Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

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Kosovo and Metohija

Аутономна Покрајина Косово и Метохиja  (Serbian)
Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo i Metohija  (Serbian)
Krahina Autonome e Kosovës dhe Metohisë  (Albanian)
Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija
Kosovo and Metohija in Serbia.svg
Location of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia
Coordinates: 42°40′N21°10′E / 42.667°N 21.167°E / 42.667; 21.167 Coordinates: 42°40′N21°10′E / 42.667°N 21.167°E / 42.667; 21.167
Country Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
Formation of FR Yugoslavia 1992
Establishment of UNMIK 1999
Administrative center Pristina
Area
[1]
  Total10,910 km2 (4,210 sq mi)
Population
 (2011 census)
  Total1,780,021
  Density160/km2 (420/sq mi)
Languages
  Official languages
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code RS-KM
Map of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija Kosovo ap en.png
Map of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

The Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, [lower-alpha 1] commonly known as Kosovo and Metohija [lower-alpha 2] or Kosovo [lower-alpha 3] for short and abbreviated as KiM [lower-alpha 4] or Kosmet, [lower-alpha 5] [2] refers to the region of Kosovo [lower-alpha 6] as defined in the Constitution of Serbia. [3] The territory of the province is disputed between Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, the latter of which has de facto control. The region had functioned as part of Serbia (mainly while Serbia had been part of a Yugoslav state) for most of the period between 1912 and 1999.

Contents

The territory of the province, as recognized by Serbian laws, lies in the southern part of Serbia and covers the regions of Kosovo and Metohija. The capital of the province is Pristina. The territory was previously an autonomous province of Serbia during Socialist Yugoslavia (1946–1990), and acquired its current status in 1990. The province was governed as part of Serbia until the Kosovo War (1998–99), when it became a United Nations (UN) protectorate in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, but still internationally recognized as part of Serbia. The control was then transferred to the UN administration of UNMIK. On February 17, 2008, representatives of the people of Kosovo (Albanian : Udhëheqësit e popullit tonë, të zgjedhur në mënyrë demokratike) unilaterally and extra-institutionally declared Kosovo's independence, [4] which is recognized by 96 UN members, but not by Serbia which still regards it as its province. [5] On 22 July 2010 the International Court of Justice (ICJ) concluded that "the declaration of independence of Kosovo adopted on 17 February 2008 did not violate international law". [6]

Overview

In 1990, the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, an autonomous province of Serbia within Yugoslavia, had undergone the Anti-bureaucratic revolution by Slobodan Milošević's government which resulted in the reduction of its powers, effectively returning it to its constitutional status of 1971–74. The same year, its Albanian majority—as well as the Republic of Albania—supported the proclamation of an independent Republic of Kosova. Following the end of the Kosovo War 1999, and as a result of NATO intervention, [7] [8] Serbia and the federal government no longer exercised de facto control over the territory.

In February 2008, the Republic of Kosovo declared independence. [9] [10] While Serbia has not recognised Kosovo's independence, in the Brussels agreement of 2013, it abolished all its institutions in the Autonomous Province. Kosovo's independence is currently recognized by 96 UN member states. [7] [11] In 2013, the Serbian government announced it was dissolving the Serb minority assemblies it had created in northern Kosovo, in order to allow the integration of the Kosovo Serb minority into the general population of Kosovo. [12]

History

Constitutional changes were made in Yugoslavia in 1990. The parliaments of all Yugoslavian republics and provinces, which until then had MPs only from the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, were dissolved and multi-party elections were held within them. Kosovar Albanians refused to participate in the elections so they held their own unsanctioned elections instead. As election laws required (and still require) turnout higher than 50%, a parliament in Kosovo could not be established.[ citation needed ]

The new constitution abolished the individual provinces' official media, integrating them within the official media of Serbia while still retaining some programs in the Albanian language. The Albanian-language media in Kosovo were suppressed. Funding was withdrawn from state-owned media, including those in the Albanian language in Kosovo. The constitution made the creation of privately owned media possible, however their operation was very difficult because of high rents and restrictive laws. State-owned Albanian language television or radio was also banned from broadcasting from Kosovo. [13] However, privately owned Albanian media outlets appeared; of these, probably the most famous is "Koha Ditore", which was allowed to operate until late 1998 when it was closed after publishing a calendar glorifying ethnic Albanian separatists.[ citation needed ]

The constitution also transferred control over state-owned companies to the Yugoslav central government. In September 1990, up to 123,000 Albanian workers were dismissed from their positions in government and media, as were teachers, doctors, and civil servants, [14] provoking a general strike and mass unrest. Some of those who were not sacked quit in sympathy, refusing to work for the Serbian government. Although the sackings were widely seen as a purge of ethnic Albanians, the government maintained that it was removing former communist directors.

