An aerial view of Aurillac
|Canton||Aurillac-1, Aurillac-2, Aurillac-3|
|Intercommunality||CA Bassin Aurillac|
|• Mayor (2014-2020)||Pierre Mathonier|
|28.76 km2 (11.10 sq mi)|
|• Density||960/km2 (2,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||573–867 m (1,880–2,844 ft) |
(avg. 622 m or 2,041 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Aurillac (French pronunciation: [ɔʁijak] (
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc by its native speakers, is a Romance language. It is spoken in southern France, Italy's Occitan Valleys, Monaco, and Spain's Val d'Aran; collectively, these regions are sometimes referred to as Occitania. Occitan is also spoken in the linguistic enclave of Guardia Piemontese. However, there is controversy about the unity of the language, as some think that Occitan is a macrolanguage. Others include Catalan in this family, as the distance between this language and some Occitan dialects is similar to the distance among different Occitan dialects. In fact, Catalan was considered an Occitan dialect until the end of the 19th century.
A prefecture in France may refer to:
Cantal is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of France, with its prefecture in Aurillac. Its other principal towns are Saint-Flour and Mauriac and its residents are known as Cantalians. Cantal borders the departments of Puy-de-Dôme, Haute-Loire, Aveyron, Lot, Lozère and Corrèze, in the Massif Central natural region. Along with Lozère and Creuse, Cantal is among the most sparsely populated and geographically isolated departments of France and Aurillac is the departmental capital farthest removed from a major motorway. It had a population of 145,969 in 2016, making it the country's 97th most populated department.
Aurillac is at 600 m (2,000 ft) above sea level and located at the foot of the Cantal mountains in a small Sedimentary basin. The city is built on the banks of the Jordanne, a tributary of the Cère. It is 558 km (347 mi) south of Paris and 223 km (139 mi) north of Toulouse. Aurillac was part of a former Auvergne province called Haute-Auvergne and is only 20 km (12 mi) away from the heart of the Auvergne Volcano Park. Access to the commune is by numerous roads including the D922 from Naucelles in the north, the D17 from Saint-Simon in the north-east, Route nationale N122 from Polminhac in the east which continues to Sansac-de-Marmiesse in the south-west, the D920 to Arpajon-sur-Cère in the south-east, and the D18 to Ytrac in the west. The Figeac-Arvant railway passes through the commune with a station in the centre of town but there is no TGV service. About 50% of the commune is urbanised with farmland to the east and west of the urban area.
Sedimentary basins are regions of Earth of long-term subsidence creating accommodation space for infilling by sediments. The subsidence can result from a variety of causes that include: the thinning of underlying crust, sedimentary, volcanic, and tectonic loading, and changes in the thickness or density of adjacent lithosphere. Sedimentary basins occur in diverse geological settings usually associated with plate tectonic activity. Basins are classified structurally in various ways, with a primary classifications distinguishing among basins formed in various plate tectonic regime, the proximity of the basin to the active plate margins, and whether oceanic, continental or transitional crust underlies the basin. Basins formed in different plate tectonic regimes vary in their preservation potential. On oceanic crust, basins are likely to be subducted, while marginal continental basins may be partially preserved, and intracratonic basins have a high probability of preservation. As the sediments are buried, they are subjected to increasing pressure and begin the process of lithification. A number of basins formed in extensional settings can undergo inversion which has accounted for a number of the economically viable oil reserves on earth which were formerly basins.
The Cère is a 120 km (75 mi) long river in south-western France, left tributary of the Dordogne River. Its source is in the south-western Massif Central, near the mountain Plomb du Cantal. It flows generally west through the following départements and towns:
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, as well as the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion in 2017. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018. The city is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, and is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015.
Aurillac – Tronquières Airport is located in the south of the commune with its runway extending beyond the commune boundary. It is connected to Paris by two daily flights by the Air France subsidiary HOP!. The commune was awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom.
Aurillac – Tronquières Airport is an airport located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) southwest of Aurillac, a commune of the Cantal département in the Auvergne région of France.
HOP! is the brand name of the regional flights operated by subsidiaries of Air France. Its flights are operated by Airlinair, Brit Air and Régional under the HOP! brand. The brand offers daily flights to 50 French and European destinations. Its head office is at Nantes Atlantique Airport.
