Autonomous prefecture

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Autonomous prefectures (Chinese :自治州; pinyin :Zìzhìzhōu) are one type of autonomous administrative divisions of China, existing at the prefectural level, with either ethnic minorities forming over 50% of the population or being the historic home of significant minorities. All autonomous prefectures are mostly dominated, in population, by the Han Chinese. The official name of an autonomous prefecture includes the most dominant minority in that region, sometimes two, rarely three. For example, a Kazakh (Kazak in official naming system) prefecture may be called Kazak Zizhizhou. Like all other prefectural level divisions, autonomous prefectures are divided into county level divisions. There is one exception: Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture contains two prefectures of its own. Under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, autonomous prefectures cannot be abolished.

List of autonomous prefectures

ProvinceName Simplified Chinese and Pinyin Designated minority Local nameCapital
Gansu Linxia 临夏回族自治州
Línxià Huízú Zìzhìzhōu
Hui (The Hui speak Chinese ) Xiao'erjing: لٍشِا جُوِذُو ذِجِجِوْ Linxia city
Gansu Gannan 甘南藏族自治州
Gānnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: ཀན་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Kan-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) Hezuo (Hzö) city
Guizhou Qiandongnan 黔东南苗族侗族自治州
Qiándōngnán Miáozú Dòngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Miao and Dong Guizhou Hmong: Qeef Dongb Naif Dol Yat Hmub Zid Zid Zeb
Dong: Qeenc Dongs Nanc Nyenc Miiul Nyenc Gaeml Zil Zl Zous
Kaili (Kad Linx) city
Guizhou Qiannan 黔南布依族苗族自治州
Qiánnán Bùyīzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Bouyei & Miao Bouyei: Qianfnanf Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz ziqziqzouy
Guizhou Hmong: Qeef Naif Dol Yat Dol Hmub Zid Zid Zeb
Duyun city
Guizhou Qianxinan 黔西南布依族苗族自治州
Qiánxī'nán Bùyīzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Bouyei & Miao Bouyei: Qianfxiynanf Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz Ziqziqzouy
Guizhou Hmong: Qeef Xib Naif Dol Yat Dol Hmub Zid Zid Zeb
Xingyi city
Hubei Enshi 恩施土家族苗族自治州
Ēnshī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Tujia & Miao Tujia: Eng Shiv Bif Ziv Kar hev Bef Kar zouf xengv zuvз
Hmong: Ee Si Thws Ca Txhwj Mioj Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb
Enshi city
Hunan Xiangxi 湘西土家族苗族自治州
Xiāngxī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Tujia & Miao Tujia: Xiз’angv Xif Bif Ziv Kar hev Bef Kar zouf xengv zuvз
Hmong: Xyaa Xyi Thws Ca Txhwj Mioj Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb
Jishou city
Jilin Yanbian 延边朝鲜族自治州
Yánbiān Cháoxiǎnzú Zìzhìzhōu
Korean Korean : 연변 조선족 자치주 (Yeonbyeon Joseonjok Jachiju) Yanji (Yeongil) city
Qinghai Haibei 海北藏族自治州
Hǎiběi Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: མཚོ་བྱང་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Mtsho-byang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) Haiyan County
Qinghai Hainan 海南藏族自治州
Hǎinán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: མཚོ་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Mtsho-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) Gonghe County
Qinghai Huangnan 黄南藏族自治州
Huángnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: རྨ་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Rma-lho Bod-rigs rang skyong khul) Tongren city
Qinghai Golog 果洛藏族自治州
Guǒluò Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: མགོ་ལོག་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Mgo-log Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) Maqên County
Qinghai Yushu 玉树藏族自治州
Yùshù Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: ཡུལ་ཤུལ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Yul-shul Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) Yushu city
