 °F) in the coldest month.

Climate data for Aurillac (1981–2010 averages)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)18.8
(65.8)
22.1
(71.8)
23.5
(74.3)
26.5
(79.7)
29.2
(84.6)
35.0
(95.0)
38.0
(100.4)
37.7
(99.9)
32.4
(90.3)
26.6
(79.9)
23.2
(73.8)
20.7
(69.3)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F)6.7
(44.1)
7.9
(46.2)
11.2
(52.2)
13.7
(56.7)
17.8
(64.0)
21.5
(70.7)
24.3
(75.7)
24.0
(75.2)
20.3
(68.5)
16.0
(60.8)
10.4
(50.7)
7.5
(45.5)
15.1
(59.2)
Average low °C (°F)−1.0
(30.2)
−0.8
(30.6)
1.3
(34.3)
3.4
(38.1)
7.3
(45.1)
10.1
(50.2)
12.2
(54.0)
11.9
(53.4)
8.9
(48.0)
6.7
(44.1)
2.3
(36.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
5.2
(41.4)
Record low °C (°F)−21.2
(−6.2)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−15.2
(4.6)
−9.1
(15.6)
−2.5
(27.5)
0.1
(32.2)
2.4
(36.3)
0.7
(33.3)
−2.9
(26.8)
−8.1
(17.4)
−11.6
(11.1)
−15.9
(3.4)
−21.2
(−6.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)91.7
(3.61)
83.2
(3.28)
84.7
(3.33)
115.5
(4.55)
118.4
(4.66)
88.7
(3.49)
67.1
(2.64)
84.2
(3.31)
109.3
(4.30)
114.3
(4.50)
108.7
(4.28)
108.2
(4.26)
1,174
(46.22)
Average precipitation days12.010.611.112.112.79.78.19.58.811.412.011.8130.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 110.0126.8177.2179.3210.4242.1268.0248.8206.1148.7100.3100.02,117.5
Source: Météo France [5] [6]

Toponymy

The origin of the name Aurillac is from Aureliacum meaning "Villa of Aurelius" and dates back to the Gallo-Roman era. It is attested in the polygonal Fanum d'Aron which was built in the 1st century and discovered in 1977 at Lescudillier.

History

It is thought that in the Gallic era the original site of the city was on the heights overlooking the current city at Saint-Jean-de-Dône ("Dône" from dunum) and, like most oppida, it was abandoned after the Roman conquest in favour of a new city established on the plain. With the return of instability in the Lower Roman Empire there was a movement towards Encastellation and a new fortified site was established in mid-slope between the former oppidum and the old Gallo-Roman city where the Chateau of Saint-Étienne is today.

The history of the city is really only known from 856, the year of the birth of Count Gerald of Aurillac at the castle where his father, also named Gerald, was lord. In 885 he founded a Benedictine monastery which later bore his name. It was in this monastery that Gerbert, the first French pope under the name of Sylvester II, studied.

The city was made in a Sauveté [Note 1] area which was located between four crosses and was founded in 898 by Gerald shortly after the abbey. The first urban area was circular and built close to the Abbey of Aurillac. Gerald died around 910 but his influence was such that over the centuries Gerald was always a baptismal name prevalent in the population of Aurillac and the surrounding area.

Houses along the Jordanne Aurillac Jordanne1.JPG
Houses along the Jordanne

It was in the 13th century that municipal conflict began between consuls and abbots. After taking the Chateau of Saint-Étienne in 1255 and two negotiated agreements called the Peace of Aurillac, relations were normalised.

In the 13th and 14th centuries Aurillac withstood several sieges by the English and in the 16th century continued to suffer from civil and religious wars.

The influence of the abbey declined with its secularization and its implementation of orders.

In 1569 the city was delivered by treason to the Protestants: people were tortured and held to ransom and the Abbey was sacked. The library and archives were all burned.

Before the French Revolution Aurillac had a Présidial and carried the title of capital of the Haute-Auvergne. In 1790 on the creation of departments, after a period of alternating with Saint-Flour, Aurillac definitively became the capital of Cantal.

The Station at Aurillac in 1898 Dans la gare, Aurillac, 18 juillet 1898 (5963698868).jpg
The Station at Aurillac in 1898

The arrival of the railway in 1866 accelerated the development of the city.

At the first census in 1759 there were 6,268 people in Aurillac, it now has about 28,000.

Heraldry

Arms of Aurillac Blason ville fr Aurillac (Cantal).svg
Arms of Aurillac
The traditional arms of Aurillac. The three silver shells were originally on one line because Aurillac was a stage on the Way of St. James coming from Clermont-Ferrand (currently the Via Arvernha). The three fleurs-de-lis gold indicated a Good Town at a time when Aurillac provided a body of two hundred picked men to King Charles VII to fight the British.