Albanian educational curriculum textbooks were withdrawn and replaced by new ones. The curriculum was (and still is, as this is the curriculum used for Albanians in Serbia outside Kosovo) identical to its Serbian counterpart and that of all other nationalities in Serbia except that it had education on and in the Albanian language. Education in Albanian was withdrawn in 1992 and re-established in 1994. [15] At the University of Pristina, which was seen as a centre of Kosovo Albanian cultural identity, education in the Albanian language was abolished and Albanian teachers were also dismissed in large numbers. Albanians responded by boycotting state schools and setting up an unofficial parallel system of Albanian-language education. [16]

Kosovo Albanians were outraged by what they saw as an attack on their rights. Following mass rioting and unrest from Albanians as well as outbreaks of inter-communal violence, in February 1990, a state of emergency was declared and the presence of the Yugoslav Army and police was significantly increased to quell the unrest.[ citation needed ]

Unsanctioned elections were held in 1992, which overwhelmingly elected Ibrahim Rugova as "president" of a self-declared Republic of Kosova; Serb authorities rejected the election results, and tried to capture and prosecute those who had voted. [17] In 1995, thousands of Serb refugees from Croatia were settled in Kosovo, which further worsened relations between the two communities.[ citation needed ]

Albanian opposition to the sovereignty of Yugoslavia and especially Serbia had previously surfaced in rioting (1968 and March 1981) in the capital Pristina.[ dubious ] Rugova initially advocated non-violent resistance, but later opposition took the form of separatist agitation by opposition political groups and armed action from 1996 by the "Kosovo Liberation Army" (Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës, or UÇK) whose activities led to the Kosovo War ending with the 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the eventual creation of the UN Kosovo protectorate (UNMIK).[ citation needed ]

In 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro left the federation in 2006 and recognised Kosovo's independence in 2008). [18]

Politics and government

The regions of Metohija (yellow), and Kosovo (blue) Kosovo och Metohija.PNG
The regions of Metohija (yellow), and Kosovo (blue)

Since 1999, the Serb-inhabited areas of Kosovo have been governed as a de facto independent region from the Albanian-dominated government in Pristina. They continue to use Serbian national symbols and participate in Serbian national elections, which are boycotted in the rest of Kosovo; in turn, they boycott Kosovo's elections. The municipalities of Leposavić, Zvečan and Zubin Potok are run by local Serbs, while the Kosovska Mitrovica municipality had rival Serbian and Albanian governments until a compromise was agreed in November 2002. [19]

The Serb areas have united into a community, the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija established in February 2003 by Serbian delegates meeting in North Mitrovica, which has since served as the de facto "capital." The Union's president is Dragan Velić. There is also a central governing body, the Serbian National Council for Kosovo and Metohija (SNV). The President of SNV in North Kosovo is Dr Milan Ivanović, while the head of its Executive Council is Rada Trajković. [20]

Local politics are dominated by the Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohija. The Serbian List was led by Oliver Ivanović, an engineer from Kosovska Mitrovica. [21]

In February 2007 the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija has transformed into the Serbian Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija presided by Marko Jakšić. The Assembly strongly criticised the secessionist movements of the Albanian-dominated PISG Assembly of Kosovo and demanded unity of the Serb people in Kosovo, boycott of EULEX and announced massive protests in support of Serbia's sovereignty over Kosovo. On 18 February 2008, day after Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence, the Assembly declared it "null and void". [22] [23]

Also, there was a Ministry for Kosovo and Metohija within the Serbian government, with Goran Bogdanović as Minister for Kosovo and Metohija. In 2012, that ministry was downgraded to the Office for Kosovo and Metohija, with Aleksandar Vulin as the head of the new office. [24] However, in 2013, Aleksandar Vulin post was raised into being a Minister without portfolio in charge of Kosovo and Metohija.