Qinghai Haixi 海西蒙古族藏族自治州
Hǎixī Měnggǔzú Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Mongol & Tibetan Mongolian: ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠧᠦ (Borotal a-yin mongγol ebereen öbertegen zasaqu ǰuu)
Tibetan: མཚོ་ནུབ་སོག་རིགས་ཆ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Mtsho-nub Sog-rigs dang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul)
Delingha (Delhi) city
Sichuan Ngawa 阿坝藏族羌族自治州
Ābà Zàngzú Qiāngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan & Qiang Tibetan: རྔ་བ་བོད་རིགས་ཆ་བ༹ང་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Rnga-ba Bod-rigs dang Chavang-rigs rang skyong khul)
Qiangic: Ggabba Shbea Rrmea nyujugvez zhou
Barkam city
Sichuan Garzê 甘孜藏族自治州
Gānzī Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: དཀར་མཛེས་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Dkar-mdzes Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul) Kangding (Dartsedo) city
Sichuan Liangshan 凉山彝族自治州
Liángshān Yízú Zìzhìzhōu
Yi Yi : ꆃꎭꆈꌠꊨꏦꏱꅉꍏ (Niepsha Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho) Xichang (Op Rro) city
Xinjiang Kizilsu 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州
Kèzīlèsū Kē'ěrkèzī Zìzhìzhōu
Kyrgyz Kyrgyz: قىزىلسۇۇ قىرعىز اپتونوم وبلاسى (Kızılsuu Kırgız avtonom oblastı) Artux city
Xinjiang Bortala 博尔塔拉蒙古自治州
Bó'ěrtǎlā Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu
Mongol Mongolian: ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠧᠦ (Borotala mongγol ebereen zasaqu ǰuu) Bole (Bortala) city
Xinjiang Changji 昌吉回族自治州
Chāngjí Huízú Zìzhìzhōu
Hui (The Hui speak Chinese ) Xiao'erjing: چْاکِ خُوِذُوْ ذِجِجِوْ Changji city
Xinjiang Bayingolin 巴音郭楞蒙古自治州
Bāyīnguōlèng Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu
Mongol Mongolian: ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠧᠦ (Bayangol mongγol ebereen zasaqu ǰuu) Korla city
Xinjiang Ili
(Altay)
(Tacheng)
伊犁哈萨克自治州
Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu
(阿勒泰地区)
(Ālètài Dìqū)
(塔城地区)
(Tǎchéng Dìqū)
Kazakh Kazakh: ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى (İle Qazaq awtonomïyalıq oblısı)
(Kazakh: ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى) (Altay aymağı)
(Kazakh: تارباعاتاي ايماعى) (Tarbağatay aymağı)
Yining (Ghulja) city
(Altay city)
(Tacheng city)
Yunnan Dehong 德宏傣族景颇族自治州
Déhóng Dǎizú Jǐngpōzú Zìzhìzhōu
Dai & Jingpo Tai Nüa - ᥟᥪᥒᥱ ᥙᥪᥴ ᥓᥝᥲ ᥙᥩᥒ ᥛᥥᥝᥰ ᥖᥭᥰ ᥓᥤᥒ ᥚᥨᥲ ᥖᥬᥲ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ (Sakhkung Sam Jinghpo Amyu Madu Uphkang Mungdo)
Zaiwa:Sikung Sam Zaizo Byumyu Yumsing Upkang Mau
Mangshi city
Yunnan Nujiang 怒江傈僳族自治州
Nùjiāng Lìsùzú Zìzhìzhōu
Lisu Lisu: ꓠꓳ-ꓟꓵ ꓡꓲ-ꓢꓴ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓚꓲꓸ ꓛꓬꓽ ꓗꓪꓼ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓝꓳꓴ (Nolmut lisu shit jilqait guatshit zhou) Lushui city
Yunnan Diqing (Dêqên) 迪庆藏族自治州
Díqìng Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: བདེ་ཆེན་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Bde-chen Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul) Shangri-La city
Yunnan Dali 大理白族自治州
Dàlǐ Báizú Zìzhìzhōu
Bai Bai: Darl•lit Baif•cuf zirl•zirl•zox Dali city
Yunnan Chuxiong 楚雄彝族自治州
Chǔxióng Yízú Zìzhìzhōu
Yi Yi : ꀒꇐꆈꌠꊨꏦꏱꅉꍏ (Olu Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho) Chuxiong city
Yunnan Honghe 红河哈尼族彝族自治州
Hónghé Hānízú Yízú Zìzhìzhōu
Hani & Yi Hani: Haoqhoq Haqniqssaq Haqhholssaq Ziiqziifzel
Yi : ꉼꉻꆈꌠꊨꏦꏱꅉꍏ (Hopho Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho)
Mengzi city
Yunnan Wenshan 文山壮族苗族自治州
Wenshān Zhuàngzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Zhuang & Miao Zhuang : Munzsanh Bouxcuengh Myauzcuz Swcicouh
Hmong: Veej Sa Tsuaam Txhwj Mioj Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb
Wenshan city
Yunnan Xishuangbanna (Sibsongbanna) 西双版纳傣族自治州
Xīshuāngbǎnnà Dǎizú Zìzhìzhōu
Dai Tai Lü : ᦈᦹᧈ ᦈᦹᧈ ᦵᦋᦲᧁᧈ ᦘᦱ ᦉᦱ ᦺᦑ ᧑᧒ ᦗᧃ ᦓᦱ Jinghong city