Blazon:
Gules, three escallops of Argent 2 and 1, in chief Azure, three fleurs-de-lis of Or.

Arms of Aurillac Abbey Blason fr Abbaye-Aurillac 2.svg
Arms of Aurillac Abbey
The traditional arms of the Abbey and County of Aurillac. These arms were originally on the banner of the abbey representing a patch of grass, evoking a miraculous fact related by Odo of Cluny in his Life of Saint Gerald of Aurillac .

Blazon:
Party per pale, Or and Vert, the border engrailed of one on the other.

Politics and Administration

Cantons

Aurillac is the capital of the department of Cantal (seat of the prefecture) and of the Arrondissement of Aurillac as well as for three cantons (INSEE names): [7]

Administration

List of Successive Mayors [8]

Mayors from the French Revolution to 1941
FromToName
1789Louis de Lorus
1790Joseph Francois Gourlat de Saint-Etienne
17941798François Armand
17981800Jean Baptiste Perret
18001813Jean Abadie
18131815Jean Baptiste Perret
18151829Louis Delom de Lalaubie
18291833Hippolyte Esquirou de Parieu
18331840Pierre Esquirou Lavignac
18401848Louis-Furcy Grognier
18481848Amédée Delzons
18481870Hippolyte Esquirou de Parieu
18711874Emile Genestie
18741887Antoine Joseph Géraud Cabanes
18871889Géraud Lusser
18891911Francis Fesq
19111919François Volpilhac
19191935Louis Amant Dauzier
19351941Jean Chanal
Mayors from 1941
FromToNamePartyPosition
19411944Antony JolyAppointed by the Vichy Regime. Textile Entrepreneur
19441947Jean ChanalDoctor, Former Mayor
19471953Henri TricotDentist, Legion of Honour
19531965Paul Joseph Amable PialesIndustrialist, Legion of Honour, Senator for Cantal 1948-1971
19651971Jacques Meyniel PS Son of Mayor Louis Meyniel, MP for Cantal
19711977Jean Mézard CNIP Doctor, President of the General Council
19771995 René Souchon PS
19952001Yvon BecMDC
20012006René Souchon PS Resigned to become President of the Auvergne Regional Council
20062013Alain Calmette PS General Counsellor, MP for Cantal from 2012
20132020Pierre Mathonier PS

(Not all data is known)

Twinning

Aurillac has twinning associations with: [9]

Demography

In 2010 the commune had 27,924 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. [Note 2]

Population change (See database)
179318001806182118311836184118461851
10,47010,35710,5239,1909,76610,8899,7539,60910,917
185618611866187218761881188618911896
9,8469,83110,99811,09811,21113,72714,61315,82416,886
190119061911192119261931193619461954
17,45917,77218,03816,38917,15317,64319,04122,17422,224
19621968197519821990199920062010-
24,56328,22630,86330,96330,77330,55129,70027,924-

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)

Population of Aurillac Population - Municipality code 15014.svg
Population of Aurillac

Economy

Shops

Boutique Gentiane Couderc Aurillac Boutique Gentiane Couderc.jpg
Boutique Gentiane Couderc

Aurillac has hundreds of boutiques, shops, and artisans.

Industry

Bleu d'Auvergne Formatge blau d'Alvernia 2.jpg
Bleu d'Auvergne

Also found in Aurillac are different players in various food fields (e.g. the Couderc distillery with its famous gentian liqueur and famous establishments such as the Leroux and Bonal cheese factories, the Morin refinery, MAS charcuteries, Teil cured by the Altitude group, refrigerated transport operator Olano Ladoux etc.).

Aurillac is best known for its Cheese centre based on the heights of Aurillac close to the Chateau Saint-Étienne. It was established in 1993, the structure consists of an association bringing together many organisations to develop scientific programs. It develops scientific programs relating to the cheese sector.

Data processing

Aurillac hosts several websites:

Aurillac has also been the headquarters of the ERP vendor Qualiac since 1979. [13]

Culture and heritage

The commune has a very large number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments. For a complete list click here (in French).

There are also a very large number of items which are registered as historical objects in various locations. For a complete list click here. (in French)

Civil heritage

Some of the most interesting sites are:

Religious heritage

The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:

Facilities

Cultural facilities

Concert at Le Prisme Indochine @ Le Prisme.jpg
Concert at Le Prisme

Aurillac has several dance centres:

Cultural events and festivities

Festival of Street theatre at Aurillac Festival 2005 (2).JPG
Festival of Street theatre at Aurillac

Sports

Profile of the 10th stage of the Tour de France Profil de la 10eme etape du Tour de France 2011.svg
Profile of the 10th stage of the Tour de France

In 2011 Aurillac hosted the start of the Tour de France in the 10th stage.