The Jordanne river flows through the heart of the commune from north to south where it joins the Cère just south of the commune.
Naucelles is a commune in the Cantal department in south-central France.
Ytrac is a commune in the Cantal department in south-central France.
Aurillac has an oceanic climate with cool winters and warm summers due to its distance from the ocean and its altitude. Rainfall, however, is abundant with 1,174 millimetres (46.2 in) and 130 days per year with precipitation. Snow is common and sometimes abundant with 31 snow days per year and during some snowfalls the quantity of snow can be high. Frost is very common with 80 days of frost per year with the period of freezing frequently extending from October to May. Despite its altitude, Aurillac still has 8 days of high temperatures. Days with heavy frosts are frequent (21 days). The city also has 2118 sunshine hours per year. The record low temperature was −24.5 °C (−12 °F) on 9 January 1985 and the record high was 38.0 °C (100 °F) on 30 July 1983.
An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features mild summers and mild winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest month, and above 0 °C (32 °F) in the coldest month.
|Climate data for Aurillac (1981–2010 averages)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.8|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.7|
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.0|
|Record low °C (°F)||−21.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||91.7|
|Average precipitation days||12.0||10.6||11.1||12.1||12.7||9.7||8.1||9.5||8.8||11.4||12.0||11.8||130.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||110.0||126.8||177.2||179.3||210.4||242.1||268.0||248.8||206.1||148.7||100.3||100.0||2,117.5|
|Source: Météo France|
The origin of the name Aurillac is from Aureliacum meaning "Villa of Aurelius" and dates back to the Gallo-Roman era. It is attested in the polygonal Fanum d'Aron which was built in the 1st century and discovered in 1977 at Lescudillier.
It is thought that in the Gallic era the original site of the city was on the heights overlooking the current city at Saint-Jean-de-Dône ("Dône" from dunum) and, like most oppida, it was abandoned after the Roman conquest in favour of a new city established on the plain. With the return of instability in the Lower Roman Empire there was a movement towards Encastellation and a new fortified site was established in mid-slope between the former oppidum and the old Gallo-Roman city where the Chateau of Saint-Étienne is today.
The history of the city is really only known from 856, the year of the birth of Count Gerald of Aurillac at the castle where his father, also named Gerald, was lord. In 885 he founded a Benedictine monastery which later bore his name. It was in this monastery that Gerbert, the first French pope under the name of Sylvester II, studied.
The city was made in a Sauvetéarea which was located between four crosses and was founded in 898 by Gerald shortly after the abbey. The first urban area was circular and built close to the Abbey of Aurillac. Gerald died around 910 but his influence was such that over the centuries Gerald was always a baptismal name prevalent in the population of Aurillac and the surrounding area.
It was in the 13th century that municipal conflict began between consuls and abbots. After taking the Chateau of Saint-Étienne in 1255 and two negotiated agreements called the Peace of Aurillac, relations were normalised.
In the 13th and 14th centuries Aurillac withstood several sieges by the English and in the 16th century continued to suffer from civil and religious wars.
The influence of the abbey declined with its secularization and its implementation of orders.
In 1569 the city was delivered by treason to the Protestants: people were tortured and held to ransom and the Abbey was sacked. The library and archives were all burned.
Before the French Revolution Aurillac had a Présidial and carried the title of capital of the Haute-Auvergne. In 1790 on the creation of departments, after a period of alternating with Saint-Flour, Aurillac definitively became the capital of Cantal.
The arrival of the railway in 1866 accelerated the development of the city.