Administrative divisions

Districts in Kosovo and Metohija M kosovo02.png
Districts in Kosovo and Metohija

Five Serbian Districts are in the territory of Kosovo, comprising 28 municipalities and 1 city. In 2000, UNMIK created 7 new districts [ citation needed ] and 30 municipalities. Serbia does not exercise sovereignty over this polity. For the UNMIK districts and the districts of Kosovo, see Districts of Kosovo.

DistrictSeatPopulation
in 2016 (rank)
Municipalities and cities
Kosovo District
(Kosovski okrug)
Kosovski okrug.PNG
Pristina 672,292
Kosovo-Pomoravlje District
(Kosovsko-Pomoravski okrug)
Kosovsko-Pomoravski okrug.PNG
Gjilan 166,212
Kosovska Mitrovica District
(Kosovskomitrovički okrug)
Kosovskomitrovicki okrug.PNG
Mitrovica 225,212
Peć District
(Pećki okrug)
Pecki okrug.PNG
Peja 178,326
Prizren District
(Prizrenski okrug)
Prizrenski okrug.PNG
Prizren 376,085

See also

Annotations

  1. Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Косово и Метохиja, romanized: Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo i Metohija; Albanian: Krahina Autonome e Kosovës dhe Metohisë
  2. Serbian: Косово и Метохија, romanized: Kosovo i Metohija; Albanian: Kosova dhe Metohija
  3. Serbian Cyrillic: Косово; Albanian: Kosova
  4. Serbian Cyrillic: КиМ
  5. Serbian Cyrillic: Космет; from Kosovo (Косово) and Metohija (Метохија)
  6. Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 96 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 113 UN member states are said to have recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.

Notes

    Related Research Articles

    Kosovo Partially recognised state in Southeastern Europe

    Kosovo, officially the Republic of Kosovo, is a partially recognised state in Southeastern Europe. It lies at the centre of the Balkans, occupying an area of 10,887 km2 (4,203 sq mi), with a population of 1.8 million; and is bordered by the uncontested territory of Serbia to the north and east, North Macedonia to the southeast, Albania to the southwest, and Montenegro to the west. Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, and has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by 96 member states of the United Nations. Most of central Kosovo is dominated by the vast plains and fields of Metohija and Kosovo. The Accursed Mountains and Šar Mountains rise in the southwest and southeast, respectively. Its capital and largest city is Pristina.

    United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo Officially mandated mission of the United Nations in Kosovo

    The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) is the officially mandated mission of the United Nations in Kosovo. The UNMIK describes its mandate as being to "help the United Nations Security Council achieve an overall objective, namely, to ensure conditions for a peaceful and normal life for all inhabitants of Kosovo and advance regional stability in the western Balkans."

    Metohija Geographical and historical region of Kosovo

    Metohija or Dukagjini is a large basin and the name of the region covering the southwestern part of Kosovo. The region covers 35% (3,891 km2) of Kosovo's total area. According to the 2011 census, the population of the region is 700,577.

    Parliamentary elections to the Assembly of Kosovo have been held four times since 1999 with the latest in December 2010. The Assembly was an institution within the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) established by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) to provide 'provisional, democratic self-government' in advance of a decision on the final status of Kosovo. Kosovo, formerly a province of Serbia, came under UN administration in 1999 and unilaterally declared its independence in February 2008. The Assembly elected in 2007 continued in office after the declaration of independence.

    The politics of Kosovo takes place in a framework of a multi-party parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President (Presidenti) is the head of state and the Prime Minister (Kryeministri) the head of government. Parliamentary elections are held every four years, the most recent in 2021.

    The administrative divisions of Serbia are regulated by the Government of Serbia Enactment of 29 January 1992, and by the Law on Territorial Organization adopted by the National Assembly of Serbia on 29 December 2007.

    Republic of Kosova 1991–1999 self-declared state in southeastern Europe

    The Republic of Kosova or First Republic of Kosovo was a self-declared proto-state in southeastern Europe established in 1991. During its peak, it tried to establish its own parallel political institutions in opposition to the institutions of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija held by Yugoslavia's Republic of Serbia.

