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|Populations||42,090 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 1,532,243 (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug)|
|Areas||177,000 km2 (68,200 sq mi) (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) - 750,000 km2 (289,700 sq mi) (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug)|
Autonomous okrug (Russian:автономный округ, lit. 'avtonomny okrug'), occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its 85 federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an oblast. The other three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Tyumen Oblast's Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.
Originally called national okrug, this type of administrative unit was created in the 1920s and widely implemented in 1930s to provide autonomy to indigenous peoples of the North, like the Karelian National Okrug for the Tver Karelians . In 1977, the 1977 Soviet Constitution changed the term "national okrugs" to "autonomous okrugs" in order to emphasize that they were indeed autonomies and not simply another type of administrative and territorial division. While the 1977 Constitution stipulated that the autonomous okrugs are subordinated to the oblasts and krais, this clause was revised on December 15, 1990, when it was specified that autonomous okrugs are subordinated directly to the Russian SFSR, although they still may stay in jurisdiction of a krai or an oblast to which they were subordinated before.
|Flag||Map||Name||Domestic names||Capital||Population (2010) ||Area||Formation|
| Chukotka Autonomous Okrug || Russian : Чукотский Автономный Округ(Chukotskiy Avtonomny Okrug)|
Chukot : Чукоткакэн Aвтономныкэн Округ(Chukotkaken Avtonomnyken Okrug)
| Anadyr |
Russian : Анадырь(Anadyr)
Chukot : Кагыргын(Kagyrgyn)
|50,526||721,481 km2 (278,565 sq mi)||1930-12-10|
| Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug || Russian : Ханты-Мансийский Автономный Округ(Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomny Okrug)|
Khanty: Хӑнты-Мансийской Aвтономной Округ (Ȟănty-Mansijskoj Avtonomnoj Okrug)
Mansi: Ханты-Мансийский Автономный Округ (Hanty-Mansijskij Avtonomnyj Okrug)
| Khanty-Mansiysk |
Russian : Ханты-Мансийск(Khanty-Mansiysk)
Khanty: Ёмвоҷ (Yomvoḉ)
Mansi: Абга (Abga)
|1,532,243||534,801 km2 (206,488 sq mi)||1930-12-10|
| Nenets Autonomous Okrug || Russian : Ненецкий Автономный Округ(Nenetskiy Avtonomny Okrug)|
Nenets : Ненёцие Aвтономной Ӈокрук(Nenjocije Awtonomnoj Ŋokruk)
| Naryan-Mar |
Russian : Нарьян-Мар(Naryan-Mar)
Nenets : Няръянa Mарˮ(Nyar'yana Marq)
|42,090||176,810 km2 (68,267 sq mi)||1929-07-15|
| Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug || Russian : Ямало-Ненецкий Автономный Округ(Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomny Okrug)|
Nenets : Ямалы-Ненёцие Aвтономной Ӈокрук(Yamaly-Nenyotsiye Avtonomnoj Ŋokruk)
| Salekhard |
Russian : Салехард(Salekhard)
Nenets : Саляʼ Xарад(Salja’ Harad)
|522,904||769,250 km2 (297,009 sq mi)||1930-12-10|
| Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug || Russian : Агинский Бурятский Автономный Округ(Aginskiy Buryatskiy Avtonomny Okrug)|
Buryat : Агын Буряадай Aвтономито Tойрог(Agyn Buryaaday Avtonomito Toyrog)
| Aginskoye |
Russian : Агинское(Aginskoye)
Buryat : Ага(Aga)
|76,383 (2008)||19,592 km2 (7,565 sq mi)||1937–2008|
| Evenk Autonomous Okrug || Russian : Эвенкийский Автономный Округ(Evenkiyskiy Avtonomny Okrug)|
Evenki : Эведы Автомоды Округ(Ēvēde Avtōmōde Okrug)
| Tura |
Russian : Тура(Tura)
Evenki : Typy(Turu)
|16,979 (2007)||763,197 km2 (294,672 sq mi)||1930–2007|
| Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug || Russian : Коми-Пермяцкий Автономный Округ(Komi-Permyatskiy Avtonomny Okrug)|
Komi-Permyak : Коми-Пермяцкöй Aвтономнöй Округ(Komi-Permjacköj Avtonomnöj Okrug)