At the first census in 1759 there were 6,268 people in Aurillac, it now has about 28,000.
|The traditional arms of Aurillac. The three silver shells were originally on one line because Aurillac was a stage on the Way of St. James coming from Clermont-Ferrand (currently the Via Arvernha). The three fleurs-de-lis gold indicated a Good Town at a time when Aurillac provided a body of two hundred picked men to King Charles VII to fight the British. |
|The traditional arms of the Abbey and County of Aurillac. These arms were originally on the banner of the abbey representing a patch of grass, evoking a miraculous fact related by Odo of Cluny in his Life of Saint Gerald of Aurillac . |
Aurillac is the capital of the department of Cantal (seat of the prefecture) and of the Arrondissement of Aurillac as well as for three cantons (INSEE names):
List of Successive Mayors
|1941||1944||Antony Joly||Appointed by the Vichy Regime. Textile Entrepreneur|
|1944||1947||Jean Chanal||Doctor, Former Mayor|
|1947||1953||Henri Tricot||Dentist, Legion of Honour|
|1953||1965||Paul Joseph Amable Piales||Industrialist, Legion of Honour, Senator for Cantal 1948-1971|
|1965||1971||Jacques Meyniel||PS||Son of Mayor Louis Meyniel, MP for Cantal|
|1971||1977||Jean Mézard||CNIP||Doctor, President of the General Council|
|2001||2006||René Souchon||PS||Resigned to become President of the Auvergne Regional Council|
|2006||2013||Alain Calmette||PS||General Counsellor, MP for Cantal from 2012|
(Not all data is known)
Aurillac has twinning associations with:
In 2010 the commune had 27,924 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.
Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)
Aurillac has hundreds of boutiques, shops, and artisans.
Also found in Aurillac are different players in various food fields (e.g. the Couderc distillery with its famous gentian liqueur and famous establishments such as the Leroux and Bonal cheese factories, the Morin refinery, MAS charcuteries, Teil cured by the Altitude group, refrigerated transport operator Olano Ladoux etc.).
Aurillac is best known for its Cheese centre based on the heights of Aurillac close to the Chateau Saint-Étienne. It was established in 1993, the structure consists of an association bringing together many organisations to develop scientific programs. It develops scientific programs relating to the cheese sector.
Aurillac hosts several websites:
Aurillac has also been the headquarters of the ERP vendor Qualiac since 1979.
The commune has a very large number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments. For a complete list click here (in French).
There are also a very large number of items which are registered as historical objects in various locations. For a complete list click here. (in French)
Some of the most interesting sites are:
The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:
Aurillac has several dance centres:
In 2011 Aurillac hosted the start of the Tour de France in the 10th stage.
Two military units are garrisoned in Aurillac:
Aurillac has long been a garrison town with the 139th Infantry Regiment, who are noted for their feats during the Battle of the Somme. They have a remarkable chronology and a cabinet of trophies were displayed in the Hall of Honour of the Departmental Military Delegation who have since moved, forgetting to preserve and safeguard this part of history.
The military square is wide and airy and a feature of military architecture of the time. It is now known as the Zone of Peace and is now converted into a parking lot leaving a clear view of the 3 buildings that surround it. The entrance to the barracks was destroyed and replaced by a modern building. It houses administrative services, treasury, CABA, Mortgages, Cadastre etc. In the 1950s the old military buildings became the "Cité Administrative".
The clock building is called so because of the great clock that adorns this building. It is also commonly called the House of unions and associations. Originally these buildings were the former Convent of the Visitation, built in 1682. The Convent was converted into a barracks for infantry in 1792 and occupied half of the buildings until 1922, hence the transformation of buildings to equestrian use. Today the Pierre-Mendès-France Cultural Centre occupies the premises including the Museum of Art and Archaeology, the County Conservatory of Music and Dance, the youth service activities of the town of Aurillac, and a crèche for children. The Stables were then used by the national stud established by Napoleon in 1806; a depot of stallions was created in Aurillac. At the Battle of Austerlitz Napoleon rode Cantal, a speckled gray horse which is visible in a painting in the Art and Archaeology Museum. When the National Stud moved the stables were transformed into an exhibition hall / gallery and a range of exhibitions is held every year including the Salon des Métiers d'Art d'Aurillac.
Arbois is a commune in the Jura department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France. The Cuisance River passes through the town, which has some pretty streets lined with ancient houses. The town centres on an arcaded central square where one can sample the local wines.
Aubigny is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region of north-western France.
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Aubeterre-sur-Dronne is a commune in the Charente department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. It has been officially listed as "One of the most beautiful villages in France," since 1993. Aubeterre-sur-Dronne is also well known for its Church of Saint Jean, an underground, Monolithic Church.
Ars-sur-Formans is a commune in the Ain department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of eastern France.
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