Places of Worship

Military

Two military units are garrisoned in Aurillac:

Aurillac has long been a garrison town with the 139th Infantry Regiment, who are noted for their feats during the Battle of the Somme. They have a remarkable chronology and a cabinet of trophies were displayed in the Hall of Honour of the Departmental Military Delegation who have since moved, forgetting to preserve and safeguard this part of history.

The military square is wide and airy and a feature of military architecture of the time. It is now known as the Zone of Peace and is now converted into a parking lot leaving a clear view of the 3 buildings that surround it. The entrance to the barracks was destroyed and replaced by a modern building. It houses administrative services, treasury, CABA, Mortgages, Cadastre etc. In the 1950s the old military buildings became the "Cité Administrative".

The clock building is called so because of the great clock that adorns this building. It is also commonly called the House of unions and associations. Originally these buildings were the former Convent of the Visitation, built in 1682. The Convent was converted into a barracks for infantry in 1792 and occupied half of the buildings until 1922, hence the transformation of buildings to equestrian use. Today the Pierre-Mendès-France Cultural Centre occupies the premises including the Museum of Art and Archaeology, the County Conservatory of Music and Dance, the youth service activities of the town of Aurillac, and a crèche for children. The Stables were then used by the national stud established by Napoleon in 1806; a depot of stallions was created in Aurillac. At the Battle of Austerlitz Napoleon rode Cantal, a speckled gray horse which is visible in a painting in the Art and Archaeology Museum. When the National Stud moved the stables were transformed into an exhibition hall / gallery and a range of exhibitions is held every year including the Salon des Métiers d'Art d'Aurillac.

Notable people linked to the commune

Aurillac was the birthplace of
Saint Gerald of Aurillac Geraud d'Aurillac.jpg
Saint Gerald of Aurillac
Statue of Pope Sylvester II (1851) Aurillac - Sylvestre II.jpg
Statue of Pope Sylvester II (1851) Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg
L-F Grognier L-F Grognier par E Chapsal.jpg
L-F Grognier
Linked to Aurillac

See also

Notes

  1. In the Middle Ages in the south of France an area of extra-territoriality protected by the Catholic Church.
  2. At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine , the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

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References

  1. "Populations légales 2016". INSEE . Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  2. Inhabitants of Cantal (in French)
  3. Google Maps
  4. Aurillac in the Competition for Towns and Villages in Bloom Archived 10 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  5. "Données climatiques de la station de MAurillac" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  6. "Climat Auvergne" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  7. "Décret n° 2014-149 du 13 février 2014 portant délimitation des cantons dans le département du Cantal | Legifrance" . Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  8. List of Mayors of France (in French)
  9. National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (in French)
  10. Abeil
  11. Net-truck (in French)
  12. Aerodiscount
  13. Qualiac
  14. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093450 Chateau of Saint-Etienne (in French)
  15. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093460 Consul's House (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  16. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093466 Palace of Justice (in French)
  17. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093467 Prison (in French)
  18. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093452 Police Station (in French)
  19. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093459 Town Hall (in French)
  20. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093454 Prefecture (in French)
  21. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093448 Abbey Saint-Géraud (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  22. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000760 Organ (in French)
  23. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000072 Instrumental part of the Organ (in French)
  24. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000102 Reliquary of Saint Blaise (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  25. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000101 Reliquary of Saint Benoît (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  26. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000100 Reliquary of Saint Odon (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  27. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093451 Church of Notre-Dame-aux-Neiges (in French)
  28. Anne Courtillé - Auvergne, Bourbonnais, Velay gothiques - pp.134-137 - Editions A. et J. Picard - Paris - 2002 - ISBN   2-7084-0683-3 (in French)
  29. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA15000030 Church of Sacré Coeur (in French)
  30. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000755 Interior Decor, Stained glass, Reliefs, paintings, and mosaics (in French)
  31. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093449 Chapel of Aurinques (in French)
  32. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000080 Bronze Bell (in French)
  33. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PIM15000079 Ex-voto Painting: Procession of Acts of Grace (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  34. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PIM15000078 Ex-voto Painting: Deliverance of the Town (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  35. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PIM15000077 Ex-voto Painting: Attack on the Town (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  36. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM15000076 Glass wall: virgin and Child (in French)
  37. Aurillac Protestant Church (in French)
  38. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00093468 Statue ofChurch (in French)
  39. Claude Barthe, Joseph Malègue and the "Novel of ideas" in the modern crisis in Les romanciers et le catholicisme, Éditions de Paris, 2004, pp. 83-97, p. 92. ISBN   2-85162-107-6 (in French)

Bibliography