    Leposavić Town and municipality in District of Mitrovica, Kosovo

    Leposavić or Leposaviq or Albanik, is a town and the northernmost municipality in the Mitrovica District in Kosovo. As of 2015, it has an estimated population of 18,600 inhabitants. The municipality covers an area of 539 km2 (208 sq mi) which makes it the fifth largest in Kosovo, and consists of the town and 72 villages.

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 United Nations Security Council resolution

    United Nations Security Council resolution 1244, adopted on 10 June 1999, after recalling resolutions 1160 (1998), 1199 (1998), 1203 (1998) and 1239 (1999), authorised an international civil and military presence in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and established the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). It followed an agreement by Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević to terms proposed by President of Finland Martti Ahtisaari and former Prime Minister of Russia Viktor Chernomyrdin on 8 June, involving withdrawal of all Yugoslav state forces from Kosovo.

    Kosovo during the 20th century history has largely been characterised by wars and major population displacements. The region formed a part of numerous entities, some internationally recognised, others not.

    The political status of Kosovo, also known as the Kosovo question, is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian government and the Government of Kosovo, stemming from the breakup of Yugoslavia (1991–92) and the ensuing Kosovo War (1998–99). In 1999 the administration of the province was handed on an interim basis to the United Nations under the terms of UNSCR 1244 which ended the Kosovo conflict of that year. That resolution reaffirmed the sovereignty of Serbia over Kosovo but required the UN administration to promote the establishment of 'substantial autonomy and self-government' for Kosovo pending a 'final settlement' for negotiation between the parties.

    North Kosovo Geographical region in Kosovo

    NorthKosovo, also known as the Ibar Kolašin, is a region in the northern part of Kosovo, composed of four municipalities with ethnic Kosovo Serbs majority: North Mitrovica, Leposavić, Zvečan and Zubin Potok.

    Flag of Kosovo National flag

    The Assembly of Kosovo adopted the flag of the Republic of Kosovo immediately following the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo of 17 February 2008. The flag design emerged from an international competition, organized by the United Nations-backed Kosovo Unity Team, which attracted almost one thousand entries. The current design was proposed by Muhamer Ibrahimi. It shows six white stars in an arc above a golden map of Kosovo, all on a blue field. The stars symbolize Kosovo's six major ethnic groups: Albanians, Serbs, Bosniaks, Turks, Romani, and Gorani.

    The 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence was adopted at a meeting held on 17 February 2008 by 109 out of the 120 members of the Assembly of Kosovo, including the Prime Minister of Kosovo and by the President of Kosovo. It was the second declaration of independence by Kosovo's Albanian-majority political institutions; the first was proclaimed on 7 September 1990.

    2008 unrest in Kosovo

    The 2008 unrest in Kosovo followed Kosovo's declaration of independence on February 17, 2008. Some Kosovo Serbs opposed to secession boycotted the move by refusing to follow orders from the central government in Pristina and attempted to seize infrastructure and border posts in Serb-populated regions. There were also sporadic instances of violence against international institutions and governmental institutions, predominantly in North Kosovo.

    Outline of Kosovo Overview of and topical guide to Kosovo

    The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Kosovo, a territory in the Balkans. See also Kosovo (region).

    The 2008 Serbian local elections in Kosovo were held on 11 May 2008, together with Serbia's parliamentary elections and elections in Vojvodina. UNMIK authorities have criticized Serbia organizing

    Assembly of the Community of Municipalities, Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

    The Assembly of the Community of Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, was the assembly of the association of local governments created by the municipal authorities in Kosovo elected in the May 11, 2008 municipal elections called by the Government of Serbia. It was created in Kosovska Mitrovica to represent the municipalities that defy the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence. The Assembly is composed of 45 representatives delegated by 26 municipalities. The majority of delegates are ethnic Serbs, while some represent Gorani, Bosniak and Romani communities.

    Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo Province of the Serbian SR, within SFR Yugoslavia (1945-90)

    The Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, comprising the Kosovo region, was one of the two autonomous provinces of Serbia within Yugoslavia, between 1945 and 1990, when it was renamed Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.

    Oliver Ivanović Kosovo Serb politician

    Oliver Ivanović was a Kosovo Serb politician.

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