| Kudymkar |
Russian : Кудымкар(Kudymkar)
Komi-Permyak : Кудымкöр(Kudymkör)
|132,824 (2005)||32,770 km2 (12,653 sq mi)||1930–2005|
| Koryak Autonomous Okrug || Russian : Корякский Автономный Округ(Koryakskiy Avtonomny Okrug)|
Koryak: Чав’чываокруг (Čav’čyvaokrug)
| Palana |
Russian : Палана(Palana)
Koryak: Пылылъын (Pylylʺyn)
|22,580 (2007)||292,600 km2 (112,973 sq mi)||1930–2007|
| Taymyr Autonomous Okrug ||Russian : Таймырский Автономный Округ(Taymyrskiy Avtonomny Okrug)|| Dudinka |
Russian : Дудинка(Dudinka)
|38,372 (2007)||879,929 km2 (339,742 sq mi)||1930–2007|
| Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug || Russian : Усть-Ордынский Бурятский Автономный Округ(Ust’-Ordynskiy Avtonomny Okrug)|
Buryat : Усть-Ордын Буряадай Aвтономито Tойрог(Ust’-Ordyn Buryaaday Avtonomito Toyrog)
| Ust-Ordynsky |
Russian : Усть-Ордынский(Ust-Ordynsky)
Buryat : Ордын Адаг(Ordyn Adag)
|134,320 (2008)||22,400 km2 (8,649 sq mi)||1937–2008|
In 1990, ten autonomous okrugs existed within the RSFSR. Between 2005 and 2008, the three autonomous okrugs in which the titular nationality constituted more than 30% of the population were abolished. Since then, three more have been abolished, leaving four. On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.The process was subsequently scrapped on July 2 following public outcry to the merger.
The ten autonomous okrugs in 1990 were:
|Entity in 1990||Status in August 2008|
|Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug||now Agin-Buryat Okrug of Zabaykalsky Krai|
|Chukotka Autonomous Okrug within Magadan Oblast||no longer subordinated to Magadan Oblast|
|Evenk Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai||now Evenkiysky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast||(no change)|
|Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug||now Komi-Permyak Okrug of Perm Krai|
|Koryak Autonomous Okrug within Kamchatka Oblast||now Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai|
|Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Arkhangelsk Oblast||(no change)|
|Taymyr Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai||now Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug within Irkutsk Oblast||now Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug of Irkutsk Oblast|
|Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast||(no change)|
The table below also includes autonomous okrugs which have since changed status.
|Autonomous Okrug||titular nation||Russians||other|
|Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug||▲52,2||▲ 54,9||▲ 62,5||▼42||▼ 40,8||▼ 35,1|
|Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug||▲61,6||▼ 60,2||▼ 59||▼34,9||▲ 36,1||▲ 38,1|
|Koryak Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous)||16,3||▲ 16,45||▲ 26,6||▲30,3||62,9||▼ 62||▼ 50,5||▼46,2||24,9||▲ 40,5||▲46,5|
|Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Komi)||▼12,8||▼ 11,9||▲ 18,6||18,6||▲66||▼ 65,8||▼ 62,4||▲ 66,1||▼11,1||▼ 9,5||▲ 10,8||▼ 9|
|Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (Dolgan and Nenets)||▼9,6||▼ 8,9||▲ 13,8||▲ 15,7||▲68,9||▼ 67,1||▼ 58,6||▼ 50,0||▼5||▼ 4,4||▲ 7,6||▲ 10,1|
|Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug||▲34,1||▲ 36,3||▲ 39,6||▼58,3||▼ 56,5||▼ 54,4|
|Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug||▼1,9||▼ 0,9||▲ 1,2||▲ 1,3||▼74,3||▼ 66,3||▼ 66||▲ 68,1||▼1,1||▼ 0,5||▲ 0,7||▲ 0,8|
|Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous)||▼8,1||▼ 7,3||▲ 23,4||▲ 26,7||▼68,6||▼ 66,1||▼ 51,8||▲ 52,5||9,6||▲ 30,8||▲ 35,3|
|Evenk Autonomous Okrug||▼20||▼ 14,1||▲ 21,5||▲ 22,0||▲62,5||▲ 67,5||▼ 61,9||▼ 59,4|
|Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Nenets)||▼10,7||▼ 4,2||▲ 5,2||▲ 5,9||▲59,1||▲ 59,2||▼ 58,8||▲ 61,7||▼1,5||▲ 1,7||▲ 1,9|
Russia is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions.