Ethnic composition of autonomous prefectures

Note:* - denotes as the second titular ethnic group
Autonomous
Prefecture
Year
established
ProvinceTitular
ethnic group
Other
minorities
Han %Total
population
% 2000% 2010% 2000% 201020002010
Bayingolin Prefecture1954Xinjiang Mongol 3.403.40 Uyghur 31.8331.8359.2959.291,323,028
Bortala Prefecture1954Xinjiang Mongol 5.645.66 Uyghur 12.5313.3267.1964.96482,615
Changji Prefecture1954Xinjiang Hui 11.559.52 Kazakh 7.989.3375.1475.311,412,844
Chuxiong Prefecture1958Yunnan Yi 26.3126.70 Lisu 2.031.9867.4566.942,615,109
Dali Prefecture1956Yunnan Bai 32.8032.19 Yi 12.9413.0250.3550.693,525,706
Dehong Prefecture1953Yunnan Dai 30.1428.88 Jingpo*11.5311.0950.6651.931,124,432
Diqing (Dêqên) Prefecture1957Yunnan Tibetan 33.1232.36 Lisu 27.7826.7216.3918.34357,528
Enshi Prefecture1983Hubei Tujia 45.0047.50 Miao*5.455.0147.2445.323,976,081
Gannan Prefecture1953Gansu Tibetan 51.4454.64 Hui 6.436.2541.7538.70723,521
Garzê Prefecture1950Sichuan Tibetan 78.3778.29 Yi 2.562.6618.2418.241,060,632
Golog Prefecture1954Qinghai Tibetan 91.6391.86 Hui 1.110.966.596.57173,541
Haibei Prefecture1953Qinghai Tibetan 24.1524.36 Hui 30.5831.5236.6335.88283,230
Hainan Prefecture1953Qinghai Tibetan 62.7766.31 Hui 6.976.8428.0624.84446,849
Haixi Prefecture1954Qinghai Mongol 7.235.53 Tibetan*12.1610.9364.9566.01390,743
Honghe Prefecture1957Yunnan Hani 16.6017.55 Yi*23.5723.1944.3142.854,408,699
Huangnan Prefecture1953Qinghai Tibetan 66.3268.55 Mongol 13.5413.987.546.08254,033
Ili Prefecture1954Xinjiang Kazakh 21.53 Uyghur 26.8835.222,814,980
Kizilsu Prefecture1954Xinjiang Kyrgyz 28.3227.32 Uyghur 63.9864.686.416.78539,849
Liangshan Prefecture1952Sichuan Yi 44.4349.13 Tibetan 1.491.3951.9747.554,789,421
Linxia Prefecture1956Gansu Hui 31.59 Dongxiang 25.9939.702,103,259
Ngawa Prefecture1953Sichuan Tibetan 53.7254.50 Qiang*18.2817.5824.6924.56898,846
Nujiang Prefecture1954Yunnan Lisu 47.1348.21 Bai 26.9726.0413.1312.35520,765
Qiandongnan Prefecture1956Guizhou Miao 41.4841.57 Dong*31.4029.0219.321.734,535,015
Qiannan Prefecture1956Guizhou Buyei 32.4631.22 Miao*13.3712.6943.3744.844,037,887
Qianxinan Prefecture1982Guizhou Buyei 30.0427.56 Miao*7.517.0857.5360.623,398,147
Wenshan Prefecture1958Yunnan Miao 12.9413.68 Zhuang*30.0429.2041.9942.693,703,008
Xiangxi Prefecture1957Hunan Tujia 42.73 Miao*33.8522.852,547,833
Xishuangbanna (Sibsongbanna) Prefecture1953Yunnan Dai 29.8927.89 Hani 18.7319.0129.1130.03942,844
Yanbian Prefecture1952Jilin Korean 36.2632.45 Manchu 2.582.5260.7064.552,190,763
Yushu Prefecture1951Qinghai Tibetan 96.49 Hui 0.223.09373,427

Former autonomous prefectures of China

Administrative prefecture level units with a population of 30% or more of ethnic minorities

Excluding prefecture level units of autonomous regions in 2000.

See also

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