Urban-type settlement is an official designation for a semi-urban settlement, used in several Eastern European countries. The term was historically used in Bulgaria, Poland, and the Soviet Union, and remains in use today in 10 of the post-Soviet states.
Arkhangelsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It includes the Arctic archipelagos of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya, as well as the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. Arkhangelsk Oblast also has administrative jurisdiction over the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO). Including the NAO, Arkhangelsk Oblast has an area of 587,400 km2. Its population was 1,227,626 as of the 2010 Census.
Nenets Autonomous Okrug is a federal subject of Russia and part of Arkhangelsk Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Naryan-Mar. It has an area of 176,700 square kilometers (68,200 sq mi) and a population of 42,090 as of the 2010 Census.
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra or Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug–Yugra is a federal subject of Russia. It has a population of 1,532,243 as of the 2010 Census.
Taymyr Dolgano-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, or Taymyria, was a federal subject of Russia, the northernmost in Siberian Russia. It was named after the Taymyr Peninsula. It was also called Dolgan-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, by the name of the indigenous people, Dolgans and Nenetses.
Okrug is an administrative division of some Slavic states. The word "okrug" is a loanword in English, but it is nevertheless often translated as "area", "district", or "region".
A krai is a type of federal subject of Russia. The country is divided into 85 federal subjects, of which nine are krais. Oblasts, another type of federal subject, are legally identical to krais and the difference between a political entity with the name "krai" or "oblast" is purely traditional, similar to the commonwealths in the United States; both are constituent entities equivalent in legal status in Russia with representation in the Federation Council. During the Soviet era, the autonomous oblasts could be subordinated to republics or krais, but not to oblasts. Outside of political terminology, both words have very similar general meaning and can often be used interchangeably.
Russia is divided into twelve economic regions —groups of federal subjects sharing the following characteristics:
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation or simply as the subjects of the federation, are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally consists of 85 federal subjects. The two located on the Crimean Peninsula, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea, are not internationally recognized as part of Russia. Kaliningrad Oblast is the only federal subject separated by other countries.
Selsoviet is a shortened name for a rural council and for the area governed by such a council (soviet). The full names for the term are, in Belarusian: се́льскi саве́т, Russian: се́льский сове́т, Ukrainian: сільська́ ра́да. Selsoviets were the lowest level of administrative division in rural areas in the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, they were preserved as a third tier of administrative-territorial division throughout Ukraine, Belarus, and some of the federal subjects of Russia.
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug was an autonomous okrug of Russia, administered by Perm Oblast. It was established on February 26, 1925 as an administrative division for Komi-Permyaks, a branch of the Komis. The territory is now administrated as Komi-Permyak Okrug of Perm Krai.
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Within the framework of administrative divisions, Arkhangelsk Oblast is divided into six cities and towns of oblast significance, twenty-one districts, and two island territories. Besides, Mirny is a town under the federal government management.
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug was a federal subject of the Russian Federation. On 1 March 2008, the region merged with Chita Oblast to form the new Zabaykalsky Krai. The territory of the former ABAO is now the Agin-Buryat Okrug of Zabaykalsky Krai, in which it has a special status.
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Northern Oblast was an oblast of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1936 to 1937. Its seat was in the city of Arkhangelsk. The oblast was located in the north of European Russia and its territory is currently divided between Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Kostroma and Kirov oblasts and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug.
Northern Krai was a krai of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1929 to 1936. Its seat was in the city of Arkhangelsk. The krai was located in the North of European Russia, and its territory is currently divided between Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Kostroma, and Kirov Oblasts, the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and the Komi Republic.
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